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2.
Ambio ; 49(1): 281-298, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852779

RESUMEN

The main determinants of agricultural employment are related to households' access to private assets and the influence of inherited social-economic stratification and power relationships. However, despite the recommendations of rural studies which have shown the importance of multilevel approaches to rural poverty, very few studies have explored quantitatively the effects of common-pool resources and household livelihood capitals on agricultural employment. Understanding the influence of access to both common-pool resources and private assets on rural livelihoods can enrich our understanding of the drivers of rural poverty in agrarian societies, which is central to achieving sustainable development pathways. Based on a participatory assessment conducted in rural communities in India, this paper differentiates two levels of livelihood capitals (household capitals and community capitals) and quantifies them using national census data and remotely sensed satellite sensor data. We characterise the effects of these two levels of livelihood capitals on precarious agricultural employment by using multilevel logistic regression. Our study brings a new perspective on livelihood studies and rural economics by demonstrating that common-pool resources and private assets do not have the same effect on agricultural livelihoods. It identifies that a lack of access to human, financial and social capitals at the household level increases the levels of precarious agricultural employment, such as daily-wage agricultural labour. Households located in communities with greater access to collective natural capital are less likely to be agricultural labourers. The statistical models also show that proximity to rural centres and access to financial infrastructures increase the likelihood of being a landless agricultural labourer. These findings suggest that investment in rural infrastructure might increase livelihood vulnerability, if not accompanied by an improvement in the provisioning of complementary rural services, such as access to rural finance, and by the implementation of agricultural tenancy laws to protect smallholders' productive assets.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza , Población Rural , Agricultura , Países en Desarrollo , Economía , Empleo , Composición Familiar , Humanos , India , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25065, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047345

RESUMEN

Neste artigo, nós refletimos sobre as possibilidade e responsabilidades da pedagogia crítica em relação ao neoliberalismo e a Educação Física. Ao explorar essas ideias, nós também discutimos os problemas da definição, bem como o colapso e confusão de termos como pedagogia crítica, pesquisa crítica e saúde crítica e Educação Física, bem como a problemática posição do neoliberalismo nos estudos críticos. Embora exista um crescente corpo de pesquisas que iluminam as nuanças e onipresença das políticas e práticas neoliberais em HPE -tanto em contextos globais e em contextos sociais específicos ­ nós argumentamos que ainda existe mais trabalho a ser feito para identificar como o trabalho pedagógico crítico pode dirigir-se (ou ao menos tentar) aos efeitos do neoliberalismo. Ao fim, continua a existir o perigo de que a pedagogia crítica em tempos neoliberais possa transmitir, em vez de contestar, os piores efeitos da escolarização neoliberal e do neoliberalismo em saúde e Educação Física


In this article, we reflect on the possibilities and responsibilities of critical pedagogy in relation to neoliberalism and physical education. In exploring these ideas, we also discuss problems of definition, such as the collapse and confusion of terms like critical pedagogy, critical research, and critical health and PE, as well the problematic positioning of 'neoliberalism' in critical scholarship. Although there is a growing body of research that illuminates the nuances and pervasiveness of neoliberal HPE policies and practices ­ both globally and in specific social contexts ­ we argue that there is still more work to be done to identify how critical pedagogical work may address (or at least attend to) the effects of neoliberalism. After all, there remains a 'danger' that critical pedagogy in neoliberal times may forward, rather than contest, the worst effects of neoliberal schooling and neoliberal HPE


En este artículo, reflexionamos sobre las posibilidades y las responsabilidades de la pedagogía crítica en relación al neoliberalismo y la Educación Física. Además de explorar estas ideas, debatimos los problemas de la definición, así como el colapso y la confusión de los términos como pedagogía crítica, investigación crítica, salud crítica y Educación Física, así como la problemática del neoliberalismo en los estudios críticos. Si bien hay un creciente cuerpo de investigaciones que iluminan los matices y la omnipresencia de las políticas y practicas neoliberales en HPE ­ tanto en los contextos globales como sociales específicos ­ nosotros argumentamos que ha todavia más trabajo por hacer para identificar como el trabajo pedagógico puede dirigirse (o por lo menos intentar) a los efectos del neoliberalismo. Al ultimo, sigue existiendo el peligro de que la pedagogía crítica en tiempos neoliberales pueda transmitir, en lugar de cuestionar, los peores efectos de la escolarización neoliberal y del neoliberalismo en salud y Educación Física


