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1.
Mo Med ; 118(1): 74-80, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551490

RESUMEN

Convalescent plasma is an old treatment for a new disease. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused the analysis of convalescent plasma to reemerge as a possible treatment. First, a systematic review summarizes the available research examining the use of convalescent plasma for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Second, we describe our experience in establishing a single-center convalescent plasma donation program.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/provisión & distribución , Inmunización Pasiva/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , /epidemiología , Selección de Donante/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , /aislamiento & purificación , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 131, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516181

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infection is one of the most common causes of transfusion-related hepatitis. Subsequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and Cochrane library, the web of science, African journal of online (AJOL), and Google Scholar was searched. The data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed by using STATA version 14. Publication bias was checked by funnel plot, contour-enhanced funnel plots, trim and fill analysis and more objectively through Egger's regression test, with P <  0.05 considered to indicate potential publication bias. The heterogeneity of studies was checked using I2 statistics. Pooled analysis was conducted using a weighted inverse variance random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was done by region and study period. A sensitivity analysis was employed. RESULT: A total of 25 studies with 197,172 study participants were used to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus among blood donors. The overall seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus was 0.819% (95% CI: 0.67-0.969; I2 = 92.3%). Regional sub-group analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors found to be 0.563% in Somali, 1.08% in Oromia, 0.847% in Amhara, and 0.908% in south nations nationalities and peoples region. CONCLUSION: The pooled seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia found to be low. Moreover, there should be systematic strategies that enhance donor screening and retention of safe regular donors.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Transfusión Sanguínea/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Hepacivirus/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis C/sangre , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243650, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347449

RESUMEN

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) exhibits high diversity and complexity in China, challenging the disease surveillance and antiretroviral therapy. Between July 1, 2014 and January 30, 2017, we investigated the profiles of HIV-1 infection stages, genotype distribution and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) using plasma samples from HIV Western blot (WB) confirmed blood donors from five Chinese blood centers (Chongqing, Guangxi, Luoyang, Mianyang, and Urumqi). HIV pol regions consisted of whole protease and partial reverse transcriptase were genotyped and analyzed for DRMs. Lag-Avidity testing was performed to identify the infection stages. Of the 356 HIV-1 WB positive samples tested by Lag-avidity assay, 19.1% (68/356) were recent infections. Genotyping on 356 amplified sequences presented the subtype distributions as following: CRF07_BC (65.7%), CRF08_BC (7.3%), CRF01_AE (19.1%), B (4.2%), CRF55_01B (3.1%), CRF59_01B (0.3%) and CRF68_01B (0.3%). No significant difference in genotype distribution was observed between recent and long-term infections. 48 DRMs were identified from 43 samples, indicating a drug resistance prevalence of 12.1% (43/356), which include seven protease inhibitors (PIs) accessory DRMs (Q58E, L23I and I84M), two PIs major DRMs (M46I, M46L), seven nucleoside RT inhibitors DRMs (D67N, K70Q, K219R and M184L), and 32 non-nucleoside RT inhibitors DRMs (K103N, V179E, K238N, V179D, E138G, G190E, A98G, Y188D and E138A). In addition, we had also identified CRFs from the 01B subtype including CRF55_01B (3.1%), CRF59_01B (0.3%) and CRF68_01B (0.3%). As an important part of the continuous monitoring of HIV-1 circulating strains among blood donors, our findings were expected to contribute to the comprehensive AIDS control and development of proper diagnostics for HIV-1 in China.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH-1/genética , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , China/epidemiología , Genotipo , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Proteasa del VIH/genética , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Mutación , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/uso terapéutico , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
4.
Euro Surveill ; 25(45)2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183404

RESUMEN

We analysed factors associated with neutralising antibody levels in 330 convalescent plasma donors. Women and younger donors were more likely not to have measurable neutralising antibodies, while higher antibody levels were observed in men, in older donors and in those who had been hospitalised. These data will be of value in the timely recruitment of convalescent plasma donors most likely to have high levels of neutralising antibodies for ongoing studies investigating its effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Donantes de Sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalización , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/uso terapéutico , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Inglaterra , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Factores Sexuales
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5744, 2020 11 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184284

