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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244014, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320894

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, divorce is a common phenomenon in couples' marital life. As a result, many divorced couples and their children face several social, economic, and health problems after dissolution. There is little information on the magnitude and determinants of divorce in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of divorce from the first union and its predictors among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used the 2016 Ethiopia demographic and health survey data for this analysis. The survey was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted from January 18 to June 27, 2016. The survey employed a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 11,646 ever-married women were included in the analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistics regression was done to identify the determinants of divorce from the first marriage. A p-value < 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: About 25% (95%CI: 23.4% - 26.6%) ever-married women were divorced from their first marital relationship. Women who were married at age < 15 years (AOR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.68), urban women (AOR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.22-2.35), women who did not attend formal education (AOR = 4.36; 95%CI: 3.14-6.05), women who were employed (AOR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.31-1.73), and being childless (AOR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.69) had higher odds of experiencing a divorce. Similarly, women who experienced partner violence, women with no house ownership, and women in the Amhara region had higher odds of divorce from their first marital union. Conversely, women in Oromia, SNNPR, the metropolis, and the pastoral regions had lower odds of divorce from their first marital union. CONCLUSION: Divorce from the first marriage is high in Ethiopia. Preventing early marriage and partner violence and promoting girls' education would reduce the divorce rate in Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
Divorcio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Etiopía , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Matrimonio/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad
2.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 124, 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239078

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marital separation is associated with mental health problems, but little is known about how this translates into healthcare use. In this study, we examine the relationship between marital separation and primary healthcare use for mental health problems. METHODS: We used data covering the period from 2005 to 2015 from the Norwegian Population Register, Statistics Norway's Educational Registration System and the Norwegian Health Economics Database. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. To control for time invariant characteristics, we estimated fixed-effect models. RESULTS: Marital separation was associated with increased contact with primary healthcare services for mental health problems (MH-consultations). The prevalence of MH-consultations peaked during the year of marital separation. MH-consultations were more common following marital separation than prior to the separation. This pattern remained significant in the fixed-effect models. CONCLUSIONS: Men and women who experienced marital separation were more likely to consult primary healthcare services for mental health problems than those who remained married. Our study suggests that several mechanisms are in play. The prevalence of MH-consultations of those who eventually separated were higher several years prior to the separation. This lends support to selection mechanisms, whereas the sharp rise in the prevalence of MH-consultations around the time of marital separation coupled to higher levels several years after separation, indicate that marital separation induces both transient stress and leads to more lasting strain.


Asunto(s)
Divorcio/psicología , Salud Mental/normas , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Noruega/epidemiología , Prevalencia
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 353-359, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030452

RESUMEN

Divorce is a life event with a high level of stress for the entire family. Research shows that the number of divorces is on a steady rise. Family is very important for development of the children and changes within the family, after the divorce, could make consequences on them. Children are dependent on parents and disadvantaged during divorce because it is out of their control. They cannot predict how long will it take and what will be the outcome of divorce which includes separation from close family members, school change, change of home, change of life style and so on. Children often lack information and skills to overcome the challenges that the divorce carries. Conflicting relationships between parents make up the biggest obstacle that makes it difficult for a child to successfully deal with changes in the family. Even though parents deal with heavy feelings, it is desirable to put them the child and his interests in the first place. In order to stabilize the family system it is needed 2 up to 4 years. Children differ from one another in the reactions to the divorce, but there are some emotional reactions that are characteristic for most children of divorced parents, and the most often children reactions are of depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger, lower self-esteem and so on. The emotional reactions of children during the divorce can vary relative to the gender and age of the child. However, the divorce of a parent does not necessarily have to be so negative for children, especially if parents behave in an adequate way and they endeavor to act in such a way to make this process as painless as possible for children.