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Enseñanza , Educación en Salud , Economía/tendencias
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007430, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841558

RESUMEN

The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to humans is determined by multiple ecological, socio-economic and cultural factors acting at different scales. Their effects on human infection with T. cruzi have often been examined separately or using a limited set of ecological and socio-demographic variables. Herein, we integrated the ecological and social dimensions of human infection risk with the spatial distribution patterns of human and vector (Triatoma infestans) infection in rural communities of the Argentine Chaco composed of indigenous people (90% Qom) and a creole minority. We conducted serosurveys in 470 households aiming at complete population enumeration over 2012-2015. The estimated seroprevalence of T. cruzi prior to the implementation of an insecticide spraying campaign (2008) was 29.0% (N = 1,373 in 301 households), and was twice as large in Qom than creoles. Using generalized linear mixed models, human seropositive cases significantly increased with infected triatomine abundance, having a seropositive household co-inhabitant and household social vulnerability (a multidimensional index of poverty), and significantly decreased with increasing host availability in sleeping quarters (an index summarizing the number of domestic hosts for T. infestans). Vulnerable household residents were exposed to a higher risk of infection even at low infected-vector abundances. The risk of being seropositive increased significantly with house infestation among children from stable households, whereas both variables were not significantly associated among children from households exhibiting high mobility within the communities, possibly owing to less consistent exposures. Human infection was clustered by household and at a larger spatial scale, with hotspots of human and vector infection matching areas of higher social vulnerability. These results were integrated in a risk map that shows high-priority areas for targeted interventions oriented to suppress house (re)infestations, detect and treat infected children, and thus reduce the burden of future disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Relaciones Interpersonales , Población Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Argentina/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Economía , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Topografía Médica , Triatominae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Adulto Joven
5.
Licere (Online) ; 22(4): 489-518, dez.2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051191

RESUMEN

Este estudo é uma análise referente às políticas públicas no setor turístico sob a óptica do reflexo do projeto neoliberal no Brasil. Procurou-se na literatura entre os períodos de 1990 a 2018 estudos a respeito da influência neoliberal nas medidas e políticas públicas no país, buscando uma reflexão econômica-sociológica de como esse fenômeno poderia se relacionar com o desenvolvimento do turismo e turismo de aventura. Ademais, houve um conjunto de políticas públicas investigadas que por sua vez trouxeram um maior entendimento a respeito da expansão e desenvolvimento do turismo no Brasil a partir da década de 1990. Através dessa investigação, foi possível constatar uma aproximação relevante entre as políticas públicas para setor turístico e o desenvolvimento expressivo do turismo neste período, inclusive para o turismo de aventura, vertente impulsionada pelas políticas públicas de reflexo neoliberal.


This study is an analysis of public policies in the tourism sector from the perspective of the reflex of the neoliberal project in Brazil. Between 1990 and 2018, literature was searched for studies about the neoliberal influence on public policies and measures in the country, seeking an economic-sociological reflection on how this phenomenon could relate to the development of tourism and adventure tourism. In addition, there was a set of public policies investigated, which in turn brought a greater understanding of the expansion and development of tourism in Brazil since the 1990s. Through this investigation, it was possible to find a relevant approach between public policies for tourism sector and the expressive development of tourism in this period, including adventure tourism, a trend driven by public policies of neoliberal reflex.