RESUMEN

The world is combating an ongoing COVID-19 pandemic with health-care systems, society and economies impacted in an unprecedented way. It is unclear how many people have contracted the causative coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) unknowingly and are asymptomatic. Therefore, reported COVID-19 cases do not reflect the true scale of outbreak. Here we present the prevalence and distribution of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in a healthy adult population of the Netherlands, which is a highly affected country, using a high-performance immunoassay. Our results indicate that one month into the outbreak (i) the seroprevalence in the Netherlands was 2.7% with substantial regional variation, (ii) the hardest-hit areas showed a seroprevalence of up to 9.5%, (iii) the seroprevalence was sex-independent throughout age groups (18-72 years), and (iv) antibodies were significantly more often present in younger people (18-30 years). Our study provides vital information on the extent of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in a country where social distancing is in place.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedades Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Aislamiento Social , Adulto Joven
6.
Clin Lab ; 66(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073955

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While RT-PCR assays are used routinely to diagnose active COVID-19, serological testing offers a means of identifying individuals who previously experienced asymptomatic infections, as well as those who experienced symptomatic infections but no longer carry the virus. METHODS: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positive antibodies in the sera of 673 blood donors residing in south-western Germany before and 3,880 donors after the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic was determined and confirmed using two highly sensitive serological tests. RESULTS: Approximately 0.40% of the donors assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic possessed SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positive antibodies, decidedly fewer than the percentage of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals determined by real-time RT-PCR nationwide. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the efficacy serological testing in identifying asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Enfermedades Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 736, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028232

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is associated with potential risks of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). Different strategies are needed to monitor blood safety and screen the donors' efficacy, such as evaluation of the prevalence and trends of TTIs. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and trends of TTIs, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV 1/2), and the impact of the donors' characteristics such as age, sex, and donor status on the prevalence of TTIs in blood donors in seven large provinces of Iran from 2010 to 2018. METHODS: This study was conducted on the data collected from all blood donations in seven Iranian Blood Transfusion Centers including Ardabil, Alborz, Guilan, West Azarbaijan, North, Razavi, and South Khorasan from April 2010 to March 2018. Demographic characteristics, number of donations, donor status, and screening and confirmatory serological results of all blood donations were collected from Iranian Blood Transfusion Organizations (IBTO) national database. The prevalence and trend of HBV, HCV, HIV, and HTLV 1/2 infections were reported according to the donation year and donor's characteristics. RESULTS: The analysis of the prevalence and trend of TTIs in 3,622,860 blood donors showed a significant decreasing trend in first-time and regular donors. Additionally, compared to first- time donors, regular donors made safer blood donations with lower risks of HBV, HIV, HCV and HTLV 1/2 (P < 0.0001). Although the prevalence of HTLV 1/2 and HBV was higher in females, TTIs had a significant decreasing trend in males and females. Finally, it was found that the prevalence of HBV and HTLV 1/2 increased with age up to 40-49 years and then decreased thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: The decreasing trends of TTIs in Iranian donors during 9 years may indicate that the various strategies implemented by IBTO have been effective in recent years. Other factors such as a decrease in the prevalence of specific TTIs in the general population might have also contributed to these declines.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad de la Sangre , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por HTLV-I/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Reacción a la Transfusión/diagnóstico , Reacción a la Transfusión/epidemiología , Reacción a la Transfusión/virología , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238933, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966326

RESUMEN

Serum levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 17 (IL-17), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), cytokines involved in the immune response, were investigated in 75 Leishmania-positive blood donors living in endemic areas. Based on their status in 2011 and 2015, the subjects were clustered into three groups: positive for at least one diagnostic method in both years, but lacking clinical progression to disease (G1); positive on at least one method in 2011 but negative in 2015 (G2); negative on all methods in both years (G3). Donors were interviewed for sociodemographic data collection and underwent clinical evaluation and laboratory tests. Serum cytokines were quantified using a CBA Flex set (BD Biosciences). Significant differences were found for all the cytokines evaluated, with lower concentrations in consistently Leishmania-negative individuals. The exception was IFN-γ, with similar levels among all donors. No changes consistent with active disease were observed in the laboratory results for Leishmania-positive donors who underwent clinical evaluation, none of whom progressed to disease. This suggests that infection control is associated with serum IL-17 levels. Resolution of Leishmania infection in positive donors may be related to high levels of IL-17 and low levels of IL-10, highlighting the role played by IL-17 in asymptomatic Leishmania-infected individuals.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Citocinas/sangre , Leishmania/inmunología , Leishmaniasis/inmunología , Adulto , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Femenino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangre , Interleucina-17/sangre , Leishmaniasis/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Regulación hacia Arriba , Adulto Joven
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 617, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819294

