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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233235, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492071

RESUMEN

According to life history theory, natural selection has shaped trade-offs for allocating energy among growth, reproduction and maintenance to maximize individual fitness. In social mammals body size and dominance rank are two key variables believed to influence female reproductive success. However, few studies have examined these variables together, particularly in long-lived species. Previous studies found that female dominance rank correlates with reproductive success in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), which is surprising given they have weak dominance relationships and experience seemingly low levels of feeding competition. It is not currently known whether this relationship is primarily driven by a positive correlation between rank and body size. We used the non-invasive parallel laser method to measure two body size variables (back breadth and body length) of 34 wild adult female mountain gorillas, together with long-term dominance and demography data to investigate the interrelationships among body size, dominance rank and two measures of female reproductive success (inter-birth interval N = 29 and infant mortality N = 64). Using linear mixed models, we found no support for body size to be significantly correlated with dominance rank or female reproductive success. Higher-ranking females had significantly shorter inter-birth intervals than lower-ranking ones, but dominance rank was not significantly correlated with infant mortality. Our results suggest that female dominance rank is primarily determined by factors other than linear body dimensions and that high rank provides benefits even in species with weak dominance relationships and abundant year-round food resources. Future studies should focus on the mechanisms behind heterogeneity in female body size in relation to trade-offs in allocating energy to growth, maintenance and lifetime reproductive success.


Asunto(s)
Gorilla gorilla/fisiología , Gorilla gorilla/psicología , Reproducción/fisiología , Predominio Social , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Dominación-Subordinación , Femenino , Gorilla gorilla/anatomía & histología , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Análisis Multivariante , Embarazo , Rwanda , Especificidad de la Especie
2.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 1-8, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922458

RESUMEN

The manipulation of host organisms by their parasites has captured the attention of ecologists, parasitologists, and the public. However, our knowledge of parasite behavior independent of a host is limited despite the far-reaching implications of parasite behavior. Parasite behaviors can help explain trematode community structure, the aggregation of parasites within host populations, and can potentially be harnessed in biocontrol measures. In this study, we used a simple choice chamber design to examine whether trematode parasites can detect the infection status of a potential host and avoid hosts infected with a competitively dominant species. Our results show that Schistosoma mansoni, a competitively subordinate species, can detect and avoid hosts infected with a competitively dominant parasite, Echinostoma caproni. However, E. caproni, despite showing a significant preference for snails infected with S. mansoni over uninfected snails, showed little ability to detect the infection status of the host or even the host's presence. We propose subordinate species may be under stronger selection to avoid dominant competitors whereas dominant competitors may be more strongly selected to find any suitable host, regardless of infection status. Previous research has focused on parasites distinguishing between 'host' and 'non-host', which does not fully capture the complexity of these interactions. However, the ability of subordinate parasites to determine the infection status of a host results in a consistent evolutionary advantage.


Asunto(s)
Biomphalaria/parasitología , Echinostoma/fisiología , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Conducta de Búsqueda de Hospedador/fisiología , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiología , Animales , Pollos , Dominación-Subordinación , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C
3.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(2): 338-348, 2020 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415244

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: It is well established that daily perceived control is closely associated with lower negative affect (NA) among older adults. However, it is an open question whether control perceptions of one's partner are also uniquely associated with one's own NA. METHOD: To examine such associations in dyads of older long-term partners, we make use of data obtained 6 times a day over 7 consecutive days as participants went about their everyday lives (N = 87 couples; mean age = 75 years; mean relationship length = 46 years). Our multilevel actor-partner models for dyadic data analyses covary for relevant individual and couple differences in sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported physical health, and cognitive functioning. RESULTS: Corroborating and extending earlier reports, results reveal that higher momentary perceived control was associated with lower NA. Most importantly, we found that higher momentary perceived control of the partner is additionally and uniquely associated with lower NA of the actor. DISCUSSION: We discuss possible mechanisms and underlying pathways of how perceived control may help both partners downregulate their negative emotions in daily life. We close by considering conceptual and practical implications.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Afecto , Dominación-Subordinación , Composición Familiar , Anciano/psicología , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(2): 743-751, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595384

