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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1526, 2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750781

RESUMEN

The past 40 years in Southeast Asia have seen about 50% of lowland rainforests converted to oil palm and other plantations, and much of the remaining forest heavily logged. Little is known about how fragmentation influences recovery and whether climate change will hamper restoration. Here, we use repeat airborne LiDAR surveys spanning the hot and dry 2015-16 El Niño Southern Oscillation event to measure canopy height growth across 3,300 ha of regenerating tropical forests spanning a logging intensity gradient in Malaysian Borneo. We show that the drought led to increased leaf shedding and branch fall. Short forest, regenerating after heavy logging, continued to grow despite higher evaporative demand, except when it was located close to oil palm plantations. Edge effects from the plantations extended over 300 metres into the forests. Forest growth on hilltops and slopes was particularly impacted by the combination of fragmentation and drought, but even riparian forests located within 40 m of oil palm plantations lost canopy height during the drought. Our results suggest that small patches of logged forest within plantation landscapes will be slow to recover, particularly as ENSO events are becoming more frequent.


Asunto(s)
El Niño Oscilación del Sur/efectos adversos , Bosques , Árboles , Clima Tropical , Arecaceae , Asia Sudoriental , Borneo , Cambio Climático , Sequías , Ecología , Humanos , Malasia , Hojas de la Planta , Bosque Lluvioso
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 2089-2100, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742844

RESUMEN

A scientific performance evaluation of the regional water ecological civilization construction and clarifying the obstacle factor are key points to improve the performance of regional water ecological civilization construction theory. This study analyzes the coupling relationship between humans and regional water ecology by applying the thinking logic of "driving force-pressure-state-influence-response-management." The regional water ecological civilization construction performance evaluation index system based on the DPSIRM model was established. Combining the unascertained measurement model and obstacle diagnosis model, the water ecological civilization construction performance of Shizuishan City during the past 10 years was empirically evaluated, and the obstacle factors affecting local construction performance were diagnosed and analyzed. The analytical results reveal the following points:First, the performance of the water ecological civilization construction in Shizuishan City gradually increased annually and revealed three development stages:the site visit and slow improvement (2010-2014), intermediate but fast improvement (2015-2017) and good and fast improvement (2018-2019). Second, each subsystem performance index trend varied, but generally, the fluctuations rose. Third, from 2010 to 2014, the average obstacle degree of the subsystem state, subsystem response, and subsystem pressure reached 58.81%, which became the main obstacles restricting the performance of the local water ecological civilization construction. From 2015 to 2017, the average pressure barrier degree reached 21.73%, which was the most significant obstacle to the construction performance. From 2018 to 2019, the average pressure barrier degree remained the largest obstacle by reaching 24.49%. Lastly, the index barrier of the obstacle degree among the top five factors are primarily distributed in the pressure subsystem. A comprehensive frequency ranking of the obstacles, the irrigation water use coefficient, and the pressure of the water consumption per ten thousand yuan of value-added by industry as a representative subsystem are the key directions to future construction. In this paper, the concepts and methods of the research can provide a theoretical reference for the performance evaluation of regional water ecological civilization construction and its obstacle factor diagnosis analysis.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Agua , China , Ciudades , Civilización , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecología , Humanos , Industrias
4.
EMBO Rep ; 22(4): e52757, 2021 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759327

RESUMEN

The ongoing lockdowns provide ideal conditions to study the relationship between wildlife and humans but among humans themselves.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecología , Humanidades , Humanos
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 771-787, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754542

