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1.
Barbarói ; (58): 122-140, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1150764

RESUMEN

No que tange à escolarização de crianças autistas, o debate sobre o diagnóstico tem sido central, circulando entre os docentes sem muitas interrogações e delineando os percursos escolares desses sujeitos. Neste artigo, de natureza qualitativa e exploratória, tivemos por objetivo discutir as implicações do diagnóstico no trabalho pedagógico com crianças autistas, buscando seus sentidos e significados no fazer docente. Para tanto, foram entrevistadas seis (6) professoras, de duas escolas, municipal e estadual, da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS. Como instrumentos de coleta dos dados, utilizou-se de Roteiro de Entrevista Semiestruturada e Questionário Sociodemográfico. Os dados das entrevistas foram transcritos e analisados através da Análise Institucional do Discurso (AID). Como referencial teórico, utilizou-se dos aportes da psicanálise. Os resultados apontam ser o laudo médico-psicológico, para as professoras, fundamental na condução do trabalho, bem como para a disponibilização dos recursos escolares que o aluno tem direito.(AU)


Regarding the schooling of autistic children, the debate about the diagnosis has been central, circulating among teachers without much questioning and outlining the school paths of these subjects. In this article, of a qualitative and exploratory nature, we aimed to discuss the implications of the diagnosis in the pedagogical work with autistic children, looking for their senses and meanings in teaching. For that, six (6) teachers from two public schools were interviewed, in which one school is municipally run and the other one is state-run, from the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre/RS. As instruments for data collection, a Semi-structured Interview Guide and Sociodemographic Questionnaire were used. The interview data were transcribed and analyzed using the Institutional Discourse Analysis (IDA). As a theoretical framework, contributions from psychoanalysis were used. The results indicate that the medical-psychological report, for the teachers, is fundamental in the conduction of the work, as well as for the availability of school resources that the student is entitled to.(AU)


Con respecto a la escolarización de los niños autistas, el debate sobre el diagnóstico ha sido central, circulando entre los docentes sin mucho cuestionamiento y delineando el camino educativo de estos sujetos. En este artículo, de naturaleza cualitativa y exploratoria, buscamos discutir las implicaciones del diagnóstico en el trabajo pedagógico con niños autistas, buscando sus sentidos y significados en la enseñanza. Para ello, se entrevistó a seis (6) docentes de dos escuelas, municipales y estatales, de la Región Metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS. Como instrumentos para la recolha de datos, se utilizaron una Guía de Entrevista Semiestructurada y un Cuestionario Sociodemográfico. Los datos de la entrevista fueron transcritos y analizados utilizando el Análisis del Discurso Institucional (AID). Como marco teórico, se utilizaron las contribuciones del psicoanálisis. Los resultados indican que el informe médico-psicológico, para los docentes, es fundamental en la realización del trabajo, así como en la disponibilidad de recursos escolares a los que tiene derecho el alumno.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Trastorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Enseñanza , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Psicoanálisis , Docentes
2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(3): e24275, 2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690142