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to assess aspects of the social behavior of a mixed-breed herd of beef cows as a potential source for stress and economic losses. Angus (AN; N = 10), Brahman (BR; N = 10), and Senepol (SE; N = 10) cows were assigned to two groups (N = 15 each containing equal breed numbers) on separate pastures. Agonistic interactions (win/loss) during feeding were recorded daily for 45 days. Dominance values were estimated as the proportion of individuals dominated to total herdmates. From this, individuals were placed into social categories based upon linear ranking as follows: dominants (D), intermediate (I), and subordinates (S). Breed influenced (P < 0.01) social category, with SE cows being dominants (P < 0.05) over AN and BR cows. Interactions between AN and BR cows were less (P < 0.0005) than interactions between AN and SE (53 vs 140, respectively). Within breeds, BR (152) and SE (182) cows had more (P < 0.0005) agonistic interactions than AN (107) cows. Although apparently influenced by breed, agonistic interactions occurred more frequently (P < 0.005) between social categories than within social categories (814 vs 310, respectively). Dominant cows were involved in more agonistic interactions with cows from different social categories than were intermediate and subordinate cows (P < 0.0005). However, intermediate (100) and subordinate (157) cows generated more (P < 0.0005) agonistic interactions within their own social category than dominant cows (53). It was concluded that, in mixed-breed herds, breed influences both social organization and agonistic interactions which could be considered as potential sources of stress and economic losses.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiología , Manejo Psicológico , Conducta Social , Estrés Fisiológico/fisiología , Conducta Agonística , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/economía , Animales , Cruzamiento , Bovinos/clasificación , Bovinos/genética , Dominación-Subordinación , Femenino
5.
Rev. polis psique ; 10(1): 107-122, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1102614

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste trabalho é enfocar a trama dos processos subjetivos desencadeada pela dominação colonial na relação que ela estabelece entre dominador e dominado: como se imbricam e se interpolam as forças vitais de cada parte, um para subjugar o outro e fazê-lo ceder, vergando-o sob o peso da astúcia, da sedução, do medo; o outro para se opor à tirania e ao controle, resistindo, lutando ou até preferindo morrer. O artigo traz o ponto de vista de diferentes autores vinculados as reflexões sobre pós- e descolonialidade e seus encaminhamentos quanto as possibilidades de resistência à violência da opressão. O foco na economia psíquica põe em relevo as conexões inexoráveis entre história pessoal e coletiva, valorizando posicionamentos ontológicos, epistemológicos e psicológicos que escapam às frequentes dicotomias e reducionismos ao buscar visibilizar as relações paradoxais entre dominador e dominado.


The aim of the present paper is to focus on the patchwork of subjective processes engendered by colonial domination within the scope of relations between the oppressor and the oppressed: how the vital forces of each side imbricate and interpolate each other, the former to subjugate the other and make him/her acquiesce either by astuteness, seduction or terror; the latter, to oppose tyranny and control by struggling, resisting or even, preferring death. The article discusses post- and decolonial scholarship in view of articulating how possibilities of resisting to violence are envisaged within this tradition. The focus on the psychic economy brings forth the inexorable connections between personal and collective history. These are analysed in their ontological, epistemological and psychological underpinnings in order to escape the frequent dichotomies and reductionisms whenever the paradoxical relations between the oppressor and the oppressed are at stake.


El objetivo de ese trabajo es discutir la trama de los procesos subjetivos engendrados por la dominación colonial en el ámbito de la relación que se establece entre opresor y oprimido: como se mezclan las fuerzas vitales de cada parte, una para someter la otra haciendo con que ceda bajo el peso de la astucia, la seducción o el miedo; la otra para se oponer a la tiranía, al control, resistiendo, luchando hasta casi escoger la muerte. El artigo presenta el punto de vista de diferentes autores asociados a la discusión pos- o decolonial y sus contribuciones a la temática de la resistencia a la violencia de la opresión. El foco sobre la economía psíquica pone en relievo el enlace inexorable entre la historia personal y la colectiva teniendo en cuenta posiciones ontológicas, epistemológicas y psicológicas que escapan dicotomías y reduccionismos comunes cuando se intenta volver visible las relaciones paradojales entre el señor y el sujeto dominado.


Asunto(s)
Psicología Social , Colonialismo , Dominación-Subordinación , Emoción Expresada , Cultura , Control
6.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0220596, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821344

RESUMEN

Socially competent animals must learn to modify their behavior in response to their social partner in a contextually appropriate manner. Dominant-subordinate relationships are a particularly salient social context for mice. Here we observe and analyze the microstructure of social and non-social behaviors as 21 pairs of outbred CD-1 male mice (Mus Musculus) establish dominant-subordinate relationships during daily 20-minute interactions for five consecutive days in a neutral environment. Firstly, using a Kleinberg burst detection algorithm, we demonstrate aggressive and subordinate interactions occur in bursting patterns followed by quiescent periods rather than being uniformly distributed across social interactions. Secondly, we identify three phases of dominant-subordinate relationship development (pre-, middle-, and post-resolution) by utilizing two statistical methods to identify stability in aggressive and subordinate behavior across these bursts. Thirdly, using First Order Markov Chains we find that dominant and subordinate mice show distinct behavioral transitions, especially between tail rattling and other aggressive/subordinate behaviors. Further, dominant animals engaged in more digging and allogrooming behavior and were more likely to transition from sniffing their partner's body to head, whereas subordinates were more likely to transition from head sniffing to side-by-side contact. Lastly, we utilized a novel method (Forward Spike Time Tiling Coefficient) to assess how individuals respond to the behaviors of their partner. We found that subordinates decrease their tail rattling and aggressive behavior in response to aggressive but not subordinate behavior exhibited by dominants and that tail rattling in particular may function to deescalate aggressive behavior in pairs. Our findings demonstrate that CD-1 male mice rapidly establish dominance relationships and modify their social and non-social behaviors according to their current social status. The methods that we detail also provide useful tools for other researchers wishing to evaluate the temporal dynamics of rodent social behavior.