Asunto(s)
Política Pública , Factores Socioeconómicos , Privatización , Economía , Turismo
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1678, 2019 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842835

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The social determinants of health have been widely recognised yet there remains a lack of clarity regarding what constitute the macro-economic determinants of health and what can be done to address them. An umbrella review of systematic reviews was conducted to identify the evidence for the health and health inequalities impact of population level macroeconomic factors, strategies, policies and interventions. METHODS: Nine databases were searched for systematic reviews meeting the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) criteria using a novel conceptual framework. Studies were assessed for quality using a standardised instrument and a narrative overview of the findings is presented. RESULTS: The review found a large (n = 62) but low quality systematic review-level evidence base. The results indicated that action to promote employment and improve working conditions can help improve health and reduce gender-based health inequalities. Evidence suggests that market regulation of tobacco, alcohol and food is likely to be effective at improving health and reducing inequalities in health including strong taxation, or restriction of advertising and availability. Privatisation of utilities and alcohol sectors, income inequality, and economic crises are likely to increase health inequalities. Left of centre governments and welfare state generosity may have a positive health impact, but evidence on specific welfare interventions is mixed. Trade and trade policies were found to have a mixed effect. There were no systematic reviews of the health impact of monetary policy or of large economic institutions such as central banks and regulatory organisations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study provide a simple yet comprehensive framework to support policy-makers and practitioners in addressing the macroeconomic determinants of health. Further research is needed in low and middle income countries and further reviews are needed to summarise evidence in key gaps identified by this review. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Protocol for umbrella review prospectively registered with PROSPERO CRD42017068357.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/economía , Economía , Humanos , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
8.
Med J Aust ; 211(11): 490-491.e21, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722443

RESUMEN

The MJA-Lancet Countdown on health and climate change was established in 2017 and produced its first Australian national assessment in 2018. It examined 41 indicators across five broad domains: climate change impacts, exposures and vulnerability; adaptation, planning and resilience for health; mitigation actions and health co-benefits; economics and finance; and public and political engagement. It found that, overall, Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on health, and that policy inaction in this regard threatens Australian lives. In this report we present the 2019 update. We track progress on health and climate change in Australia across the same five broad domains and many of the same indicators as in 2018. A number of new indicators are introduced this year, including one focused on wildfire exposure, and another on engagement in health and climate change in the corporate sector. Several of the previously reported indicators are not included this year, either due to their discontinuation by the parent project, the Lancet Countdown, or because insufficient new data were available for us to meaningfully provide an update to the indicator. In a year marked by an Australian federal election in which climate change featured prominently, we find mixed progress on health and climate change in this country. There has been progress in renewable energy generation, including substantial employment increases in this sector. There has also been some progress at state and local government level. However, there continues to be no engagement on health and climate change in the Australian federal Parliament, and Australia performs poorly across many of the indicators in comparison to other developed countries; for example, it is one of the world's largest net exporters of coal and its electricity generation from low carbon sources is low. We also find significantly increasing exposure of Australians to heatwaves and, in most states and territories, continuing elevated suicide rates at higher temperatures. We conclude that Australia remains at significant risk of declines in health due to climate change, and that substantial and sustained national action is urgently required in order to prevent this.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Política Ambiental , Planificación en Salud , Política de Salud , Salud , Australia , Economía , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Gobierno Federal , Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Mosquitos Vectores , Política , Energía Renovable , Gobierno Estatal , Incendios Forestales
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 459-462, 2019 Oct 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713371

RESUMEN

The construction of Yangtze River Economic Belt has been included in the national strategy of China, aiming to improve the economic level of the whole population, and to build a green ecological corridor with the joint development of economy, balance, ecology and equity. Yangtze River Economic Belt is the main area where schistosomiasis is endemic. During the economic construction, the prevention and control of schistosomiasis should be strictly carried out to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in China. In this paper, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Yangtze River Economic Belt areas and the possible impact on the schistosomiasis control were analyzed. In addition, a few suggestions were proposed for schistosomiasis control in Yangtze River Economic Belt areas.