Asunto(s)
Divorcio/psicología , Psicología Infantil , Autoimagen , Adolescente , Trastornos de Ansiedad/prevención & control , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/prevención & control , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres/psicología
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1327, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907569

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adversity experienced during childhood manifests deleteriously across the lifespan. This study provides updated frequency estimates of ACEs using the most comprehensive and geographically diverse sample to date. METHODS: ACEs data were collected via BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System). Data from a total of 211,376 adults across 34 states were analyzed. The ACEs survey is comprised of 8 domains: physical/emotional/sexual abuse, household mental illness, household substance use, household domestic violence, incarcerated household member, and parental separation/divorce. Frequencies were calculated for each domain and summed to derive mean ACE scores. Findings were weighted and stratified by demographic variables. Group differences were assessed by post-estimation F-tests. RESULTS: Most individuals experienced at least one ACE (57.8%) with 21.5% experiencing 3+ ACEs. F-tests showed females had significantly higher ACEs than males (1.64 to 1.46). Multiracial individuals had a significantly higher ACEs (2.39) than all other races/ethnicities, while White individuals had significantly lower mean ACE scores (1.53) than Black (1.66) or Hispanic (1.63) individuals. The 25-to-34 age group had a significantly higher mean ACE score than any other group (1.98). Generally, those with higher income/educational attainment had lower mean ACE scores than those with lower income/educational attainment. Sexual minority individuals had higher ACEs than straight individuals, with significantly higher ACEs in bisexual individuals (3.01). CONCLUSION: Findings highlight that childhood adversity is common across sociodemographic, yet higher in certain categories. Identifying at-risk populations for higher ACEs is essential to improving the health outcomes and attainment across the lifespan.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Divorcio , Composición Familiar , Trastornos Mentales , Prisiones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Violencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Anciano , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Niño , Preescolar , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Padres , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731583

RESUMEN

South Korea's suicide rate is the highest among the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This study seeks to verify regional variation in suicide rates in South Korea and to identify correlating factors. We used age-adjusted suicide rates for 252 administrative districts, and a Community Health Survey, national representative data, and other national representative data such as censuses were used to obtain information on socioeconomic, health related and social integration variables according to each administrative district. Regional variation in suicide rates was analyzed by using Extremal Quotient (EQ), and multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate associations between variation in suicide rates and regional socioeconomic, public service factors and health related factors. The average suicide rate from 252 regions was 142.7 per 100,000 people. The highest region was Hongchun-gun (217.8) and the lowest was Gwachen-si (75.5). The EQ was 2.89, meaning that there is significant regional variation in suicide rates. Financial independence (ß = -0.662, p < 0.001), social welfare budget (ß = -0.754, p < 0.001) and divorce rates (ß = 17.743, p < 0.001) were significant, along with other adjusted variables. This study suggests considering these factors in order to reduce suicide rates in South Korea.


Asunto(s)
Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Censos , Divorcio , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
6.
Aggress Behav ; 46(6): 523-534, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710485

RESUMEN

High levels of hostility often occur during and postdivorce and may significantly affect the quality of life, parent-child relationships, and social functioning of divorcees. Moreover, hostility may predict aggressive and violent behavior. This study sought to (a) compare average general hostility levels of a large sample of Danish divorcees to the norms of the general adult Danish population, (b) compare general hostility levels between male and female divorcees, and (c) investigate the explanatory value of various sociodemographic and divorce-related factors on postdivorce general hostility and whether these factors differ across gender. Cross-sectional baseline data (N = 1,856) from a larger randomized controlled trial study was used in this study. Normative data from a general sample of Danish adults (N = 2,040) was used for comparisons of hostility levels between our study sample and the Danish background population. This study found that male and female divorcees did not report significantly different hostility levels. However, participants reported significantly higher hostility levels postdivorce than the comparative Danish norm sample. Significant predictors of postdivorce hostility were lower age, lower educational level, infidelity as a reason for divorce, higher degree of postdivorce conflict, worse communication with the former spouse, the former spouse as the initiator of the divorce, and new partner status with neither divorcees having a new partner, or only the former spouse having a new partner. The predictive strength of the factors did not differ across gender. The findings may be especially relevant for interventions targeting problematic outcomes postdivorce (e.g., preventing aggressive behavior).