Asunto(s)
Dominación-Subordinación , Conducta Sexual Animal/fisiología , Conducta Social , Medio Social , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Cadenas de Markov , Ratones
7.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(6): 1496-1503, Nov.-Dec. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1042194

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the conception of justice of nurses and users regarding the Risk Classification in Emergency Unit; to analyze the conception of justice in the implementation of the Risk Classification in Emergency Unit from the user's recognition; to discuss, from Axel Honneth's Theory of Recognition, justice with the user in the Risk Classification in Emergency Unit. Method: qualitative research of descriptive, exploratory typology, which used action research as a method. Bardin's Content Analysis was carried out. Results: a category was created: "Justice versus Injustice" and three subcategories: "Autonomy/Freedom versus Heteronomy/Subordination"; "Communication versus Hermeneutic Problems"; "Contributions versus Conflicts". Final considerations: Embracement with Risk Classification presents difficulties in its interpretation and effectiveness; there are situations of disrespect that compete against the required ethics. Justice addressed by this study will be achieved by an emergency access system that meets user expectations, recognizing it as a subject of rights.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir la concepción de justicia de enfermeros y usuarios en la Clasificación de Riesgo en Emergencia; analizar la concepción de justicia en la implementación de la Clasificación de Riesgo en la Emergencia a partir del reconocimiento del usuario; discutir, a partir de la Teoría del Reconocimiento de Axel Honneth, la justicia con el usuario en la Clasificación de Riesgo en Unidad de Emergencia. Método: investigación cualitativa de tipología descriptiva, exploratoria, que utilizó como método la investigación-acción. Análisis de Contenido de Bardin. Resultados: se organizó una categoría: "Justicia versus Injusticia" y tres subcategorías: "Autonomía/Libertad versus Heteronomía/Subordinación"; "Comunicación versus Problemas Hermenéuticos"; "Contribuciones versus Conflictos". Consideraciones finales: Acogida con Clasificación de Riesgo presenta dificultades en su interpretación y efectividad, con situaciones de incumplimiento que concurren contra la ética requerida. La justicia de que trata este estudio será alcanzada por un sistema de acceso a las emergencias que alcance las expectativas del usuario, reconociéndolo como sujeto de derechos.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever a concepção de justiça de enfermeiros e usuários na Classificação de Risco em Emergência; analisar a concepção de justiça na implementação da Classificação de Risco na Emergência a partir do reconhecimento do usuário; discutir, a partir da Teoria do Reconhecimento de Axel Honneth, a justiça com o usuário na Classificação de Risco em Unidade de Emergência. Método: pesquisa qualitativa de tipologia descritiva, exploratória, que utilizou como método a pesquisa-ação. Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin. Resultados: foi organizada uma categoria: "Justiça versus Injustiça" e três subcategorias: "Autonomia/Liberdade versus Heteronomia/Subordinação"; "Comunicação versus Problemas Hermenêuticos"; "Contribuições versus Conflitos". Considerações finais: o Acolhimento com Classificação de Risco apresenta dificuldades em sua interpretação e efetividade, com situações de desrespeito que concorrem contra a ética requerida. A justiça de que trata esse estudo será alcançada por um sistema de acesso às emergências que atinja as expectativas do usuário, reconhecendo-o como sujeito de direitos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Justicia Social , Triaje/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Urgencias Médicas/clasificación , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Solución de Problemas , Factores de Tiempo , Comunicación , Conflicto Psicológico , Autonomía Personal , Investigación Cualitativa , Dominación-Subordinación , Escolaridad , Hermenéutica , Libertad , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital
8.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 27: e38527, jan.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1099970

RESUMEN

Objetivo: refletir sobre a precarização do trabalho de enfermagem, tomando como referencial a perspectiva filosófica de Michael Foucault e suas concepções acerca das relações de poder. Conteúdo: trata-se de estudo reflexivo desenvolvido a partir dos resultados de estudo sobre o conhecimento da enfermagem acerca da precarização do trabalho, estabelecendo-se uma reflexão sob a ótica do pensamento de Foucault no que tange aos conceitos de poder e disciplina. Verifica-se que a falta de regulamentação no nível do macro poder estatal permite que as instituições, isoladamente, determinem padrões a partir dos quais criam regras e disciplinas que controlam as relações de trabalho e o mercado de trabalho. Para tal ação, utilizam o poder como ferramenta de alienação e dominação dos trabalhadores. Considerações finais: é necessário realizar e aprofundar discussões sobre construção e vivência das relações de poder que são determinantes na manutenção da precarização do trabalho de enfermagem de modo a melhorar suas condições de trabalho.