Asunto(s)
Economía , Ríos , Esquistosomiasis , Animales , China , Ecología , Humanos , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Caracoles
11.
Community Dent Health ; 36(4): 262-274, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664797

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the principles of economics and their application to the promotion, protection and restoration of oral health in populations and the planning, management and delivery of oral health care. After illustrating the economic determinants of oral health, the demand for oral health care is discussed with particular reference to asymmetric information between patient and provider. The reasons for the market failure in (oral) health care and their implications for efficiency and equity are explained. We go on to describe how economic evaluation contributes to policies aimed at maximising oral health gains where resources are constrained. The behavioural aspects of patients´ demand for and dental professionals´ provision of oral health services are discussed. Finally, we outline methods for planning the dental workforce in ways that reflect system goals.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Economía , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 32446-32459, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612413

RESUMEN

Drawing on the insights from the literature in environmental economics and politics, this study examines the configurational conditions of national carbon intensity by constructing a new analytical framework integrating six factors, i.e. population, affluence, industrial structure, energy intensity, urbanization rate and democracy. A fuzzy set analysis of 136 countries shows that national carbon intensity is not determined by any single factor but rather by the combined effects of multiple factors. There are two configurational pathways to low-carbon development while four pathways to high-carbon development, each with its own configuration. Low-carbon development occurs most often in those affluent, highly urbanized and democratic countries with low intensity of energy use, while high-carbon development is most likely in those small, poor countries with high intensity of energy use. This study also shows that the role of particular factor should be understood in the context as its combinations with different sets of other factors may produce opposite effects on national carbon intensity. That is, the policy efforts concentrated on single factor may be ineffective to reduce carbon intensity. These findings permit a more contextualized and systematic understanding of the determinants of national carbon intensity.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Economía/estadística & datos numéricos , Política , Dinámica Poblacional , Urbanización
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17539, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593131

RESUMEN

Research on the relationship between iodine intake and thyroid cancer (TC) risk is limited, and the findings are inconclusive. The objective of this study was to provide emerging evidence for the association between iodine intake and TC risk in a Chinese population.An ecological study of epidemiology is used to compare the iodine intake among populations with different TC incidence in Zhoushan, China. Incidence rates of TC were investigated and compared among four counties of the Zhoushan Islands from 2014 to 2018. Iodized salt consumption rate and the level of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were analyzed for pupils and pregnant women from four counties.During 2014 to 2018, a total of 2495 new cases of TC were diagnosed in Zhoushan Islands. The mean crude incidence rate of TC was 51.29 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the standardized (world population) incidence rate (SIR) was 31.34 per 100,000 population. Incidence rates (SIR and crude incidence rates) were significantly higher in women than in men (χ test, P < .05). Both male and female, the incidence of TC in Daishan County is higher than the other three counties of Zhoushan. Iodized salt consumption rate and median UIC in pupils and pregnant women in Daishan County was significantly lower than the other three counties (χ test and Kruskal-Wallis test, all P < .05). The population with high TC incidence has a lower iodized salt consumption and a lower level of UIC compare with the relative low TC incidence populations.The low consumption of iodized salt with mild iodine deficiency may contribute to explain the exceptionally high incidence of TC in Daishan County. Further subtle designed studies are needed to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and etiology of TC and help identify the safe limit of iodine intake for prevention.


Asunto(s)
Yodo/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/epidemiología , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Ecología , Economía/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Yodo/administración & dosificación , Yodo/orina , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mujeres Embarazadas , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético/administración & dosificación , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/etiología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Oligoelementos/efectos adversos , Oligoelementos/orina
16.
Chin J Traumatol ; 22(5): 290-295, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506232