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Millions of lives around the world are being saved annually through blood transfusion. However, blood transfusion is among the essential vehicles for transmitting infections. The overall prevalence of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among blood donors differs around the world, reflecting the variation in the prevalence of these infections. This study aims to assess the prevalence and trends of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among blood donors in Qatar. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study utilizing donation records of 5 years from January 2013 to December 2017. We included in the study results for all screening and confirmatory tests for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Human T-lymphotropic Virus-I/II, Syphilis and Malaria. RESULTS: Among the 190,509 donations received at the donation centre during the study period, about 91% of donations were received from males and 9% from females. The overall positivity rate for all tests was 1.87, 2.23, 1.78, 2.31, 2.67% for the years 2013 through 2017, with an increasing yearly trend by 6% each year. The overall positivity rates for Hepatitis C Virus, Human T-lymphotropic Virus-I/II, Hepatitis B Virus, Syphilis and Malaria (2013-2017) were 0.60, 0.18, 0.30, 0.43 and 0.20%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall positivity rate of all tests combined for the Transfusion Transmissible Infections demonstrated a gradually increasing trend from 2013 to 2017. However, the trend for each infection (Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Syphilis and Malaria) was fluctuating except for Human T-lymphotropic Virus-I/II, which was increasing. Supporting the development of effective prevention and control strategies requires further comprehensive investigations for better estimation of the burden of these infections.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Reacción a la Transfusión/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por HTLV-II/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Qatar/epidemiología , Sífilis/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 69, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638883

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. This study reports crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, population weighted prevalence for the state, and prevalence adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression models were used to establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. For the analysis, we considered collection period and site, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. RESULTS The proportion of positive tests for SARS-Cov-2, without any adjustment, was 4.0% (95%CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95%CI 3.1-4.5%). We found lower estimates after adjusting for test sensitivity and specificity: 3.6% (95%CI 2.7-4.4%) for the non-weighted prevalence, and 3.3% (95%CI 2.6-4.1%) for the weighted prevalence. Collection period was the variable most significantly associated with crude prevalence: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the younger the blood donor, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the education level, the higher the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 antibody. We found similar results for weighted prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Our findings comply with some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, as the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; and the higher prevalence among both the youngest, for moving around more than older age groups, and the less educated, for encountering more difficulties in following social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, we may infer that Rio de Janeiro is far from reaching the required levels of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Análisis de Regresión , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 249-251, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623079

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To metagenomically analyse blood units originating from the Brazilian Amazon and positive for parenterally transmitted infections (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), Chagas disease or syphilis). METHODS: Twenty plasma samples (35% HBV-positive, 10% HIV-positive, 10% HCV-positive, 20% positive for syphilis, 20% for Chagas disease, and 5% for HTLV) assembled in pools were analysed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing. The obtained raw sequencing data were submitted to a bioinformatic pipeline set up for identification of emerging viruses. The viral reads of interest were phylogenetically analysed and confirmed by PCR in the individual samples. RESULTS: The metagenomic analysis identified contigs belonging to the emerging human Gemykibivirus-2 (HuGkV-2) in two pools. The HuGkV-1 phylogeny demonstrated that the Amazonian isolate formed a separate cluster with other HuGkV-2 strains obtained from human hosts. The PCR confirmation detected HuGkV-1 DNA in three individual samples (15%). CONCLUSIONS: HuGkV-2 is an emerging virus with unknown clinical impact. The detection of HuGkV-2 DNA in blood donations positive for parenterally transmitted infections showed that HuGkV-2 can be considered as an opportunistic viral agent with a hypothetic parenteral transmission route.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Sangre/virología , Virosis/virología , Virus/genética , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenómica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , Virosis/sangre , Virosis/epidemiología , Virus/clasificación , Adulto Joven
12.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700672

RESUMEN

Most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 are mild or asymptomatic. Therefore, many cases remain unrecorded. We determined seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 3,186 regular blood donors in three German federal states between 9 March and 3 June 2020. The IgG seroprevalence was 0.91% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-1.24) overall, ranging from 0.66% (95% CI: 0.13-1.19) in Hesse to 1.22% (95% CI: 0.33-2.10) in Lower-Saxony.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700670

RESUMEN

Serological reactivity was analysed in plasma from 436 individuals with a history of disease compatible with COVID-19, including 256 who had been laboratory-confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Over 99% of laboratory-confirmed cases developed a measurable antibody response (254/256) and 88% harboured neutralising antibodies (226/256). Antibody levels declined over 3 months following diagnosis, emphasising the importance of the timing of convalescent plasma collections. Binding antibody measurements can inform selection of convalescent plasma donors with high neutralising antibody levels.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/uso terapéutico , Especificidad de Anticuerpos , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Inglaterra , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235612, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649673