Objective: to reflect on the precariousness of nursing work, taking as reference the philosophical perspective of Michael Foucault and his conceptions about power relations. Content: it is a reflexive study developed from the results of a study on the knowledge of nursing about the precariousness of work, stablishing a reflection from the perspective of Foucault's thinking regarding the concepts of power and discipline. The lack of regulation at the macro state power level enables institutions, in isolation, to set standards by which they create rules and disciplines that control labor relations and the labor market. For such action, they use power as a tool for alienation and domination over workers. Final considerations: it is necessary to promote and deepen discussions about the construction and experience of power relations that are crucial for maintaining the precariousness of nursing work, in order to improve its work conditions.


Objetivo: reflexionar sobre la precarización del trabajo de enfermería, tomando como referencia la perspectiva filosófica de Michael Foucault y sus concepciones acerca de las relaciones de poder. Contenido: estudio reflexivo desarrollado a partir de los resultados de un estudio sobre el conocimiento de la enfermería sobre la precariedad del trabajo, estableciendo una reflexión desde la perspectiva de Foucault sobre los conceptos de poder y disciplina. La falta de regulación en el nivel de poder del estado macro permite a las instituciones, de forma aislada, establecer estándares mediante los cuales crean reglas y disciplinas que controlan las relaciones laborales y el mercado laboral. Para tal acción, usan el poder como una herramienta de alienación y dominio sobre los trabajadores. Consideraciones finales: es necesario conducir y profundizar discusiones sobre la construcción y experiencia de las relaciones de poder que son cruciales para mantener la precariedad del trabajo de enfermería a fin de mejorar sus condiciones de trabajo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Filosofía en Enfermería , Condiciones de Trabajo , Relaciones Laborales , Enfermería , Capitalismo , Dominación-Subordinación
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 369, 2019 11 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771545

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Involuntary subordination is a mechanism that switches off fighting behaviors when a losing organism is unable to continue in a struggle. The study aim was to investigate the association between involuntary subordination and the common mental disorders of anxiety and depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 547 MSM in four Shanghai districts. Sociodemographic and psychosocial participant data were collected. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between anxiety, depression, and involuntary subordination. RESULTS: 12.2 and 30.9% Of the MSM demonstrated high levels of anxiety and depression respectively. Univariate analysis showed that involuntary subordination and the involuntary subordination constructs of defeat, social comparison, submissive behavior, and entrapment were associated with anxiety and depression. Multivariate analysis indicated that defeat (ORm = 1.091, 95% CI = 1.004-1.185) and entrapment (ORm = 1.174, 95% CI = 1.079-1.278) were significantly associated with anxiety. Defeat (ORm = 1.265, 95% CI = 1.166-1.372), social comparison (ORm = 1.119, 95% CI = 1.061-1.181), entrapment (ORm = 1.132, 95% CI = 1.047-1.224), and submissive behavior (ORm = 0.897, 95% CI = 0.825-0.975) were significantly associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The findings confirmed an association between anxiety, depression, and involuntary subordination among MSM. These findings could form the basis of a new, integrated, and holistic approach to the identification of high-risk groups and the development of interventions for anxiety and depression among MSM.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Dominación-Subordinación , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Adulto , China , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(21): 9901-9911, 2019 11 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707362

RESUMEN

It is known that stress alters homeostasis and may lead to accelerated aging. However, little is known about the contribution of innate susceptibility to stress to the deterioration of physiological functions, acceleration of aging and developing of age-related diseases. By using socially-submissive stress susceptible (Sub) and socially-dominant stress resilient (Dom) selectively bred mouse model we observed a marked reduction in the lifespan of both male and female Sub mice. We found that innate susceptibility to stress correlates with chronic inflammation, development of splenomegaly and a significant increase in the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-6. Furthermore, Sub mice showed a marked hypoglycemia, reduction of insulin levels, increase in GSK3 activity and elevation of IGF-1 serum levels, as well as low skin surface temperature and body weight. Interestingly, lifelong exposure of Sub mice to chronic mild stress did not further reduce their lifespan, indicating a high level of intrinsic stress. Taken together, our data reveal that social submissiveness coupled with innate stress sensitivity coincides with inflammation, leading to the deterioration of physiological functions and early aging independent of whether an individual is exposed to stress or not.