Asunto(s)
Divorcio , Hostilidad , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Matrimonio , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Calidad de Vida
7.
Fam Process ; 59(3): 967-973, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594521

RESUMEN

COVID-19 and the accompanying procedures of shelter-in-place have had a powerful effect on all families but have additional special meanings in the context of families contemplating divorce, divorcing, or carrying out postdivorce arrangements. This paper explores those special meanings for these families. It also offers suggestions for couple and family therapists involved in helping these families during the time of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Divorcio/psicología , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 965, 2020 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560706

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since divorce rates are on the rise in Lebanon (an increase of 101% between 2006 and 2017) and since previous international studies have shown a relationship between divorced parents and adolescents' addiction to smoking, alcohol, and the internet, assessing the background of the Lebanese situation was deemed necessary. The study objective was to investigate the association between the divorce of parents and smoking, alcohol, and internet addiction among a representative sample of Lebanese adolescents. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, conducted between January and May 2019 using a proportionate random sample of schools from all Lebanese Mohafazat. Out of 2000 questionnaires distributed; 1810 (90.5%) were completed and collected back. RESULTS: The mean age was 15.42 ± 1.14 years, with 53.3% females and 74.1% smokers. In addition, 11.9% [95% CI 0.104-0.134] of the adolescents had separated/divorced parents. Divorce in parents was significantly associated with higher alcohol use disorder (Beta = 8.035), higher cigarette dependence (Beta = 2.767) and a higher waterpipe dependence (Beta = 5.263) in adolescents. However, divorce in parents was not associated with internet addiction in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Parental divorce is correlated to higher alcohol and smoking, but not internet addiction among adolescents. Children whose parents are divorced should be subject to continuous follow-up by their parents and by a psychiatrist/psychologist in order not to develop an addiction that could potentially harm them.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Divorcio/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Divorcio/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Padres , Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Vínculo ; 17(1): 52-74, jan.-jun. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1127521

RESUMEN

As relações amorosas e a busca por um(a) parceiro(a) permeiam a vida dos sujeitos, ao longo de toda sua vida, interferindo de maneira direta em sua subjetividade. Contudo, mudanças sociais e culturais contemporâneas afetaram essas escolhas, alterando as prioridades dos sujeitos e provocando inúmeros rompimentos amorosos. Por essa razão, a presente pesquisa procurou investigar as concepções de jovens adultos solteiros, estudantes de uma universidade pública no município de Assis, os quais já vivenciaram alguma ruptura amorosa, e buscou apurar o que gerou o rompimento e como lidaram com isso. A coleta de dados foi feita por meio de entrevistas semidirigidas - gravadas e, posteriormente, transcritas. Os dados foram analisados, levando-se em consideração as regularidades e peculiaridades dos discursos, e a discussão e a interpretação dos dados foram realizadas de acordo com a teoria psicanalítica. Dessa forma, foi possível observar a prevalência de relacionamentos amorosos com pouco investimento afetivo, diante de um investimento narcísico exacerbado. Para a maioria dos jovens, permitir-se amar o outro significa assumir um risco maior, partindo do pressuposto de que isso pode gerar frustração e fugir da ideia de satisfação plena.


Loving relationships and the search for a partner permeate people's lives troughout their journey, interfering directly in its subjectivity. However, cultural and social changes that were caused by the postmodern age have affected those choices, shifting people's priorities and causing several loving ruptures. For this reason, the current paper intends to investigate the notion of single young adults who are college students of a public university in Assis, that have already been through any loving rupture. This project also intends looking to understand what has generated the rupture and how these students experienced that. The data collection was done through semi-structured interviews which was recorded and subsequently, transcribed. The data was analyzed considering the regularities and singularities of the speeches, and the data discussion and interpretation was done according to the psychoanalytic theory. Therefore, it was possible to observe the predominance of love relationships with low affective investment, against an extremely big narcissistic investiment. For most of the young, to allow yourself to love other person means to take a bigger risk, assuming that this can generate frustration and lose the ideia of full satisfaction.