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced drastic changes to daily life, from the implementation of stay-at-home orders to mandating facial coverings and limiting in-person gatherings. While the relaxation of these control measures has varied geographically, it is widely agreed that contact tracing efforts will play a major role in the successful reopening of businesses and schools. As the volume of positive cases has increased in the United States, it has become clear that there is room for digital health interventions to assist in contact tracing. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of a mobile-friendly app designed to supplement manual COVID-19 contact tracing efforts on a university campus. Here, we present the results of a development and validation study centered around the use of the MyCOVIDKey app on the Vanderbilt University campus during the summer of 2020. METHODS: We performed a 6-week pilot study in the Stevenson Center Science and Engineering Complex on Vanderbilt University's campus in Nashville, TN. Graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, faculty, and staff >18 years who worked in Stevenson Center and had access to a mobile phone were eligible to register for a MyCOVIDKey account. All users were encouraged to complete regular self-assessments of COVID-19 risk and to key in to sites by scanning a location-specific barcode. RESULTS: Between June 17, 2020, and July 29, 2020, 45 unique participants created MyCOVIDKey accounts. These users performed 227 self-assessments and 1410 key-ins. Self-assessments were performed by 89% (n=40) of users, 71% (n=32) of users keyed in, and 48 unique locations (of 71 possible locations) were visited. Overall, 89% (202/227) of assessments were determined to be low risk (ie, asymptomatic with no known exposures), and these assessments yielded a CLEAR status. The remaining self-assessments received a status of NOT CLEAR, indicating either risk of exposure or symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 (7.5% [n=17] and 3.5% [n=8] of self-assessments indicated moderate and high risk, respectively). These 25 instances came from 8 unique users, and in 19 of these instances, the at-risk user keyed in to a location on campus. CONCLUSIONS: Digital contact tracing tools may be useful in assisting organizations to identify persons at risk of COVID-19 through contact tracing, or in locating places that may need to be cleaned or disinfected after being visited by an index case. Incentives to continue the use of such tools can improve uptake, and their continued usage increases utility to both organizational and public health efforts. Parameters of digital tools, including MyCOVIDKey, should ideally be optimized to supplement existing contact tracing efforts. These tools represent a critical addition to manual contact tracing efforts during reopening and sustained regular activity.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto , Procesamiento Automatizado de Datos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Adulto , /prevención & control , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Docentes/psicología , Docentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Aplicaciones Móviles/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos Piloto , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Tennessee/epidemiología , Universidades , Adulto Joven
3.
MedEdPORTAL ; 17: 11114, 2021 03 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768146

RESUMEN

Introduction: Given barriers to learner assessment in the authentic clinical environment, simulated patient encounters are gaining attention as a valuable opportunity for competency assessment across the health professions. Simulation-based assessments offer advantages over traditional methods by providing realistic clinical scenarios through which a range of technical, analytical, and communication skills can be demonstrated. However, simulation for the purpose of assessment represents a paradigm shift with unique challenges, including preservation of a safe learning environment, standardization across learners, and application of valid assessment tools. Our goal was to create an interactive workshop to equip educators with the knowledge and skills needed to conduct assessments in a simulated environment. Methods: Participants engaged in a 90-minute workshop with large-group facilitated discussions and small-group activities for practical skill development. Facilitators guided attendees through a simulated grading exercise followed by in-depth analysis of three types of assessment tools. Participants designed a comprehensive simulation-based assessment encounter, including selection or creation of an assessment tool. Results: We have led two iterations of this workshop, including an in-person format at an international conference and a virtual format at our institution during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a total of 93 participants. Survey responses indicated strong overall ratings and impactfulness of the workshop. Discussion: Our workshop provides a practical, evidence-based framework to guide educators in the development of a simulation-based assessment program, including optimization of the environment, design of the simulated case, and utilization of meaningful, valid assessment tools.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/normas , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/métodos , Educación/organización & administración , Docentes/normas , Entrenamiento Simulado/métodos , /epidemiología , Curriculum , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Humanos , Educación Interprofesional/métodos , Educación Interprofesional/organización & administración , Medio Social , Enseñanza
5.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 35-45, 03/03/2021. tab, Ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177493

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Revisar las metodologías y los materiales utilizados en la enseñanza de técnicas quirúrgicas para personal de la salud, publicados durante los últimos siete años. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en la base de datos PubMed sobre materiales y metodologías utilizados en educación quirúrgica determinando criterios de inclusión y exclusión para filtrar los diferentes artículos. Resultados: Se encontraron 1190 artículos, de los cuales se descartaron 826 por no cumplir con el rango de la revisión sistemática. Se utilizaron 59 artículos que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y de exclusión para la revisión. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento para obtener habilidades en técnicas quirúrgicas a través de la simulación es una oportunidad para estudiantes y maestros de avanzar en el saber y el hacer; se deben acoplar los materiales con el espacio para obtener resultados esperados. La investigación continúa con el fin de encontrar mejores opciones para la adquisición de las destrezas y habilidades quirúrgicas.


Objective: To review the methodologies and materials used in the teaching of surgical techniques for health personnel, which have been published over the last seven years. Methodology: A literature review was carried out in the PubMed database on materials and methodologies used in surgical education, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria to filter the different articles. Results: A total of1 190 articles were found, of which 826 were discarded for not meeting the range of the systematic review.59 articles that did meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for the review. Conclusions: Training to obtain skills in surgical techniques through simulation is an opportunity for students and teachers to advance in knowing and doing; materials must be matched with the circumstances to obtain expected results. New research must be carried out in order to find better options for the acquisition of surgical skills and abilities.