Asunto(s)
Dominación-Subordinación , Jerarquia Social , Inflamación/etiología , Longevidad , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Animales , Glucemia , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Insulina/sangre , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Temperatura Cutánea , Esplenomegalia/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/sangre
11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 87-99, ago.-nov. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1026107

RESUMEN

Esse artigo tem por objetivo refletir sobre as possibilidades de contribuição da Psicologia a ações de enfrentamento a práticas violentas, e junto às lutas transversais travadas pelos grupos com os quais trabalhamos. Para tanto, partimos do conceito de lutas transversais de Michel Foucault, entendidas como lutas antiautoritárias e democratizantes que têm por alvo os mecanismos de dominação, exploração e submissão. Entendemos que os saberes psis, ao se colocarem a serviço das lutas transversais, podem servir como ferramentas de análise e enfrentamento a estes mecanismos. Nesse sentido, trazemos duas experiências de pesquisa e extensão realizadas em territórios que se encontravam em meio a processos de remoção, um deles na Comunidade Indiana, no bairro Tijuca, no Rio de Janeiro e o outro na Grande Cruzeiro, em Porto Alegre. Tais análises assumem o caráter de denúncia das violências decorrentes de gestões estatais, dando visibilidade às formas de submissão que operam pela produção do que chamaremos de uma "subjetividade culpada" e pela inscrição das populações alvo das remoções no lugar de não cidadãos, de sujeitos de um não direito. Buscaremos, ainda, evidenciar as articulações entre essas ferramentas de produção de subjetividade e as problemáticas materiais, decorrentes das desigualdades de acesso à moradia e à cidade. Por fim, afirmamos o caráter de resistência presente na compreensão de subjetividade como processo em constante construção e nas possibilidades de produzirmos rupturas nas práticas que encerram determinados modos de habitar e viver nas cidades como mais ou menos legítimos....(AU)


This article aims to reflect on the possibilities of contribution of Psychology to actions to confront violent practices, and the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work. To do so, we start from the concept of transverse struggles of Michel Foucault, understood as anti-authoritarian and democratizing struggles that aim at the mechanisms of domination, exploitation and submission. We understand that psis knowledge, when placed in the service of the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work, can serve as tools of analysis and coping with these mechanisms. In this sense, in this article, we bring two research and extension experiments carried out in territories that were in the midst of removal processes, one in the Indiana Community, in the Tijuca neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, and the other in the region of Grande Cruzeiro in Porto Alegre. Such analyses assume the character of denunciation of the violence arising from state management, promoted through the removal processes of Indiana and part of the Grande Cruzeiro, giving visibility to the forms of submission that operate through the production of what we will call a "guilty subjectivity" and by the inscription of the target populations of the removals in the place of non-citizens, of subjects of a non-right, of illegitimate inhabitants of the city. We will also seek, with our analyses, to highlight the articulations between these tools of production of subjectivity and the concrete material problems arising from the inequalities of access to housing and the city. Finally, we affirm the character of resistance present in the understanding of subjectivity as a process in constant construction and in the possibilities of producing ruptures in practices that contain certain ways of living in cities as more or less legitimate....(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre las posibilidades de la contribución de la Psicología para hacer frente a las prácticas violentas, y junto con las luchas transversales que libran los grupos con los que trabajamos. Con este fin, partimos del concepto de luchas transversales de Michel Foucault, entendido como luchas antiautoritarias y democratizadoras que apuntan a los mecanismos de dominación, explotación y sumisión. Entendemos que el conocimiento psis, al ponerse al servicio de las luchas transversales, puede servir como herramienta para el análisis y para hacer frente a estos mecanismos. En este sentido, traemos dos experiencias de investigación y extensión llevadas a cabo en territorios que se encontraban en medio de procesos de remoción, una en la Comunidad de Indiana, en el barrio de Tijuca, en Río de Janeiro y la otra en Grande Cruzeiro, en Porto Alegre. Dichos análisis asumen el carácter de denunciar la violencia resultante de la gestión estatal, dando visibilidad a las formas de sumisión que operan produciendo lo que llamaremos una "subjetividad culpable" y por la inscripción de las poblaciones objetivo de los retiros en el lugar de los no ciudadanos, de sujetos de un no derecho. También buscaremos resaltar las articulaciones entre estas herramientas de producción de subjetividad y los problemas materiales que surgen de las desigualdades en el acceso a la vivienda y la ciudad. Finalmente, afirmamos el carácter de resistencia presente en la comprensión de la subjetividad como un proceso en constante construcción y en las posibilidades de producir rupturas en las prácticas que incluyen ciertas formas de vivir y vivir en ciudades como más o menos legítimas....(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Propiedad , Psicología Social , Política Pública , Violencia , Dominación-Subordinación , Problemas Sociales , Vivienda , Psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos
12.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(6): 1496-1503, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644736