Las relaciones amorosas y la búsqueda por un(a) compañero(a) permean la vida de las personas a lo largo de toda la vida, interfiriendo de manera directa en su subjetividad. Sin embargo, los cambios sociales y culturales contemporáneos afectaron estas elecciones, alterando las prioridades de las personas y provocando innumerables rompimientos amorosos. Por esa razón, la presente pesquisa buscó investigar las concepciones de jóvenes adultos solteros, estudiantes de una universidad pública en el municipio de Assis - São Paulo, que ya vivenciaron alguna ruptura amorosa, y buscó averiguar el motivo generó el rompimiento y cómo lidiaron con eso. La recolección de datos fue hecha por medio de entrevistas semidirigidas - grabadas y posteriormente transcriptas. Los datos fueron analizados teniendo en cuenta las regularidades y peculiaridades de los discursos, y la discusión e interpretación de los datos se realizaron de acuerdo con la teoría psicoanalítica. De esta forma, fue posible observar la prevalencia de relaciones amorosas con poca investidura afectiva, ante una investidura narcisista exacerbada. Para la mayoría de los jóvenes, permitirse amar al otro significa asumir un riesgo mayor, partiendo del supuesto de que esto puede generar frustración y huir de la idea de satisfacción plena.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Satisfacción Personal , Rotura , Persona Soltera , Estudiantes , Divorcio , Frustación , Relaciones Interpersonales , Amor , Apego a Objetos
10.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(8): 1355-1366, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416148

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and risk factors, as well as functional outcome in poststroke depression (PSD) or poststroke anxiety (PSA). DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Stroke patients admitted to an urban rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Stroke patients (N=162) without any previous history of depression and anxiety. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic information and comorbidities were recorded during hospital admission. Functional outcomes were assessed using FIM scores at time of admission and discharge. The influence of various factors such as BDNF and patient characteristics on functional outcome was investigated. Single-factor effect was examined using simple logistic regression, as was multi-factor effect using multiple logistic regression. The goodness-of-fit of those regression models was evaluated by the integrated area under ROC curve. RESULTS: PSD was diagnosed in 61 (37.7%) patients, and PSA was diagnosed in 40 (24.7%). Multiple logistic analysis showed that BDNF, divorce or separation, and history of smoking were significantly associated with the occurrence of PSD but not with the occurrence of PSA. The model combining low BDNF level and divorce or separation improved the prediction for PSD. Among the variables analyzed for prediction of functional outcome, serum BDNF had a minimum correlation with motor FIM scores in PSD but no significant correlation with motor FIM scores in PSA. CONCLUSIONS: BDNF is a valuable prediction for the occurrence of PSD but not for PSA. More strikingly, ischemic stroke patients who are divorced or separated with low serum BDNF have a much higher risk for PSD. BDNF has a minimum correlation with motor function outcome in PSD but no significant correlation with motor outcome in PSA.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/sangre , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/sangre , Depresión/sangre , Accidente Cerebrovascular/sangre , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/fisiopatología , Divorcio , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rendimiento Físico Funcional , Factores de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 231, 2020 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404071

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Housemaids are part of women with low socioeconomic status and most of them are migrant from rural to central part of Ethiopia, less educated, either with poor, separated, single or divorced family and/or dead parents. Housemaid may experience problems like depression and anxiety more than other groups of women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the magnitude and determinants of those problems among housemaids. OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude and determinants of depression & anxiety among housemaids in Addis Ababa; Ethiopia; 2018. METHODS: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1 to August 30, 2018 among housemaids working in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Multistage sampling technique was applied with a total of 826 samples. Quantitative data was employed by using structured questionnaires. The collected data was coded, entered in to Epi-Info version 7 and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Descriptive, analytical statistical procedures; bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regressions with odds ratios and 95% confidence interval was employed. The statistical significance was declared at p value < 0.05. RESULTS: This study enrolled 862 participants with response rate 99.5%, 99.5% refers to the number of people who actually completed the interview. The result showed prevalence of depression and anxiety among housemaids 27.5% and 32.3% respectively. Among all participants 44.6% (95% CI= 41.0 - 47.9) have mild, 18.5% (95% CI= 15.7 - 21.2) have moderate and 6.1% (95% CI= 4.5 - 7.8) have severe form of comorbid anxiety with depression. Depression (44.9%) and anxiety (41.9%) found more prevalent among the age group 16 to 20. In this study history of parental divorce, participant's divorce, physical violence and sexual violence are positively associated. Other factors; being less educated and living with relatives; were associated negatively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Depression and Anxiety is found high among housemaid; its prevalence is more among age group 16 to 20 than other age groups. Violence, participant's divorce, history of parental divorce and contraceptive use has positively associated with depression and anxiety.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Empleo/psicología , Identidad de Género , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Divorcio/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Padres , Clase Social , Adulto Joven
12.
Int J Public Health ; 65(5): 627-636, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350551