RESUMEN

Ecosystem management at large scales is one of the core solutions to solve current global challenges of environmental and resources problem, mitigate climate change, govern ecosystems and environments regionally and achieve sustainable development. It is also a hotspot in the research and practice of conservation of global natural resources and ecosystems. Based on recalling and synthesizing of several large international actions on ecosystem management in the past two decades, this article rethought the concept of ecosystem management and its application from the perspective of discipline development of ecosystem management, theoretical fundaments and practices. The content included three parts: firstly, we reviewed the development of the scientific concept and practice of ecosystem management, discussed the connotations of the concept and redefined it, and summarized the practice of ecosystem management and its contribution to the development of the discipline. Secondly, we clarified the scientific and technological mission and basic tasks of ecosystem management, organized the discipline system of ecosystem management and its main research fields, summarized fundamental theories and the knowledge system of the science of ecosystem management, and clarified critical steps of ecosystem management actions, basic elements of management plans and management approaches. Finally, we proposed new trends of scientific research and the discipline development of ecosystem management, discussed the important spatial scales and its objects system of the scientific research on ecosystem management, proposed the cutting-edge scientific questions of global ecosystem management, integrative ecology thought and macro ecosystem approach. This review aimed at providing references for the scientific research and discipline deve-lopment of ecosystem management in China.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , China , Cambio Climático , Ecología
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 1080-1086, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754575

RESUMEN

We analyzed the feeding ecology of Cynoglossus joyneri by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis based on the samples collected from the bottom trawl surveys during spring and autumn of 2018 in Haizhou Bay, China. The results showed that the δ13C and δ15N values of C. joyneri ranged from -20.75‰ to -15.91‰ and from 5.98‰ to 12.02‰, respectively. The mean values of the δ13C and δ15N were (-17.79±1.00)‰ and (9.37±1.33)‰, respectively. There was a significantly negative correlation between the δ13C values and standard length and a positive correlation between the δ15N values and standard length. The mean trophic level of C. joyneri was (3.43±0.97). There was a significantly positive correlation between the trophic level and standard length. The dominant prey groups of C. joyneri were fish, crabs, shrimps, mollusca, polychaeta, plankton and particle organic matter (POM). The trophic contribution of shrimps was the highest among these prey groups. The trophic contribution of fish, crabs and shrimps was higher in autumn than those in spring. This study would help to understand the role of C. joyneri in the material cycling and energy flow in Haizhou Bay ecosystem, and provide scientific basis for the protection and rational utilization of this species.


Asunto(s)
Bahías , Ecosistema , Animales , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , China , Ecología , Cadena Alimentaria , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 161, 2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665737

RESUMEN

In this study, the regional pole-axis system (urban/town areas and multi-level roads) where human production and living activities are concentrated was recognized as the main regional ecological risk source space; in contrast, multi-type ecosystems, such as wetland/waterbody and forestland and cropland with significant ecosystem service provisioning function, were identified as the main regional ecological risk receptor spaces. Based on this regional ecological risk source/receptor space division scheme, related ecological risk source/receptor indicators were chosen to characterize the spatial heterogeneities of human activities and ecological capital distribution within the study area. Among them, the Defense Meteorological Program Operational Line-Scan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light intensity and normalized density of multi-level roads data were employed as regional ecological risk source indicators, whereas the ecosystem service value of multi-ecosystems was employed as a regional ecological risk receptor indicator. Then, combined with regional eco-environmental vulnerability indexes, a regional ecological risk assessment framework was established and practiced in the Tongjiang-Fuyuan region, a wetland-concentrated area of the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that (1) the DMSP/OLS nighttime light intensity data matched the distribution of regional urban/town areas and farms well, and it was reasonable to employ this dataset to represent the scope of regional production-living land space; (2) regional ecological space, such as wetlands and forestlands, had a higher ecological risk grade; (3) because of their higher human disturbance severity and ecological vulnerability level, regional settlement points (county seats and farms) had the highest ecological risk, whereas agricultural land space, occupying the largest area of the region, had the lowest ecological risk level; and finally, (4) in terms of proportion, the low, medium, high, and very high risk grades accounted for 71.66%, 17.13%, 8.43%, and 2.78% of the study area, respectively. Based on the results, a series of approaches, which can be adopted to promote regional sustainable development of the Tongjiang-Fuyuan region, were discussed, such as spatial governance of wetlands by establishing nature reserves, coordination of economic exploitation activities within forestlands, setup of a spatial expansion boundary of urban/town/farm areas, and tradeoffs between production and ecology functions of croplands.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , China , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Ecología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200528, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656141