Objetivo: Revisar as metodologias e materiais utilizados no ensino de técnicas cirúrgicas para profissionais de saúde, publicados nos últimos sete anos. Metodologia: Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica na base de dados PubMed sobre materiais e metodologias utilizadas na educação cirúrgica, determinando critérios de inclusão e exclusão para filtrar os diferentes artigos. Resultados: foram encontrados 1190 artigos, dos quais 826 foram descartados por não atenderem à abrangência da revisão sistemática. 59 artigos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram utilizados para a revisão. Conclusões: O treinamento para obtenção de habilidades em técnicas cirúrgicas por meio de simulação é uma oportunidade para alunos e professores avançarem no saber e no fazer; os materiais devem ser combinados com a lacuna para obter os resultados esperados. A pesquisa continua a fim de encontrar melhores opções para a aquisição de habilidades e habilidades cirúrgicas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Simulación , Cirugía General , Personal de Salud , Técnicas , Materiales , Docentes
6.
Edumecentro ; 13(1): 295-301, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149248

RESUMEN

RESUMEN El presente artículo tiene como objetivo resaltar la importancia del aparato fonoarticulador como soporte teórico, específicamente para el profesional de la educación en los diferentes niveles de enseñanza, con el objetivo de que comprenda los trastornos psicofisiológicos que puedan manifestarse, a fin de evitarlos y obtener mejores resultados en la realización del acto verbovocal. Se proponen recomendaciones para su uso y protección de acuerdo con estudios realizados.


ABSTRACT The present article aims to highlight the importance of the phonoarticqwa ulator system, specifically in the educational professional at different levels of education, which serves as theoretical support for the teacher to understand the psychophysiological disorders that may manifest themselves in order to avoid them to obtain better results in the communication performance act. Recommendations for its use and protection are proposed, according to studies carried out.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Educación Médica , Docentes
7.
Edumecentro ; 13(1): 184-202, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149240

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: en las universidades de ciencias médicas constituye una necesidad abordar el desarrollo de competencias y habilidades comunicativas y lingüísticas del futuro médico general, por ser herramientas esenciales para su profesión. Objetivo: exponer las experiencias adquiridas con la aplicación de una estrategia para el perfeccionamiento de las competencias y habilidades comunicativas y lingüísticas del médico general en formación. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de desarrollo en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara durante 2018. Se emplearon métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis, inducción-deducción e histórico-lógico; y empíricos: revisión de planes de estudio, exámenes finales y prueba diagnóstica para constatar si promovían la escritura y redacción de textos y la correcta aplicación de la Instrucción 1/09, además, la técnica grupo nominal y la valoración por especialistas. Resultados: se constataron las dificultades para el desarrollo de las competencias y habilidades mencionadas en los estudiantes; en los docentes, carencias de conocimientos, de metodologías adecuadas para la correcta aplicación de la Instrucción 1/09 y la inexistencia de formas de superación; se elaboró una estrategia que contiene varios materiales de apoyo bibliográfico, cursos de pregrado y posgrado, talleres metodológicos y otras acciones. Fue valorada por criterios de especialistas. Conclusiones: su aplicación generó varias experiencias positivas, entre las que destacan su pertinencia para aplicar de manera uniforme la Instrucción 1/09 en todos los descuentos relacionados con la ortografía, redacción y expresión oral, y su utilidad para resolver las carencias lingüísticas y metodológicas, como basamento científico necesario para el desarrollo de competencias y habilidades comunicativas.