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We study the role of marital status and living arrangements in mortality among a 50+ population living in Europe by gender and welfare states. METHODS: Using data from waves 4, 5, and 6 of the Survey of Health Age and Retirement in Europe (n = 54,171), we implemented Cox proportional hazard models by gender and age groups (50-64 and 65-84). We estimated pooled models and separated models for two regions representing different welfare states (South-East and North-West). RESULTS: Among people aged 50-64, nonpartnered individuals (except never-married women) showed a higher mortality risk as compared with those partnered. Among the older population (65-84), divorce was associated with higher mortality among men, but not among women, and living with someone other than a partner was associated with higher mortality risk as compared to those partnered. In the South-East region living with a partner at ages 50-64 was associated with lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Partnership and residential status are complementary for understanding the role of family dimensions in mortality. The presence of a partner is mortality protective, especially among 50-64-year-old men in South-East Europe.


Asunto(s)
Divorcio/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado Civil/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona Soltera/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales
13.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(2): 113-123, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190391

RESUMEN

Divorce has long been considered one of the most pervading stressful life events and has consistently been associated with high stress levels and subsequent poorer mental- and physical health. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Cooperation after Divorce (CAD) online intervention on perceived stress immediately following divorce. The study's design was a one-year longitudinal randomized controlled trial including an intervention group (n = 1,031) and a no-treatment control group (n = 825) with four assessments of perceived stress levels (at baseline and 3, 6 and 12-months post-divorce). The CAD intervention consists of a 17-module online platform designed to support divorcees and their children post-divorce. Data analyses consisted of linear mixed effect modeling and means comparisons. The study found that the intervention significantly accelerated the reduction of perceived stress among recently divorced adults when compared with controls. Further, after one year, stress levels in the intervention group were reduced to normed national stress levels while the mean stress level in the control group remained substantially higher. The results suggest that online interventions may offer long-term public health benefits in reducing stress among newly divorced individuals and speak to potential implications related to the services provided for people undergoing divorce


El divorcio se ha considerado como uno de los eventos estresantes de la vida más persistentes y se ha asociado repetidamente con altos niveles de estrés y el deterioro de la salud mental y física. Este estudio evalúa la eficacia de la intervención online Cooperación Después del Divorcio (CAD) en el estrés percibido inmediatamente después de su ocurrencia. El diseño del estudio fue un ensayo controlado aleatorio longitudinal de un año que incluyó un grupo de intervención (n = 1,031) y otro de control sin tratamiento (n = 825) con cuatro evaluaciones del nivel de estrés percibido (línea base y 3, 6 y 12 meses después del divorcio). La intervención CAD consiste en una plataforma online de 17 módulos diseñada para apoyar a los divorciados y sus hijos después del divorcio. Los análisis de datos consistieron en modelos lineales de efectos mixtos y comparación de medias. El estudio encontró que la intervención aceleró significativamente la reducción del estrés percibido entre los adultos recientemente divorciados en comparación con el grupo control. Además, después de un año, el nivel de estrés en el grupo de intervención se redujo al nivel de estrés nacional normativo, mientras que el nivel de estrés promedio en el grupo control permaneció sustancialmente más alto. Los resultados sugieren que las intervenciones online pueden ofrecer ventajas para la salud pública a largo plazo para reducir el estrés entre las personas recién divorciadas y pueden tener implicaciones para los servicios que se prestan a las personas que se encuentran en un proceso de divorcio


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Masculino , Divorcio/psicología , Estrés Psicológico , Divorcio/estadística & datos numéricos , Disfunción Cognitiva , Salud Mental , Modelos Lineales
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326146