RESUMEN

Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811) is the triatomine with the largest geographic distribution in Latin America. It has been reported in 18 countries from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, including the Caribbean islands. Although most reports indicate that P. geniculatus has wild habitats, this species has intrusive habits regarding human dwellings mainly located in intermediate deforested areas. It is attracted by artificial light from urban and rural buildings, raising the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the wide body of published information on P. geniculatus, many knowledge gaps exist about its biology and epidemiological potential. For this reason, we analysed the literature for P. geniculatus in Scopus, PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar and the BibTriv3.0 databases to update existing knowledge and provide better information on its geographic distribution, life cycle, genetic diversity, evidence of intrusion and domiciliation, vector-related circulating discrete taxonomic units, possible role in oral T. cruzi transmission, and the effect of climate change on its biology and epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/transmisión , Insectos Vectores/parasitología , Panstrongylus/genética , Panstrongylus/parasitología , Triatoma/parasitología , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animales , Biología , Ecología , Genes de Insecto , Variación Genética/genética , Genotipo , Geografía , Humanos , Insectos Vectores/genética , América Latina , Panstrongylus/fisiología , Filogenia , Trypanosoma cruzi/aislamiento & purificación
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 377-391, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650346

RESUMEN

Large-scale terrestrial ecosystem science research becomes an important research field with the promotion of meeting the scientific demand of biodiversity conservation, global climate change mitigation, regional eco-environment governance, and social sustainable development. It is developing rapidly under the guidance of China's ecological civilization construction strategy. Here, we systematically discussed the missions, theoretical foundation and methodology of large-scale terrestrial ecosystem science research and proposed a new theoretical foundation, conceptual system and logical framework for macroecosystem science research on the basis of macrosystem ecology theory. It elaborated the discipline connotation and application of the macroecosystem science to 1) deve-lop the conceptual network of ecosystem science based on the systematic characteristics of ecosystems; 2) develop the theoretical system of ecosystem state change analysis based on the ecosystem integrity and emergence characteristics; 3) develop the theoretical system of integrated research for ecosystem structure-process-function-service cascade relationship based on the attributes and state of ecosystems. We also discussed the methodology and technical system of regional and continental macroecosystem science research, and highlighted the urgency to construct a new generation of continental ecosystem observation and research network, and to develop the network observation-network experiment-numerical simulation-knowledge fusion four-in-one infrastructures.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecología
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 406-414, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650349

RESUMEN

Loss of mobility in rangeland use has emerged as a dominant theory to explain ecosystem degradation in the research area of rangeland ecology. The loss of mobility in rangeland use in China resulted from multiple interacting natural and social factors as well as policy changes. Re-establi-shing mobility in rangeland use is critical to rangeland restoration and sustainable management in China. However, the recovery of rangeland might be difficult through simply reverting to traditional rotational grazing. Alternatively, we explored various state-of-the-art rangeland management techniques, including smart fence, intelligent wearables for livestock, and rapid forage biomass measurement using drones. Such novel rangeland management techniques could be used in different regions with different climate and vegetation in China to re-establish mobility in rangeland utilization. Paired with these advanced techniques, new rotational high-mobility grazing systems could further integrate with other essential measures of grass-livestock husbandry in China, such as balancing of forage production and livestock grazing, supplemental forage of livestock, and replenishment of soil nutrients in rangeland. All these practices would ensure a more sustainable and effective utilization of rangeland in China.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Pradera , Animales , China , Ecología , Ganado
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 711-718, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650381

RESUMEN

The drastic changes or threshold phenomena of ecosystems in response to environmental changes are main research focuses in ecology. However, the difficulty in quantitative detection of ecological thresholds hinders the further research progress and application of this topic. Based on typical cases, we analzyed the driving-response mechanism of S-shaped curve type, subsidy-stress type, step type of the potential ecological thresholds. Seven methods to determine ecological thre-shold were summarized, including locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, piecewise regression, Gaussian model, change-point analyzer, regime shift detection, threshold indicator taxa analysis and system dynamics simulation model. The advantages, disadvantages and applicability of those methods were also addressed. This study could provide references for quantitative detection of ecological threshold.