ABSTRACT Background: it is necessary to address the development of communication and linguistic competencies and skills of the future general practitioner in the universities of medical sciences, as they are essential tools for their profession. Objective: to present the experiences acquired with the application of a strategy for the improvement of communicative and linguistic competences and skills of the general practitioner in training. Methods: a development investigation was carried out at Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences during 2018. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis, induction-deduction and historical-logical; and empirical ones: revision of study plans, final exams and diagnostic test to verify if they promote the writing of texts and the correct application of Instruction 1/09, in addition, the nominal group technique and the assessment by specialists. Results: the difficulties for the development of the skills and abilities mentioned in the students were verified; in the teachers, lack of knowledge, of adequate methodologies for the correct application of Instruction 1/09 and the lack of upgrading ways; a strategy was developed that contains various bibliographic supporting materials, undergraduate and graduate courses, methodological workshops, and other actions. It was assessed by specialist criteria. Conclusions: its implementation generated several positive experiences, among them its relevance to uniformly apply Instruction 1/09 in all discounts related to spelling, writing and speaking, and its usefulness to solve linguistic and methodological deficiencies, as a necessary scientific foundation for the development of communication skills and abilities.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes , Educación Basada en Competencias , Educación Médica , Docentes , Lenguaje
8.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(2): 7502205010p1-7502205010p9, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657343

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Engaging and pulling up a zipper is a functional skill needed by young children. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of a standard zippering teaching vest presented with general verbal prompts to a modified zippering teaching vest presented with a related story and vocabulary among typically developing preschoolers. DESIGN: An experimental, two-group, pre-post design. SETTING: A local preschool. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty preschoolers ages 3 yr, 6 mo to 4 yr, 11 mo were recruited. INTERVENTION: Eligible children received three zippering practice sessions from occupational therapy and speech-language pathology graduate students supervised by faculty; either a standard (control group) or modified (comparison group) zippering teaching vest was used. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Individual sessions were video recorded. We coded data using a score of 2, 1, or 0, indicating degree of success through seven zippering steps. Using IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 26) for analysis, we conducted independent t tests to compare measures between the two groups. RESULTS: Each cohort consisted of 14 preschoolers (N = 28); 252 separate zippering trials were analyzed. Pretrial zippering ability demonstrated no initial differences. Results indicate that both groups advanced their skills with added practice; however, the comparison group performed statistically significantly better than the control group, beginning with the second set of interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Beginning with a second exposure to a novel instructional method, preschoolers increased their success by completing more of the seven identified steps of zippering than those receiving traditional input. This study demonstrates the ability of occupational therapy-speech-language pathology partnerships to create innovative treatments that facilitate occupationally based skill acquisition. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This article adds evidence supporting the use of a modified practice zippering vest with added visual and language cues to teach zippering skills to occupational therapy clients.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Ocupacional , Estudiantes , Niño , Preescolar , Docentes , Humanos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669412

RESUMEN

The implementation of strategies to mitigate possible cases of COVID-19 were addressed at the University of Alicante for the safe reopening of the 2020/2021 academic year. To discover the prevalence of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, a study was designed using a rapid immunoassay test (carried out between 6 and 22 July 2020), and in addition a cross-sectional survey was conducted on risk factors, symptoms, predisposition for becoming vaccinated, and sources of information about COVID-19. A random sample, stratified by students, faculty, and administrative staff, was selected. The seroprevalence found was 2.64% (39/1479; 95% CI 1.8-3.4), and the adjusted seroprevalence was 2.89% (95% CI 2.1-3.7). The average age of the students was 23.2 years old, and 47.6 years old for staff. In relation to COVID-19, the following was found: 17.7% pauci-symptomatic, 1.3% symptomatic, 5.5% contact with cases, 4.9% confined, and 0.3% PCR positive. More than 90% complied with preventive measures. The proportion willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was 91%. Their sources of information were the Internet (74%) and television (70.1%). They requested that the university offer information (45.1%), training (27%), and provide Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (26.3%). Lastly, 87.9% would repeat the test. A plan was established that included the follow-up of cases and contacts, random sample testing, training courses, bimodal teaching, a specific website, and the distribution of PPE.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Universidades , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Docentes , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Inmunoensayo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Equipo de Protección Personal , España/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(9)2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574041