RESUMEN

This research examines the relationship between dark triad and the use that some parents make of their children in order to attack the other parent after a couple break-up. We examined whether parents who are willing to lie about issues concerning the other parent and their children during a couple break-up process show higher levels of dark triad traits. Across two different samples of divorced participants (N = 1085 and N = 249), we measured dark triad traits and willingness to engage in judicial manipulation. The objective of this study was to build a judicial manipulation scale to measure willingness to lie and use children to harm the other parent that could be used in professional practice. Results show significant correlations for judicial manipulation and dark triad traits and confirm the psychometric properties of reliability and validity of a proposed scale. We found that dark triad traits are adequate indicators of judicial manipulation. We discuss the importance of the scale to help the judicial system to determine which parent is the most appropriate to be designated as the legal custodial parent.


Asunto(s)
Divorcio , Relaciones Familiares , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
15.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 72(1): 55-71, jan.-abr. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1114672

RESUMEN

O divórcio poderá se constituir em evento estressor, aumentando a probabilidade de sofrimento infantil, sobretudo na presença de outros fatores risco. Este estudo avaliou como crianças lidam com o divórcio parental, verificando relações entre enfrentamento (coping), estresse e estressores contextuais. A amostra foi composta por 30 crianças, 10-12 anos, e seus pais, respondendo a roteiro de entrevista semiestruturado, Escala de Stress Infantil, Escala de Eventos Percebidos para Adolescentes e Escala de Enfrentamento do Divórcio Parental, baseada na Teoria Motivacional do Coping. Relações significativas foram identificadas entre estresse e número de eventos de vida, emoções de medo e raiva, orientação de afastamento do estressor e maior uso de estratégias de enfrentamento mal adaptativas. Discute-se como as características e a magnitude dos estressores do divórcio produziram nas crianças a percepção de ameaça às suas necessidades psicológicas, estresse e coping mal-adaptativo.


Divorce may become a stressful event, increasing the likelihood of child suffering, especially in the presence of other risk factors. This study evaluated how children deal with parental divorce, verifying relationships between coping, stress and contextual stressors. The sample consisted of 30 children, 10-12 years old, and their parents, responding to: the script of a semi-structured interview, Child Stress Scale, Adolescent Perceived Events Scale and Parental Divorce Coping Scale, based on Motivational Theory of Coping. Significant relationships were identified between stress and number of life events, emotions of fear and anger, orientation away from the stressor, and greater use of maladaptive coping strategies. It is discussed how the characteristics and magnitude of the stressors of divorce produced in children the perception of threat to their psychological needs, stress and coping maladaptive.


El divorcio puede ser un evento estresante, aumentando la probabilidad de que el niño sufra, especialmente en presencia de otros factores de riesgo. Este estudio evaluó cómo los niños enfrentan el divorcio de los padres, analizando las relaciones entre afrontamiento, estrés y factores estresantes contextuales. La muestra consistió en 30 niños, de 10 a 12 años de edad, y sus padres, que respondieron al guion de entrevista semiestructurada, Escala de Estrés Infantil, Escala de Eventos Percibidos para Adolescentes y Escala de Afrontamiento de Divorcio Parental, basada en la Teoría de Afrontamiento Motivacional. Se identificaron relaciones significativas entre el estrés y la cantidad de eventos en la vida, emociones de miedo y enojo, orientación hacia el retiro de factores estresantes y un mayor uso de estrategias de adaptación poco adaptativas. Discute cómo las características y la magnitud de los factores de estrés del divorcio han producido en los niños una amenaza percibida para sus necesidades psicológicas, estrés y afrontamiento inadaptado.


Asunto(s)
Padres , Estrés Psicológico , Adaptación Psicológica , Divorcio , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil
16.
Pesqui. prát. psicossociais ; 15(1): 1-12, jan.-abr. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1098435

RESUMEN

Considerando a experiência da maternidade como um processo psicossocial, este estudo buscou analisar a experiência de mulheres separadas que viviam com seus filhos. Baseou-se em estudos interdisciplinares sobre família, assim como no conceito de provisão ambiental desenvolvido por Winnicott. Seis mães, com filhos com idades entre 1 e 13 anos participaram do estudo. A pesquisa tem caráter qualitativo e focou no relato das mães por meio da realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas, as quais foram submetidas à análise de conteúdo. Constatou-se que o principal impacto da separação na vida das mães é a sobrecarga de atribuições. Como contraponto, observou-se que a rede relacional composta por familiares, amigos e vizinhos representa um importante apoio às mães, auxiliando-as no exercício da função parental. O estudo sugere a ampliação da provisão ambiental de suporte a essas famílias por intermédio do fortalecimento de políticas públicas e programas de assistência.