RESUMEN

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) distribution in China shows significant geographical and demographic difference. As a routinely tested virus in Chinese blood bank systems, rare molecular epidemiology research in blood donors is reported. Our purpose is to investigate the HCV GT/subtypes distribution, phylogenetic analysis and population genetics in Chinese blood donors. Anti-HCV screen positive samples and donor demographics were collected. HCV Core and E1 gene fragments were amplified by RT-PCR, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to determine HCV GTs/subtypes using MEGA 7.0. The population genetics were performed using Arlequin v3.0 and Beast v1.10.4. SPSS Statistics 17.0 software was used to analyze the correlation between HCV GTs/subtypes distribution and demographic characteristics. 419 and 293 samples based on Core and E1 gene respectively were successfully amplified. HCV la, lb, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6e and 6n were found, and the corresponding proportions were 0.66% (3/455), 58.68% (267/455), 17.80% (81/455) and 5.05% (23/455), 3.52% (16/455), 12.31% (56/455), 0.88% (4/455) and 0.66% (3/455). Samples from Guangxi showed the most abundant genetic diversity with 8 subtypes were found. The number of haplotypes in HCV-1b is higher than 2a and 6a. The negative Tajima's D and Fu's Fs values of HCV-1b, 2a and 6a suggested the population expansion of those HCV subtypes. The distribution of HCV GT showed significant statistical difference by age and ethnicity. Conclusion: An abundance of HCV genetic diversity was found in Chinese blood donors with mainly 1b and then 2a subtype. There were significant geographical and demographic differences in HCV GTs/subtypes among Chinese blood donors. HCV subtype 1b has stronger viability and HCV subtype 6a has experienced significant expansion.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Evolución Molecular , Genotipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Adulto , China , Femenino , Genoma Viral/genética , Hepacivirus/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , Adulto Joven
15.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200047, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491049

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To clarify that one of the causes for the decrease in blood donation (BD) rates was the introduction of the 400 ml BD program in 1986. METHOD: BP rates were monitored over 48 years (1965-2012) and were divided into pre- and post-intervention periods prior to analysis. An interrupted time series analysis was performed using annual data on BD rates, and the impact of the 400 ml BD program was investigated. RESULTS: In a raw series, autoregressive integrated moving average analysis revealed a significant change in slope between the pre- and post-intervention periods in which the intervention factor was the 400 ml BD program. The parameters were as follows: intercept (initial value) = 0.315, confidence interval (CI) = (0.029, 0.601); slope (pre-intervention) = 0.316, CI = (0.293, 0.340); slope difference = -0.435, CI = (-0.462, -0.408); slope (post-intervention) = -0.119, CI = (-0.135, -0.103); all, p = 0.000; goodness-of-fit, R2 = 0.963. After adjusting for stationarity and autocorrelation, the parameters were as follows: intercept (initial value) = -0.699, CI = (-0.838, -0.560); slope (pre-intervention) = 0.136, CI = (0.085, 0.187); slope difference = -0.165, CI = (-0.247, -0.083); slope (post-intervention) = -0.029, CI = (-0.070, 0.012); all, p = 0.000 (except for slope (post-intervention), p = 0.170); goodness-of-fit, R2 = 0.930. CONCLUSION: One of the causes for decrease in BD rates may be due to the introduction of the 400 ml BD program in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Japón , Masculino , Valores de Referencia , Factores de Tiempo
16.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200026, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578708

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has a single-stranded RNA genome and expresses specific proteins that have oncogenic potential. Approximately 15 to 20 million people worldwide have been infected by this virus. Changes in protein or gene expression are the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene. The function and efficacy of signal transduction also lead to modified immune responses. The present study aimed to investigate the association of SNPs within TLR3 (rs3775291 and rs3775296) with susceptibility to HTLV-1 infection in Iranian asymptomatic blood donors. METHODS: This study was performed on 100 HTLV-1-infected asymptomatic blood donors and 118 healthy blood donors. Genomic DNA from all participants was purified and then amplified using specific PCR primers. SNPs within TLR3 were evaluated using the restriction fragmentation length polymorphism technique, and the results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 22). RESULTS: The frequencies of the TLR3 (rs3775296) CC, CA, AA genotypes were 70%, 24%, and 6% in the patient group, and 50.8%, 44.9%, and 4.2% in the control group, respectively. There was a significant difference in the frequency distribution of TLR3 (rs3775296) genotypes and alleles, but not in the frequency distribution of TLR3 (rs3775291) genotypes between the patient and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: The TLR3 SNP rs3775296 was significantly associated with HTLV-1 infection and may be a protective factor against this viral infection.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por HTLV-I/genética , Virus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 3/genética , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Infecciones por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
17.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503934