RESUMEN

To reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), most countries closed schools, despite uncertainty if school closures are an effective containment measure. At the onset of the pandemic, Swedish upper-secondary schools moved to online instruction, while lower-secondary schools remained open. This allows for a comparison of parents and teachers differently exposed to open and closed schools, but otherwise facing similar conditions. Leveraging rich Swedish register data, we connect all students and teachers in Sweden to their families and study the impact of moving to online instruction on the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. We find that, among parents, exposure to open rather than closed schools resulted in a small increase in PCR-confirmed infections (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI [CI95] 1.03 to 1.32). Among lower-secondary teachers, the infection rate doubled relative to upper-secondary teachers (OR 2.01; CI95 1.52 to 2.67). This spilled over to the partners of lower-secondary teachers, who had a higher infection rate than their upper-secondary counterparts (OR 1.29; CI95 1.00 to 1.67). When analyzing COVID-19 diagnoses from healthcare visits and the incidence of severe health outcomes, results are similar for teachers, but weaker for parents and teachers' partners. The results for parents indicate that keeping lower-secondary schools open had minor consequences for the overall transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in society. The results for teachers suggest that measures to protect teachers could be considered.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Docentes/psicología , Padres/psicología , Instituciones Académicas , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Suecia/epidemiología
11.
12.
J Vet Med Educ ; 48(1): 14-20, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594954

RESUMEN

Numerous educational studies have shown that passive learning methods are frequently associated with disappointing learning outcomes, yet many faculty instructors continue to rely on passive didactic lectures. This article describes the creation of an active learning teaching approach-referred to as the collaborative, case-based classroom-that combines three pedagogical strategies: peer-assisted learning, case-based learning, and just-in-time teaching. Data from student surveys of a third-year cardiology elective showed a preference for this teaching approach compared with a case-based lecture. Six major themes emerged from survey analysis: engagement/interactivity, instructional benefit, clinical reasoning, clinical relevance, peer-assisted learning, and timely feedback. Although detailed here in the context of a cardiology elective, the collaborative, case-based classroom is a teaching approach that could be modified to fit a variety of other teaching environments.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Veterinaria , Animales , Docentes , Humanos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Estudiantes , Enseñanza
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583941

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Since the start of non face-to-face learning classes in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers have been accumulating stress. Since then, the teaching staff have had to adapt to the new telematic classes, and in September 2020 they have had to return to face-to-face classes, taking different hygiene measures to prevent contagion. The changes in teaching methods and the lack of guidelines for the new teaching challenges have created a lot of uncertainty in this sector. The aim of the present study was to measure the levels of stress, anxiety and depression of teaching staff in the face of the reopening of schools and universities after 6 months of absence from face-to-face classes. METHODS: A total of 1,633 teachers from the Department of Education of the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) took part, all of them professionals working in different educational centres, from early childhood education to university studies. The questionnaire, DASS-21, was applied to measure the symptomatology presented by the teaching staff in relation to the reopening of the centres. RESULTS: The results show that 32.2% of the participants had symptoms of depression, 49.4% had symptoms of anxiety and 50.6% had symptoms of stress. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that teachers have symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression. Therefore, it is important to take care of the mental health of teachers in order to take care of the mental health of students and the quality of teaching.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Docentes/psicología , Salud Mental , Maestros/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , España , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Universidades
14.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246584, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556131

RESUMEN

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) necessitated an abrupt transition from on campus, face-to-face sessions to online, distance learning in higher education institutions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of postgraduate dental learners and instructors about the transition to distance learning, including the changes to the learning and teaching and its efficaciousness. A convergent mixed methods approach to research was utilized. All the instructors and postgraduate learners in a dental college were invited to participate in an online survey. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential analyses on SPSS for Windows version 25.0, and for the responses to the open-ended questions, multi-staged thematic analysis was utilized. Both groups of stakeholders: learners and instructors, were satisfied with the rapid transition to distance learning due to COVID-19. Instructors were significantly more satisfied than the learners. The stakeholders adapted well to the change. The perception of the stakeholders regarding the case-based scenarios significantly influenced their level of satisfaction. As perceived by the stakeholders, the transition to distance learning entailed advantages and challenges. Going through the experience enabled the stakeholders to develop informed opinions of how best to sustain learning and teaching irrespective of how matters unfold in relation to the pandemic. In conclusion, the worldwide dental education community faced unprecedented challenges due to the onset of COVID-19. From a macro perspective, decision-makers must not miss out on the valuable opportunities, inherent in the experience, to reinforce curriculums, and maximize learning and teaching.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación de Posgrado en Odontología , Educación a Distancia , Docentes , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562476