Considering the experience of motherhood as a psychosocial process, this study sought to analyze the experience of separated women living with their children. It was based on interdisciplinary studies on family, as well as on the concept of the environmental provision developed by Winnicott. Six mothers with children between 1 and 13 years old participated in the study. The research has qualitative character and focused on the mothers' reports through semi-structured interviews, where they were submitted to content analysis. It was found that the main impact of separation on the life of mothers is the overload of assignments. In contrast, it was observed that the relational network composed of relatives, friends, and neighbors represents an important support to the mothers, assisting them in the exercise of the parental function. The study suggests expanding the environmental provision to support these families through the fortification of public policies and assistance programs.


Considerando la experiencia de la maternidad como un proceso psicosocial, este estudio buscó analizar la experiencia de mujeres separadas que vivían con sus hijos. Se basó en estudios interdisciplinarios sobre la familia, así como en el concepto de provisión ambiental desarrollado por Winnicott. Seis madres con hijos entre 1 y 13 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La investigación tiene carácter cualitativo y se centró en el relato de las madres a través de la realización de entrevistas semiestructuradas, las cuales fueron sometidas al análisis de contenido. Se constató que el principal impacto de la separación en la vida de las madres es la sobrecarga de atribuciones. Como contrapunto, se observó que la red relacional compuesta por familiares, amigos y vecinos representa un importante apoyo a las madres, auxiliándolas en el ejercicio de la función parental. El estudio sugiere la ampliación de la provisión ambiental de apoyo a esas familias a través del fortalecimiento de políticas públicas y programas de asistencia.


Asunto(s)
Divorcio , Madres , Ansiedad de Separación , Psicología Social , Apoyo Social , Carga de Trabajo , Responsabilidad Parental , Conflicto Familiar , Relaciones Familiares , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Relaciones Madre-Hijo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229183, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The link between parental divorce and adolescents' academic achievement may depend on parental educational levels. However, findings have been inconsistent regarding whether the negative associations between parental divorce and adolescents' academic outcomes are greater or smaller in highly educated families. The present study aimed to investigate the possible heterogeneity in the associations between divorce and adolescents' academic achievement by parental educational levels, within the context of the elaborate Norwegian welfare state. METHODS: The population-based cross-sectional youth@hordaland study of adolescents aged 16-19 years conducted in Norway in 2012, provided information about parental divorce and was linked to national administrative registries (N = 9,166) to obtain high-quality, objective data on the adolescents' grade point average (GPA), and their parents' educational qualifications and income. RESULTS: The negative association between parental divorce and GPA was stronger among adolescents with educated or highly educated parents compared to adolescents with less educated parents. This heterogeneity was driven by maternal educational qualifications, whereby divorce was more strongly and negatively associated with GPA among adolescents with educated mothers compared to those with less educated mothers, independent of paternal educational levels and income measures. CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescents whose parents have low educational qualifications, parental divorce is not associated with their academic achievement. Educated divorced mothers appear less likely to transfer their educational advantages onto their children than nondivorced equally educated mothers, perhaps due to a "double-burden" regarding work pressure and child-rearing responsibilities. There is a need for future studies to detail the mechanisms underlying this finding.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Logro , Divorcio , Escolaridad , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Divorcio/psicología , Divorcio/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiología , Padres/educación , Psicología del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(1): e1543, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126827