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Teenagers aged 16 to 18 are at increased risk for iron deficiency, exacerbated by losses with whole blood (WB) or double red blood cell (2RBC) donations. Required 56-day (WB) or 112-day (2RBC) interdonation intervals (IDIs) are too short for many to replace lost iron without supplements. METHODS: Teenagers donating WB or 2RBCs at Vitalant, a national blood provider, had serum ferritin measured at their first and immediately subsequent successful donation from December 2016 to 2018. We modeled postindex log-ferritin as a function of IDI to estimate the shortest intervals that corresponded with 50% to 95% prevalence of adequate donor iron stores (ferritin ≥20 ng/mL female donors, ≥30 ng/mL male donors) at the subsequent donation. RESULTS: Among 30 806 teenagers, 11.4% of female and 9.7% of male donors had inadequate iron stores at index donation. Overall, 92.6% had follow-up ferritin values within 13 months. Approximately 12 months after WB index donations, >60% of female and >80% of male donors had adequate iron stores (>50% and >70% after 2RBC donations). Follow-up-donation iron stores were highly dependent on index ferritin. Less than half of WB donors with low ferritin at index achieved adequate stores within 12 months. Achieving a ≥90% prevalence of adequate ferritin at 12 months required index values >50 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that postdonation low-dose iron supplements should be strongly encouraged in teenagers with borderline or low iron stores to permit donation without increased risk for symptoms of mild iron depletion. Increasing the minimum recommended IDI to allow time for replacing donation-related iron losses may be desirable for teenagers.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Ferritinas/sangre , Hierro/metabolismo , Adolescente , Estudios de Cohortes , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Hierro/deficiencia , Compuestos de Hierro/administración & dosificación , Trastornos del Metabolismo del Hierro/etiología , Trastornos del Metabolismo del Hierro/prevención & control , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 27(3): 147-151, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386966

RESUMEN

Due to the government's early intervention such as mass lockdown and curtailment strategies towards mass gatherings, amid the COVID-19 outbreak, the organization of the voluntary blood donation camps have been suspended. It's most significant impact on the blood community has been a dramatic decrease in the number of blood donors. Therefore, our blood stock has almost dried up and put our inventory in a state of jeopardy. Additionally, all the elective surgeries and non-urgent clinical interventions have also been deferred during this time. This has led to a drop in the blood collection, demand as well as the issue at our blood center. With this backdrop, we intended to assess the effect of this mass lockdown on our blood supply management, particularly in two phases [phase-I prior to the outbreak] and phase-II [during the outbreak]. Transitioning back to the normal conditions would most likely depend on the extent and the time duration of this pandemic and associated behavioural change, which is foreseen to remain in effect well beyond the original estimates.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Sangre/organización & administración , Donantes de Sangre/provisión & distribución , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Centros Médicos Académicos , Bancos de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Transfusión Sanguínea/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria
19.
Vox Sang ; 115(6): 536-542, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384164
20.
Transfusion ; 60(5): 965-973, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359217

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men in Australia are currently ineligible to donate blood (are "deferred") for 12 months since last oral or anal sexual contact with another man. In Australia and overseas, there has been limited research on attitudes and perceptions related to blood donation in this population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Questions on blood donation histories and attitudes toward the deferral policy were included in the questionnaire of an online prospective cohort of gay and bisexual men (GBM) living in Australia. RESULTS: In 2018, 1595 GBM responded to the survey. In this sample, 28.7% reported previously donating blood. Among the remaining men who had never donated blood, 64.5% expressed an interest in doing so. Nearly all men indicated they were not willing to abstain from sex with another man for 12 months in order to donate, and the vast majority believed the rule was unfair, too strict, and homophobic. Three-quarters (77.7%) said that if the policy changed, they would likely donate blood. Age and openness about one's sexuality were independently associated with one's willingness to donate blood in the absence of the deferral. CONCLUSION: There was a high level of willingness and desire to donate blood among GBM. However, rather than abstaining from sex in order to donate, many men comply with the deferral policy and do not donate. A less conservative deferral policy may increase donations from GBM.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Bisexualidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Donantes de Sangre/psicología , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Bisexualidad/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Selección de Donante/legislación & jurisprudencia , Selección de Donante/normas , Selección de Donante/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Seguimiento , Política de Salud , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Participación del Paciente/psicología , Participación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Personas Transgénero/estadística & datos numéricos , Volición , Voluntarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
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