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large family of respiratory viruses that can cause mild to moderate illness. The new variant COVID-19 has started to spread rapidly since December 2019, posing a new threat to global health. To counter the spread of the virus, the Italian government forced the population to close all activities starting from 9 March 2020 to 4 May 2020. In this scenario, we conducted a cross-sectional study on a heterogeneous sample (average age of 28 ± 12 years, 62.6% females) of the University of Naples Federico II (Italy). The aim of the study was to describe the lifestyle change in the university population during quarantine for the COVID 19 pandemic. Participants compiled an online survey consisting of 3 sections: socio-demographic data, dietary behaviours, physical activity habits and psychological aspects. The different results by gender are: 90.8% of females continued to work from home (81.9% were students); 34.8% increased their physical activity; and, only 0.8% prefer ready meals. Whereas, the same percentage of men continued to work from home (90%), but only 72.1% were students (p < 0.001 vs. females), only 23.9% increased physical activity (p < 0.001) and 1.7% favous ready meals. Our data shows that the male population was more affected by isolation and quarantine reporting more unfavourable behavioural changes.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Docentes , Pandemias , Estudiantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Cuarentena , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Trabajo , Adulto Joven
16.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 19: e00309141, jan. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139807

RESUMEN

Resumo Este ensaio possui como principal objetivo problematizar mudanças ocorridas no trabalho de professoras e professores da rede particular de ensino no contexto de pandemia e sua relação com a saúde. Apresenta novas formas de resistências e organização coletiva, como a greve virtual, do ponto de vista dos próprios docentes que se encontram em atividades de ensino remoto e, também, em exercício de direção sindical. Foi construído de forma compartilhada, entre professore(a)s e pesquisadore(a)s. Fundamenta-se na pedagogia crítica e dialógica freireana, cujos processos valorizam a formação mútua e emancipadora. Dos diálogos empreendidos durante a construção do texto, chegamos a quatro importantes pontos de análise e problematização, a saber: trabalho docente em tempos de isolamento social; mudanças no processo e na organização do trabalho; aspectos geracionais e questões de gênero; saúde docente, resistências e greve virtual. Ao fim, observa-se que o tipo de atividade de ensino, não presencial, por meio de plataformas e outros recursos digitais, se constitui como uma configuração atual do trabalho que se aprofunda no contexto de pandemia e faz uso exacerbado da tecnologia, articulando novos modos de controle, extração de sobretrabalho e do mais-valor social.


Abstract This essay has as main objective to problematize changes occurred in the work of teachers and private school teachers in the context of a pandemic and its relationship with health. It presents new forms of resistance and collective organization, such as the virtual strike, from the point of view of the teachers themselves who are in remote teaching activities and also in the exercise of union leadership. It was built in a shared way, between professors and researchers. It is based on Freire's critical and dialogical pedagogy, whose processes value mutual and emancipatory formation. From the dialogues undertaken during the construction of the text, we come to four important points of analysis and problematization, namely: teaching work in times of social isolation; changes in the work process and organization; generational aspects and gender issues; teaching health, resistance and virtual strike. In the end, it is observed that the type of teaching activity, not in person, through platforms and other digital resources, constitutes a current configuration of work that deepens in the context of a pandemic and makes exacerbated use of technology, articulating new control modes, extraction of overwork and social added value.


Resumen Este ensayo tiene como principal objetivo problematizar los cambios ocurridos en el trabajo de profesoras y profesores de la red de enseñanza particular en el contexto de la pandemia y su relación con la salud. Presenta nuevas formas de resistencias y organización colectiva, como la huelga virtual, del punto de vista de los propios docentes que se encuentran en actividades de enseñanza remota y, también, en ejercicio de dirección sindical. Fue construido de forma compartida, entre profesores(a)s e investigadores(a)s. Se fundamenta en la pedagogía crítica y dialógica freireana, cuyos procesos valorizan la formación mútua y emancipadora. De los diálogos emprendidos durante la construcción del texto, llegamos a cuatro importantes puntos de análisis y problematización, a saber: trabajo docente en tiempos de aislamiento social; cambios en el proceso y en la organización del trabajo; aspectos generacionales y cuestiones de género; salud docente, resistencias y huelga virtual. Al fin, se observa que el tipo de actividad de enseñanza, no presencial, por medio de plataformas y otros recursos digitales, se constituye como una configuración actual del trabajo que se profundiza en el contexto de la pandemia y hace uso exacerbado de la tecnología, articulando nuevos modos de control, extracción de sobretrabajo y de plusvalía social.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Salud Laboral , Docentes , Identidad de Género
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430479