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to describe the conception of justice of nurses and users regarding the Risk Classification in Emergency Unit; to analyze the conception of justice in the implementation of the Risk Classification in Emergency Unit from the user's recognition; to discuss, from Axel Honneth's Theory of Recognition, justice with the user in the Risk Classification in Emergency Unit. METHOD: qualitative research of descriptive, exploratory typology, which used action research as a method. Bardin's Content Analysis was carried out. RESULTS: a category was created: "Justice versus Injustice" and three subcategories: "Autonomy/Freedom versus Heteronomy/Subordination"; "Communication versus Hermeneutic Problems"; "Contributions versus Conflicts". FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Embracement with Risk Classification presents difficulties in its interpretation and effectiveness; there are situations of disrespect that compete against the required ethics. Justice addressed by this study will be achieved by an emergency access system that meets user expectations, recognizing it as a subject of rights.


Asunto(s)
Urgencias Médicas/clasificación , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Justicia Social , Triaje/métodos , Adulto , Comunicación , Conflicto Psicológico , Dominación-Subordinación , Escolaridad , Femenino , Libertad , Hermenéutica , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Autonomía Personal , Solución de Problemas , Investigación Cualitativa , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(5): 401-407, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-189012

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Explorar la percepción de profesionales y pacientes sobre las cuestiones éticas que entraña la atención al tabaquismo en las consultas de atención primaria. Método: Se diseñó un estudio cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 12 profesionales y 7 pacientes, y dos grupos focales con 6 profesionales y 7 pacientes de atención primaria (32 participantes en total). Se realizó un muestreo intencional buscando perfiles de profesionales y pacientes de ambos sexos, distintas edades y experiencia en relación con el tabaquismo. El análisis de contenido siguió una estrategia analítica inductiva desde los datos hasta la creación de categorías teóricas. Resultados: Se identificaron cuatro categorías principales: 1) cuestiones éticas relativas a la responsabilidad del/de la profesional con el/la paciente fumador/a; 2) cuestiones relacionadas con la actitud que debe mostrar el/la profesional ante el/la paciente; 3) aspectos relacionados con la justicia en la distribución de recursos y con el papel de la Administración pública en el control del tabaquismo; y 4) cuestiones relativas a la autonomía de la persona fumadora con respecto al consumo y al cese del tabaquismo. Conclusiones: Es necesaria una alianza entre la ética que favorece la auténtica autonomía de la persona fumadora y la regulación heterónoma del consumo de tabaco. Sería conveniente incluir estas cuestiones en los programas de formación para el manejo del tabaquismo por parte de los/las profesionales


Objective: To explore the perception of professionals and patients with regard to ethical issues involved in addressing the habit of smoking in primary care consultations. Method: A qualitative study was designed, consisting of 12 semi-structured interviews with professionals, 7 interviews with patients and 2 focus groups with 6 professionals and 7 primary care patients (a total of 32 participants). An intentional sampling was conducted, including profiles of professionals and patients of both sexes, different ages and experience in relation to smoking. A content analysis was performed with an inductive analytical approach from data to the creation of theoretical categories. Results: Four main categories were identified: 1) ethical issues related to the responsibility of the professional when treating patients who smoke; 2) issues related to attitude to patients who smoke; 3) issues related to fair and equitable distribution of resources and to the role of the different levels of government in relation to the control of smoking; and 4) issues related to smokers' autonomy regarding their habit and smoking cessation. Conclusions: An alliance is needed between the ethics that support the autonomy of patients who smoke and the regulation of tobacco consumption. This approach should be included in clinical training programmes dealing with tobacco use, dependence and cessation


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/ética , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Autonomía Personal , Dominación-Subordinación , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Atención Primaria de Salud/ética , Legislación Médica/tendencias , Investigación Cualitativa
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12126, 2019 08 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431647