RESUMEN

Introducción: Los problemas específicos de las familias reconstituidas se asocian con algunas características que presentan las relaciones de los miembros de la pareja actual con sus respectivas exparejas desde la ruptura de la conyugalidad. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre el divorcio emocional, el conflicto coparental, el parentaje paralelo y los conflictos familiares que se manifiestan a partir de la inclusión del padrastro o la madrastra en la convivencia. Métodos: Se desarrolló un enfoque mixto de investigación con un diseño de dos etapas de transformación de datos cualitativos en cuantitativos. Participaron 68 familias de la ciudad de Pinar del Río, con tiempos de inclusión del nuevo miembro en el hogar entre 6 meses y 5 años. Resultados: Todos los aspectos evaluados del funcionamiento de las parejas se relacionaron con conflictos que surgieron entre los miembros de la familia reconstituida de la unidad de convivencia e involucraron a familiares no residentes en el hogar. El conflicto coparental que se expresó en las parejas desde la ruptura de la conyugalidad y el divorcio emocional se relacionaron con culpas, conflictos de lealtad y conflictos relacionales; mientras el parentaje paralelo mostró una relación significativa con las culpas. Conclusiones: Las dinámicas relacionales de las parejas parentales son potencialmente conflictivas y constituyen factores de riesgo para la reconstitución familiar y la funcionalidad de las familias reconstituidas(AU)


Introduction: The specific problems of reconstituted families are associated with some characteristics that present the relationships of the members of the current couple with their respective exes since the break-up of conjugality. Objective: To identify the relationship between the emotional divorce, the co-parenting conflict, the parallel parenting and the family conflicts that are manifested from the inclusion of the stepfather or stepmother in the cohabitation. Methods: A mixed approach of research with a two-stage design of qualitative data transformation in the quantitative level. 68 families from Pinar del Rio participated, being from 6 months to 5 years the inclusion time of the new member at home. Results: All the evaluated aspects of the functioning of the couples were related to conflicts that arose between the members of the cohabitation unit in the reconstituted family and those involved family members not residing in the home. The co-parenting conflict that was expressed in the couples from the rupture of conjugality and the emotional divorce were related to guilt, conflicts of loyalty and relational conflicts; while the parallel parenting showed a significant association with the guilts. Conclusions: The relational dynamics of parental couples are potentially controversial and constitute risk factors for the family reconstitution and the functionality of the reconstituted families(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Divorcio , Composición Familiar , Responsabilidad Parental/etnología , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Familia
20.
Public Health ; 181: 122-134, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007782

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: How soon an ever-married woman falls a victim of domestic violence after marriage is not documented in Africa. This study sought to assess the timing of first domestic violence (FDV) against women after marriage and determined the factors associated with the timings in Nigeria, Kenya, and Mozambique. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data of 29,793 ever-married women of reproductive age consisting of 21,564, 4237 and 3992 from Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Nigeria (2013), Kenya (2014) and Mozambique (2011), respectively, were used. The timing of FDV was the time interval between marriage date and date of the FDV for those with reported violence but censored as the time interval between marriage date and the survey date for those without domestic violence. Survival analysis techniques were used to assess the timing and the factors influencing the timing at (P = 0.05). RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of domestic violence among the ever-married women in Nigeria, Kenya and Mozambique was 15.4%, 39.0% and 31.0%, respectively. The overall median time to FDV was 3 years. The risk of FDV was twice higher in Kenya (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.934; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.729-2.132) and 15% higher in Mozambique (aHR = 1.156; 95% CI: 1.156-1.223) than in Nigeria. The hazard of domestic violence was significantly higher among separated/divorced women across the three countries (aHR = 1.326; 95% CI: 1.237-1.801). Other factors associated with the timing of FDV against women were respondents' education, age at first marriage, region and location of residence, religion, ethnicity, employment status, wealth quintile, spouse consuming alcohol and husbands' educational attainment. CONCLUSIONS: Domestic violence against married women by their intimate partners is prevalent across Mozambique, Nigeria and Kenya, with earlier occurrences in Kenya and Mozambique. Age at first marriage, education factors, religion, ethnicity and region of residence in each country affected the timing of the first incidence of domestic violence.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Matrimonio/etnología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Divorcio , Violencia Doméstica/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Violencia de Pareja/etnología , Kenia/epidemiología , Matrimonio/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mozambique/epidemiología , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Conducta Sexual , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
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