Asunto(s)
Ecología , Ecosistema
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 737-749, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650384

RESUMEN

The value realization of agro-ecological products is of great significance to China's food security, ecological protection, and strategic blueprint. We reviewed the concepts and boundaries of agricultural ecosystem and agro-ecological products (including agricultural products, other ecosystem services and dis-services). Based on the emergy method, the agricultural ecosystem service quantification method was proposed and the ecosystem services and dis-services of typical agricultu-ral products per unit area in China were calculated. Further, the type-specific values realization pathways of the agro-ecological products were discussed. It was found that 1) the values of the agro-ecological products, which has been realized through market mechanism, can further be added by the means of increasing green degrees or special degree, and establishing agricultural industrial chains; 2) the values of the agro-ecological products, which have not yet been realized through market mechanism, should be compensated or realized through ecological product empowerment and regional shared brand quality commitment; 3) the values of the agro-ecological products can be preserved or increased through reducing the harmfulness of N, P, pesticides and insecticides to ecosystem and human health by multi-approaches-based GHG emission reduction, land nutrient management strategies, and rational landscape architecture; 4) some financial solutions can be promoted, e.g., cancellation of secondary agricultural subsidies, the establishment of ecological trading platform and the certification of ecological products. This study contributes to propose the value realization pathways of agro-ecological products, advance the development of green finance, and promote the modernization of natural resource management capabilities.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Agricultura , China , Ecología , Humanos
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1198, 2021 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608528

RESUMEN

Understanding how species' thermal limits have evolved across the tree of life is central to predicting species' responses to climate change. Here, using experimentally-derived estimates of thermal tolerance limits for over 2000 terrestrial and aquatic species, we show that most of the variation in thermal tolerance can be attributed to a combination of adaptation to current climatic extremes, and the existence of evolutionary 'attractors' that reflect either boundaries or optima in thermal tolerance limits. Our results also reveal deep-time climate legacies in ectotherms, whereby orders that originated in cold paleoclimates have presently lower cold tolerance limits than those with warm thermal ancestry. Conversely, heat tolerance appears unrelated to climate ancestry. Cold tolerance has evolved more quickly than heat tolerance in endotherms and ectotherms. If the past tempo of evolution for upper thermal limits continues, adaptive responses in thermal limits will have limited potential to rescue the large majority of species given the unprecedented rate of contemporary climate change.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Termotolerancia/fisiología , Adaptación Fisiológica , Animales , Clima , Cambio Climático , Planeta Tierra , Ecología , Calor , Temperatura
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530422

RESUMEN

The surfaces of grapes are covered by different yeast species that are important in the first stages of the fermentation process. In recent years, non-Saccharomyces yeasts such as Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and Pichia kluyveri have become popular with regard to winemaking and improved wine quality. For that reason, several manufacturers started to offer commercially available strains of these non-Saccharomyces species. P. kluyveri stands out, mainly due to its contribution to wine aroma, glycerol, ethanol yield, and killer factor. The metabolism of the yeast allows it to increase volatile molecules such as esters and varietal thiols (aroma-active compounds), which increase the quality of specific varietal wines or neutral ones. It is considered a low- or non-fermentative yeast, so subsequent inoculation of a more fermentative yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae is indispensable to achieve a proper fermented alcohol. The impact of P. kluyveri is not limited to the grape wine industry; it has also been successfully employed in beer, cider, durian, and tequila fermentation, among others, acting as a promising tool in those fermentation processes. Although no Pichia species other than P. kluyveri is available in the regular market, several recent scientific studies show interesting improvements in some wine quality parameters such as aroma, polysaccharides, acid management, and color stability. This could motivate yeast manufacturers to develop products based on those species in the near future.