RESUMEN

Substantial concentrations of testosterone are not only present in a male's circulation, but also in its ejaculate. Surprisingly, the regulation of ejaculate T and its effects on females and their offspring, potentially a cryptic paternal trait, are not known. We found lower circulating and higher ejaculate T concentrations in subordinate red junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus) males compared to dominant males, suggestive of an adaptive trade-off in T allocation to circulation and their ejaculate. Subsequently, we artificially inseminated females with either testosterone enriched (TE) or control ejaculates (CE) in a cross-over design. TE females produced heavier eggs than CE females. Offspring growth and tonic immobility were affected in a sex-specific way by TE. TE sons were heavier with shorter TI duration than CE sons, and TE daughters were lighter than CE daughters but daughters did not differ in TI score. However, the chicks competitiveness was not influenced by the TE nor CE. This indicates a previously unknown function of ejaculate testosterone as well as a new form of interaction between a cryptic paternal trait and a maternal effect that may be widespread in the animal kingdom.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/metabolismo , Conducta Materna/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Estudios Cruzados , Dominación-Subordinación , Femenino , Masculino , Óvulo/fisiología , Distribución Aleatoria
15.
Violence Vict ; 34(3): 522-535, 2019 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171732

RESUMEN

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are some of the most common mental health symptoms women experience following exposure to dating violence (DV). However, not all women who experience DV exhibit PTSD symptoms. One factor that may influence whether or not women exhibit PTSD symptoms in the aftermath of DV exposure is interpersonal style, often operationalized in terms of two orthogonal dimensions, warmth and dominance. In this study, we examined the main and moderating effects of warmth and dominance on the association between DV and PTSD symptoms using latent moderating structural equation modeling in a sample of 303 female college students who reported DV exposure in the past year. Results indicated that warmth exerted a main effect predicting fewer PTSD symptoms. In addition, dominance moderated the association between DV and PTSD symptoms such that at high levels of DV, women who were high on dominance reported fewer PTSD symptoms than did women who were low on dominance. These findings suggest that aspects of interpersonal style may promote resilience to symptoms of posttraumatic stress following DV exposure. Directions for future research are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Emociones , Relaciones Interpersonales , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Cortejo/psicología , Dominación-Subordinación , Femenino , Humanos , Medio Oeste de Estados Unidos , Estudiantes , Universidades
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7324, 2019 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086272

RESUMEN

Social hierarchies emerge when animals compete for access to resources such as food, mates or physical space. Wild and laboratory male mice have been shown to develop linear hierarchies, however, less is known regarding whether female mice have sufficient intrasexual competition to establish significant social dominance relationships. In this study, we examined whether groups of outbred CD-1 virgin female mice housed in a large vivaria formed social hierarchies. We show that females use fighting, chasing and mounting behaviors to rapidly establish highly directionally consistent social relationships. Notably, these female hierarchies are less linear, steep and despotic compared to male hierarchies. Female estrus state was not found to have a significant effect on aggressive behavior, though dominant females had elongated estrus cycles (due to increased time in estrus) compared to subordinate females. Plasma estradiol levels were equivalent between dominant and subordinate females. Subordinate females had significantly higher levels of basal corticosterone compared to dominant females. Analyses of gene expression in the ventromedial hypothalamus indicated that subordinate females have elevated ERα, ERß and OTR mRNA compared to dominant females. This study provides a methodological framework for the study of the neuroendocrine basis of female social aggression and dominance in laboratory mice.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Corticosterona/sangre , Dominación-Subordinación , Jerarquia Social , Animales , Animales no Consanguíneos/sangre , Animales no Consanguíneos/psicología , Corticosterona/fisiología , Estradiol/sangre , Estradiol/fisiología , Estro/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones/sangre , Ratones/psicología , Receptores Estrogénicos/metabolismo , Factores Sexuales , Núcleo Hipotalámico Ventromedial/metabolismo
17.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(11): 1876-1885, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132785

RESUMEN

Enkephalins, endogenous ligands for delta opioid receptors (DORs), are highly enriched in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). They are implicated in depression but their role in the NAc, a critical brain region for motivated behavior, is not fully investigated. To provide insight into enkephalin function we used a chronic social defeat stress paradigm, where animals are either categorized as susceptible or resilient to stress based on their performance in a social interaction test. Compared to controls, susceptible animals showed reduced enkephalin levels in the NAc. Such decrease in enkephalin levels is not due to a change in mRNA of its precursor protein, proenkephalin, in susceptible mice but is consistent with increased mRNA levels of enkephalinases in the NAc of susceptible animals. Systemic administration of enkephalinase inhibitors or NAc infusion of the DOR agonist, SNC80, caused a resilient outcome to CSDS. Both treatments increased phosphorylation of ERK, which was downregulated by social defeat stress. To further validate these results, we also used Q175 knock-in mice, an animal model of Huntington's disease in which enkephalin levels are reduced in striatum and comorbidity with mood disorders is common. Consistent with data in wild-type mice, Q175 animals showed reduced enkephalin levels in the NAc and enhanced susceptibility to a social defeat stress. Overall, our data implicate that depression-like behavior induced by social defeat stress arises from disrupted DOR signaling resulting from lowered levels of enkephalins, which is partly mediated through elevated expression of enkephalinases.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Dominación-Subordinación , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Animales , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Benzamidas/farmacología , Depresión/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Núcleo Accumbens/efectos de los fármacos , Piperazinas/farmacología , Receptores Opioides delta/agonistas
18.
Behav Brain Res ; 370: 111925, 2019 09 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102599