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Through the study of economic, traffic and population data related to road traffic accidents from 2004 to 2016, this paper analyzed the impact of various factors on road traffic casualties in China, and provided theoretical basis and suggestions for the road traffic safety management in China. METHODS: Based on three aspects (economy, road, population) with five factors (gross domestic product (GDP), traffic investment, new vehicle ownership, new road mileage and newly increased population), this paper collected the relevant data of road traffic accidents in 31 provinces and cities in China, from 2004 to 2016. A panel model was established to carry out empirical analysis. RESULTS: All factors have a significant impact on the number of road traffic accident casualties. When other factors remain unchanged, the number of road traffic casualties decreased by an average of 0.19 for every 100 million CNY increased in GDP. For every 100 million CNY increased in traffic investment, the number of road traffic casualties is reduced by an average of 13.93, indicating that economic development can improve road traffic safety to a certain extent. On the contrary, the growth in road mileage, new motor vehicles and population has increased the number of road traffic casualties. For every 10, 000 km of new road mileage, the number of traffic accident casualties has increased by 284.04. For every 10,000 newborns, the number of road traffic casualties increased by 7.33; as the number of new motor vehicles increases by 10,000, the number of road traffic casualties increased by an average of 21.77. CONCLUSION: The increase of GDP and traffic investment can significantly reduce the number of road traffic casualties in China, which shows that economic development is essential to improve road traffic safety. The numbers of new road mileage, newly increased population and the new motor vehicles are positively correlated with the number of traffic accident casualties in traffic accidents, which reflects the existing problems in road design, distribution of road resources, and traffic management in China. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the economic and road related aspects to improve road traffic safety.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Economía , Vehículos a Motor/estadística & datos numéricos , Población , Administración de la Seguridad , China/epidemiología , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1043, 2019 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383010

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prisons offer the state the opportunity to gain access to a population that is at particularly high risk of ill-health. Despite the supportive legal and policy structures surrounding prison rehabilitation, the oppressive nature of the austerity policy in England threatens its advanced improvement. METHODS: Using grounded theory methodology, this is the first interdisciplinary qualitative study to explore the impact of macroeconomic austerity on prison health in England from the perspective of 29 international prison policymakers. RESULTS: The far-reaching impact of austerity in England has established a regressive political system that shapes the societal attitude towards social issues, which has exacerbated the existing poor health of the prisoners. Austerity has undermined the notion of social collectivism, imposed a culture of acceptance among prison bureaucrats and the wider community, and normalised the devastating impacts of prison instability. These developments are evidenced by the increasing levels of suicide, violence, radicalisation and prison gangs among prisoners, as well as the imposition of long working hours and the high levels of absenteeism among prison staff. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores an important and yet unarticulated phenomenon that despite being the fifth largest economy in the world, England's poorest, marginalised and excluded population continues to bear the brunt of austerity. Reducing the prison population, using international obligations as minimum standards to protect prisoners' right to health and providing greater resources would create a more positive and inclusive system, in line with England's international and domestic commitments to the humane treatment of all people.


Asunto(s)
Economía , Estado de Salud , Prisioneros , Personal Administrativo/psicología , Inglaterra , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Prisiones/organización & administración , Investigación Cualitativa
19.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019860383, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431097

RESUMEN

There is relatively little published on the socioeconomic distribution of chronic disease burden in older people. This study aims to quantify income-related inequalities in chronic disease situation among ≥45-year-old people in China. Data were collected from the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Self-reported chronic conditions included 14 diseases (ie, heart problem, diabetes). Multivariate Generalized Quasi-Poisson Regression was used to evaluate associations between prevalence and personal income. Prevalence of hypertension was highest among people above ≥ 75 (male participants 44.41%, female participants 47.53%). Heart problem prevalence increased with age. Chronic disease prevalence among population aged 45 to 59 years was greatly affected by income. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were highest for heart problems in 45 to 59 middle-income male participants and for memory-related diseases in 45 to 59 middle-income female participants. Significant inequalities in chronic conditions prevalence persist into old age, particularly among 45- to 59-year-old people. Opposite to developed countries, the prevalence of some chronic disease (ie, heart problem) is higher in richer populations in China. These findings pose the policy challenge of needing to prevent such inequalities in older years.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Economía/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Autoinforme
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