Asunto(s)
Bioingeniería , Fermentación , Microbiología Industrial , Pichia/metabolismo , Vino , Bioingeniería/métodos , Ecología , Calidad de los Alimentos , Pichia/clasificación , Vitis/química , Vitis/microbiología , Vino/análisis , Vino/normas
15.
Mol Ecol ; 30(6): 1357-1360, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545743

RESUMEN

Oftentimes, to understand the genetic relatedness and diversity of today's populations requires considering the ancient landscape on which those populations evolved. Nowhere is this clearer than along Earth's coastline, which has been in its present-day configuration for only about 6.5% of the past 800,000 years (Dolby et al., 2020; Miller et al., 2005). During ice ages when glaciers expanded in the Northern Hemisphere, they stored enough of the planet's water to drop global sea level by ~120 m below present levels ("lowstand", Figure 1a), and there have been at least eight of these 100,000-year cycles preceding today. When glaciers melted, ocean water reflooded shorelines, shifting and re-forming marginal marine habitats globally and shaping the relatedness of populations (Dolby et al., 2016). In a From the Cover article in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Stiller et al. (2020) integrate population genomic analysis of leafy seadragons in southern Australia with estimates of available seabed area to reveal that the expansion of habitat that accompanied this reflooding led to strong demographic expansions. With statistical models, they also show that western populations were eliminated and then recolonized because the continental shelf there is narrow, leaving little available habitat when sea level was low (Figure 1b). Their results document the dynamic and interrelated nature of a hidden, changing landscape and the evolution of species inhabiting it.


Asunto(s)
Cubierta de Hielo , Metagenómica , Ecología , Ecosistema , Australia del Sur
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e13, 2021 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599580

RESUMEN

We propose that grounded procedures may help explain psychological variations across cultures. Here we offer a set of novel predictions based on the interplay between the social and physical ecology, chronic sensorimotor experience, and cultural norms.


Asunto(s)
Características Culturales , Ecología , Teoría Fundamentada , Humanos
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 165: 105246, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535137

RESUMEN

Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) sustain a large-scale fishery in the southwest Atlantic Ocean (SWA), but information about its foraging ecology in this region is still limited. Here we use carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analysis of muscle from individuals collected in 2017-2018 (n = 383) to quantify diet composition and characterize movement patterns. We found a relatively small degree of variation in δ13C (range: -18.9 to -16.5‰) in comparison to δ15N values (6.7-14.7‰). At higher latitudes in the southern area (30-34°S), individuals had higher mean (±SD) δ15N values (12.2 ± 1.3‰) in comparison to those collected in the northern area (9.7 ± 1.5‰) between 20-26°S. At the northern area, isotope mixing models with informative priors showed that lanternfish (median: 50%) and krill (31%) were the primary foods. In the southern area, lanternfish (53%), krill (23%) and small pelagic fish (23%) were the primary food sources. Spatial shifts in diet composition were related to warming events that likely resulted in low abundance of sardines in the northern area. The latitudinal pattern in skipjack and krill δ15N values mirrored that of regional zooplankton isoscapes, suggesting residency at the timescale of isotopic turnover for muscle (~2-4 months), and that geographical variation in the baseline isotopic composition can be exploited to characterize seasonal movements of skipjack and other top marine consumers in this region.