RESUMEN

Disruption in prepulse inhibition (PPI), a sensorimotor gating phenomenon found in many species, has been associated with various psychiatric disorders in humans. Social defeat has been identified as a mediator of naturally evoked reductions of PPI in African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni where males reversibly alter social status and their sensorimotor gating abilities. Here we investigated A. burtoni females, which establish a male-like social hierarchy with dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) individuals when housed in communities without males. We asked if DOM and SUB females demonstrate socially induced PPI differences comparable to their male DOM and SUB counterparts. Results suggest that social defeat reduced PPI in SUB females as compared to DOM females (p = 0.033) and mixed-sex community female controls (p = 0.017). However, socially defeated females in same-sex communities remained proactive when engaging in antagonistic behaviors, which appears beneficial in avoiding substantial reductions in PPI as seen in reactive, socially defeated males. In open field swimming tests, SUB females exhibited increased anxiety-related behavior (thigmotaxis) as compared to females from mixed-sex communities (COM). Taken together, our results emphasize social defeat is a reliable modulator of PPI independent of sex, and anxiety related to social defeat might be a factor in mediating PPI plasticity.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Inhibición Prepulso/fisiología , Filtrado Sensorial/fisiología , Animales , Cíclidos , Dominación-Subordinación , Femenino , Jerarquia Social , Conducta Social , Predominio Social , Medio Social
19.
Behav Brain Res ; 370: 111942, 2019 09 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085203

RESUMEN

Zebrafish which carries a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1A (fgfr1a), also known as spiegeldanio (spd), has previously been reported to be bolder and more aggressive than wildtype (AB) zebrafish. However, in previous studies aggression has been quantified in mirror tests. In dyadic fights the behavior of the combatants is modified by the behavior of their opponent, and fighting a mirror has been reported to have different effects on brain gene expression and brain monoaminergic systems. In the present study aggression was quantified in fgfr1a mutants and AB zebrafish using a mirror test after which the fish were allowed to interact in pairs, either consisting of two fgfr1a mutants or one AB and one fgfr1a mutant fish. Following dyadic interaction aggressive behavior was again quantified in individual fish in a second mirror test after which the fish were sacrificed and brain tissue analyzed for monoamines and monoamine metabolites. The results confirm that fgfr1a mutants are more aggressive than AB zebrafish in mirror tests. However, fgfr1a mutant fish did not have any advantage in fights for social dominance, and agonistic behavior of fgfr1a mutants did not differ from that of AB fish during dyadic interactions. Moreover, as the AB fish, fgfr1a mutant fish losing dyadic interactions showed a typical loser effect and social subordination resulted in an activation of the brain serotonergic system in fgfr1a mutants as well as in AB fish. Overall the effects of dyadic interaction were similar in fgfr1a mutant fish and zebrafish of the AB strain.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/fisiología , Conducta Agonística/fisiología , Receptor Tipo 1 de Factor de Crecimiento de Fibroblastos/genética , Proteínas de Pez Cebra/genética , Animales , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Monoaminas Biogénicas/análisis , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dominación-Subordinación , Masculino , Mutación , Receptor Tipo 1 de Factor de Crecimiento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Predominio Social , Pez Cebra , Proteínas de Pez Cebra/metabolismo
20.
Aggress Behav ; 45(5): 537-549, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119758

RESUMEN

Past studies indicate that angry facial expressions automatically activate an aggressive response, seeming to support the view that humans possess an inborn, automatic tendencies to aggress. However, the current authors drew on influential models from evolutionary game theory to suggest that experiences of defeat may modulate this tendency. To examine this, four experiments were conducted to explore how defeat may modulate this aggressive response. In each study, participants executed simulated fight or flight responses based a computerized opponent's facial expression. Across studies, participants were typically faster to initiate fight (than flight) responses against an angry opponent. Simply losing simulated fights (Experiment 1) or experiencing aversive, white noise following simulated losses (Experiment 2) did not eliminate this tendency. However, when aversive noise was specifically experienced after losing to an angry opponent, the automatic aggressive response was eliminated (Experiment 3). This result was directly replicated (Experiment 4). Thus, these studies isolate the cues which automatize submissive behavior and show that fighting experience can modulate even our automatic aggressive responses to others' anger displays.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Ira , Nivel de Alerta , Dominación-Subordinación , Expresión Facial , Condicionamiento Psicológico , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Jerarquia Social , Humanos , Instinto , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Adulto Joven
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