RESUMEN

Mentoring to develop research skills is an important strategy for facilitating faculty success. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative literature review to examine the barriers and facilitators to mentoring in health-related research, particularly for three categories: new investigators (NI), early-stage investigators (ESI) and underrepresented minority faculty (UMF). PsychINFO, CINAHL and PubMed were searched for papers published in English from 2010 to 2020, and 46 papers were reviewed. Most papers recommended having multiple mentors and many recommended assessing baseline research skills. Barriers and facilitators were both individual and institutional. Individual barriers mentioned most frequently were a lack of time and finding work-life balance. UMF mentioned barriers related to bias, discrimination and isolation. Institutional barriers included lack of mentors, lack of access to resources, and heavy teaching and service loads. UMF experienced institutional barriers such as devaluation of experience or expertise. Individual facilitators were subdivided and included writing and synthesis as technical skills, networking and collaborating as interpersonal skills, and accountability, leadership, time management, and resilience/grit as personal skills. Institutional facilitators included access to mentoring, professional development opportunities, and workload assigned to research. Advocacy for diversity and cultural humility were included as unique interpersonal and institutional facilitators for UMF. Several overlapping and unique barriers and facilitators to mentoring for research success for NI, ESI and UMF in the health-related disciplines are presented.


Asunto(s)
Tutoría , Docentes , Humanos , Mentores , Grupos Minoritarios , Investigadores
18.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(2): 198-207, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431427

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented event in modern medicine. In this study, we evaluate pediatric faculty and trainee attitudes and perspectives related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and their roles in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We surveyed a pediatric hospital's faculty and trainees (n = 701) in April 2020 about their concerns related to SARS-CoV-2, trust in current recommendations, and attitudes toward trainee roles. We used descriptive statistics to analyze results and compared across sex and roles using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 320 respondents (46% response rate), 73% were concerned with personal risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 88% were concerned with loved ones' risk. Twenty-four percent were concerned because of personal risk factors. Nearly half expressed concerns as their family's major provider and about salary changes (48% and 46%). Seventy-nine percent were concerned about lack of personal protective equipment and 43% about redeployment. Respondents endorsed varying levels of trust in recommendations related to COVID-19. Nearly three-fourths (72%) felt trainees are essential personnel. The majority were receptive to returning to usual patient care and training as the pandemic progresses. Significant differences exist across sex and roles related to levels of concern, trust, and trainee roles. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we assess the concerns and perspectives of pediatric faculty and trainees related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Most view trainees as essential personnel and recognize the importance of direct patient care in their training. These results can be used to inform policy changes and trainee roles as the COVID-19 pandemic progresses.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Docentes/psicología , Pandemias , Pediatría/educación , Equipo de Protección Personal , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 41(1): 16-23, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433130

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The conceptual framework of One Health (OH) provides a strategy for promoting collaboration across the nexus of animal, human, and environmental health, which is essential for tackling emerging disease threats, such as COVID-19. However, there is no accreditation requirement for OH to prepare students across the professions for collaborative practice. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of faculty across the medical, veterinary, and public health programs about the need, opportunities, and challenges of developing OH in the curricula. METHODS: In this qualitative study, faculty across the three disciplines were invited to participate in audio-recorded, focus group interviews. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: All participants recognized the need for OH as a critical concept for preparing students for collaborative practice. Opportunities were identified for shared learning and research across the disciplines, particularly through the use of interprofessional education. The lack of an accreditation mandate for OH in the medical curriculum was perceived to be the greatest challenge, leading to an anticipation of significant resistance among medical educators and students. DISCUSSION: Successful development of OH in all three curricula is vital to prepare students for current and future threats to global health. The role of accreditation bodies in ensuring medical, veterinary, and public health curricula prepare students for these threats is crucial. Implications for practice include strategies for persuading medical educators and medical students to embrace OH in the curriculum and promote a culture of shared learning.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación Médica , Educación en Veterinaria , Docentes/psicología , Educación Interprofesional , Salud Pública/educación , Adulto , Curriculum , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Grenada/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Investigación Cualitativa
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