Asunto(s)
Isótopos , Atún , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Ecología , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis
18.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112041, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540193

RESUMEN

South Africa's communal rangelands constitute ~25% of the country's land cover and are largely managed for livestock grazing. These habitats play an important role in rural livelihoods and cultural practices. Using semi-structured interviews, we documented indigenous local ecological knowledge (LEK) held by rural dwellers linked to natural resource utilisation, environmental health and cultural keystone indicator species (CKIS) in the grassland communities of southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Our main objective was to examine the ability for LEK to inform conservation management. We found that people who were heavily reliant on natural resources attained a higher LEK score, indicating a greater breadth of ecological knowledge, which in turn shaped their perceptions of environmental change. Community members confirmed the presence of conservation concern species within this area, highlighting the limitations of only using citizen science databases for conservation management, as their observations within these databases are biased towards major road routes and protected or urban areas. LEK can play an important role in identifying habitats crucial to species' persistence and delineating population trends over time. Our surveys highlighted the importance of the Southern Ground-hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri as a CKIS that acts as an early warning system of changing weather, notably rain. However, LEK is context-specific, and some CKIS species such as the Southern Ground-hornbill have wide distribution ranges. Consequently, the cultural associations and implications differ based on local belief systems that are often defined by the language spoken and the community's geographical location. Our study demonstrated the importance of including indigenous LEK in conservation planning for threatened species and habitats and the importance of traditional family values responsible for transferring oral knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Ecología , Ecosistema , Humanos , Conocimiento , Sudáfrica
19.
Am J Bot ; 108(2): 216-235, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576061

RESUMEN

With more than 200 species, the genus Agave is one of the most interesting and complex groups of plants in the world, considering for instance its great diversity and adaptations. The adaptations include the production of a single, massive inflorescence (the largest among plants) where after growing for many years, sometimes more than 30, the rosette dies shortly afterward, and the remarkable coevolution with their main pollinators, nectarivorous bats, in particular of the genus Leptonycteris. The physiological adaptations of Agave species include a photosynthetic metabolism that allows efficient use of water and a large degree of succulence, helping to store water and resources for their massive flowering event. Ecologically, the agaves are keystone species on which numerous animal species depend for their subsistence due to the large amounts of pollen and nectar they produce, that support many pollinators, including bats, perching birds, hummingbirds, moths, and bees. Moreover, in many regions of Mexico and in the southwestern United States, agaves are dominant species. We describe the contributions of H. S. Gentry to the understanding of agaves and review recent advances on the study of the ecology and evolution of the genus. We analyze the present and inferred past distribution patterns of different species in the genus, describing differences in their climatic niche and adaptations to dry conditions. We interpret these patterns using molecular clock data and phylogenetic analyses and information of their coevolving pollinators and from phylogeographic, morphological, and ecological studies and discuss the prospects for their future conservation and management.


Asunto(s)
Agave , Animales , Abejas , Ecología , México , Filogenia , Polinización , Sudoeste de Estados Unidos
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1335, 2021 02 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637740

RESUMEN

Understanding a complex microbial ecosystem such as the human gut microbiome requires information about both microbial species and the metabolites they produce and secrete. These metabolites are exchanged via a large network of cross-feeding interactions, and are crucial for predicting the functional state of the microbiome. However, till date, we only have information for a part of this network, limited by experimental throughput. Here, we propose an ecology-based computational method, GutCP, using which we predict hundreds of new experimentally untested cross-feeding interactions in the human gut microbiome. GutCP utilizes a mechanistic model of the gut microbiome with the explicit exchange of metabolites and their effects on the growth of microbial species. To build GutCP, we combine metagenomic and metabolomic measurements from the gut microbiome with optimization techniques from machine learning. Close to 65% of the cross-feeding interactions predicted by GutCP are supported by evidence from genome annotations, which we provide for experimental testing. Our method has the potential to greatly improve existing models of the human gut microbiome, as well as our ability to predict the metabolic profile of the gut.


Asunto(s)
Ecología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Intestinos/microbiología , Algoritmos , Biología Computacional/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Metaboloma , Metabolómica , Metagenómica , Modelos Biológicos
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