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Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800434


The massive incorporation of Spanish women into the labor market is a phenomenon that began in the second half of the 20th century, being many the obstacles that this group has had to overcome to reach the current situation, where getting a job can be an achievement that, in many cases, does not correspond to the capacity and academic training of the worker, creating a labor and economic imbalance (the cost in training is not rewarded with the work done). In this work, the Spanish labor market was analyzed through the labor force survey (EPA) from a gender perspective, demonstrating the existing inequalities at the labor level, both of employment and unemployment rates, and of jobs where the glass ceiling is evident and of economic remuneration where the salary gap continues to be important. In addition, through an ARIMA model, the evolution of the number of Spanish working women was analyzed, and how the economic crisis of 2009 and the sanitaria have affected their employment in the various crises (COVID-19). Measures to solve the problem as well as laws and active policies in favor of the creation of female jobs and a greater awareness of empowerment on the part of the female collective are proposed.

Economía , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Ocupaciones , Factores Socioeconómicos , Desempleo
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248818, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852593


The implementation of large-scale containment measures by governments to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus has resulted in large impacts to the global economy. Here, we derive a new high-frequency indicator of economic activity using empirical vessel tracking data, and use it to estimate the global maritime trade losses during the first eight months of the pandemic. We go on to use this high-frequency dataset to infer the effect of individual non-pharmaceutical interventions on maritime exports, which we use as a proxy of economic activity. Our results show widespread port-level trade losses, with the largest absolute losses found for ports in China, the Middle-East and Western Europe, associated with the collapse of specific supply-chains (e.g. oil, vehicle manufacturing). In total, we estimate that global maritime trade reduced by -7.0% to -9.6% during the first eight months of 2020, which is equal to around 206-286 million tonnes in volume losses and up to 225-412 billion USD in value losses. We find large sectoral and geographical disparities in impacts. Manufacturing sectors are hit hardest, with losses up to 11.8%, whilst some small islands developing states and low-income economies suffered the largest relative trade losses. Moreover, we find a clear negative impact of COVID-19 related school and public transport closures on country-wide exports. Overall, we show how real-time indicators of economic activity can inform policy-makers about the impacts of individual policies on the economy, and can support economic recovery efforts by allocating funds to the hardest hit economies and sectors.

/economía , Comercio/economía , Cuarentena/economía , /epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/economía , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Economía , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Gobierno , Humanos , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Pandemias/economía , Navíos/economía
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917682


The resilience of the healthcare industry, often considered recession-proof, is being tested by the COVID-19 induced reductions in physical mobility and restrictions on elective and non-emergent medical procedures. We assess early COVID-19 effects on the dynamics of decline and recovery in healthcare labor markets in the United States. Descriptive analyses with monthly cross-sectional data on unemployment rates, employment, labor market entry/exit, and weekly work hours among healthcare workers in each healthcare industry and occupation, using the Current Population Survey from July 2019-2020 were performed. We found that unemployment rates increased dramatically for all healthcare industries, with the strongest early impacts on dentists' offices (41.3%), outpatient centers (10.5%), physician offices (9.5%), and home health (7.8%). Lower paid workers such as technologists/technicians (10.5%) and healthcare aides (12.6%) were hit hardest and faced persistently high unemployment, while nurses (4%), physicians/surgeons (1.4%), and pharmacists (0.7%) were spared major disruptions. Unique economic vulnerabilities faced by low-income healthcare workers may need to be addressed to avoid serious disruptions from future events similar to COVID-19.

Sector de Atención de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Economía , Humanos , Ocupaciones , Factores Socioeconómicos , Desempleo , Estados Unidos
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-04-09.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53562


Los impuestos selectivos sobre las bebidas azucaradas representan una política eficaz y basada en la evidencia para prevenir las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT). Junto con los impuestos selectivos sobre los productos tabacaleros y sobre las bebidas alcohólicas, constituyen una herramienta para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, y la Organización Mundial de la Salud los recomienda para modificar los factores de riesgo comportamentales vinculados con la obesidad y las ENT, según se indica en el plan de acción mundial de la OMS. Se ha dicho que los impuestos sobre las bebidas azucaradas representan una ganancia triple para los gobiernos, puesto que: 1) mejoran la salud de la población, 2) generan ingresos y 3) pueden reducir a largo plazo los correspondientes costos de atención de salud y pérdidas de productividad. La tributación de las bebidas azucaradas se ha puesto en marcha en más de 73 países de todo el mundo. En la Región de las Américas, 21 Estados Miembros de la OPS aplican impuestos selectivos a nivel nacional sobre dichas bebidas y siete jurisdicciones de Estados Unidos de América las gravan con impuestos locales. Si bien el número de países que aplican impuestos selectivos nacionales sobre las bebidas azucaradas en la Región es prometedor, la mayoría de esos impuestos se podría ampliar para mejorar su incidencia en el consumo de bebidas azucaradas y en la salud. En esta publicación se presentan algunos conceptos económicos relacionados con la justificación del uso de impuestos sobre las bebidas azucaradas, así como con los costos relacionados con la obesidad; algunas consideraciones clave sobre el diseño de impuestos, incluidos los tipos, bases y tasas correspondientes; una descripción del posible ingreso tributario y su asignación a fines específicos; la evidencia sobre la medida en que se prevé que dichos impuestos incidan en los precios y la demanda de las bebidas gravadas y su sustitución por bebidas no gravadas; y la respuesta a algunas preguntas frecuentes sobre los efectos económicos de la tributación de las bebidas azucaradas.

Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta , Bebidas Azucaradas , Industria del Azúcar , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedad Crónica , Economía , Américas
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673245


With the economic development of various countries and the deepening of population aging, health plays an increasingly important role in the macro-economy. How to meet the growing health needs as well as promote the economy has captured the attention of the world. Therefore, whether health investment can promote economic growth is an important theoretical and practical issue. An extended Mankiw-Romer-Weil model (MRW) with human health capital and population aging is employed to examine the impact on economic growth from population aging and health investment. On the basis of the theoretical model, this paper uses the LSDV and TSLS methods to carry out an empirical study based on cross-country panel data during the period 2000-2016. The empirical results show that health investment plays a significant role in promoting economic growth, and there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between population aging and economic growth. The impacts on economic growth from health investment and population aging can weaken each other. In addition, this paper also finds that health investment structure and the proportion of government health investment to total government spending can affect economic growth.

Análisis de Datos , Desarrollo Económico , Envejecimiento , Países en Desarrollo , Economía , Gobierno , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud , Crecimiento Demográfico
Front Public Health ; 9: 651051, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777889


This paper analyses the effects of the Chinese Economic Policy Uncertainty (CEPU) index on the daily returns of Bitcoin for the period from December 31, 2019 to May 20, 2020. Utilizing the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and the Generalized Quantile Regression (GQR) estimation techniques, the paper illustrates that the current CEPU has a positive impact on the returns of Bitcoin. However, the positive impact is statistically significant only at the higher quantiles of the current CEPU. It is concluded that Bitcoin can be used in hedging against policy uncertainties in China since significant rises in uncertainty leads to a higher return in Bitcoin. JEL Codes: G32; G15; C22.

/economía , Comercio/economía , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Economía , /epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Modelos Económicos , Análisis de Regresión
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(3): 1001-1012, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729354


The American response to the pandemic involves a prominent volume of federal resources, especially for developing and acquiring products for internal use, such as diagnostics or vaccines. Investment mechanisms and historical aspects justify this expenditure. Thus, the social construction of nationalism in American society hinders access to health technologies. The review of such aspects shows how the United States (U.S.) secured a large number of potential products, ensuring excessive local production. This unilateral foreign policy has influenced other countries or regional blocs and undermined global cooperation and solidarity, affecting the collective health of several nations.

/epidemiología , Salud Global , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias , /diagnóstico , /estadística & datos numéricos , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Países en Desarrollo , Difusión de Innovaciones , Economía , Recursos en Salud/economía , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Sistemas Políticos , Asignación de Recursos/economía , Asignación de Recursos/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economía
Soc Sci Med ; 275: 113774, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711676


This study examines whether economic hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic is deleteriously associated with psychological distress and self-rated health. A social causation perspective suggests that exposure to economic hardship will harm well-being, but a social selection perspective suggests that the appearance of health effects of hardship during the pandemic are attributable to the increased risk of exposure to hardship associated with poor well-being at the start of the pandemic. We also propose a third perspective, economic selection, which suggests that economic hardship prior to the pandemic negatively affects health and increases risk of exposure to hardship during the pandemic; consequently, an association between health and economic hardship during the pandemic may be spurious, and entirely due to pre-existing levels of hardship. To test these competing perspectives, we use a longitudinal study based in Canada that began in late March of 2020 and followed respondents monthly in April, May, and June. Baseline psychological distress and self-rated health, as well as economic hardship prior to the pandemic, independently predict the accumulation of monthly periods of hardship from April to June. The accumulation of periods of hardship from April to June is deleteriously associated with psychological distress and self-rated health in June. Controls for prior economic hardship and baseline health weaken the association between accumulation of periods of hardship and psychological distress, while also eliminating the association between accumulation of hardship and self-rated health. These findings favor a social causation perspective for psychological distress and a social selection perspective for self-rated health, with less evidence found in support of economic selection. This study took place during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, though, and associations with self-rated health may have become more evident as hardship further wore on individual well-being over a longer period of time.

Economía , Pandemias , Condiciones Sociales , Estrés Psicológico , Canadá/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 1001-1012, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153847


Resumo A resposta americana à pandemia envolve um proeminente volume de recursos federais, em especial destinados ao desenvolvimento e aquisição de produtos no uso interno, como diagnósticos ou vacinas. As justificativas para esse desembolso se baseiam em mecanismos de investimentos e aspectos históricos. Assim, a construção social do nacionalismo na formação na sociedade americana prejudica o acesso a tecnologias em saúde. A revisão desses aspectos demonstra como os Estados Unidos (EUA) garantiram compra de grande quantitativo de produtos em potencial, inclusive assegurando excessiva produção local. Essa política externa unilateral tem influenciado outros países ou blocos regionais e prejudicado a cooperação e a solidariedade global com impacto na saúde coletiva de diversas nações.

Abstract The American response to the pandemic involves a prominent volume of federal resources, especially for developing and acquiring products for internal use, such as diagnostics or vaccines. Investment mechanisms and historical aspects justify this expenditure. Thus, the social construction of nationalism in American society hinders access to health technologies. The review of such aspects shows how the United States (U.S.) secured a large number of potential products, ensuring excessive local production. This unilateral foreign policy has influenced other countries or regional blocs and undermined global cooperation and solidarity, affecting the collective health of several nations.

Humanos , Salud Global , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cooperación Internacional , Sistemas Políticos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Asignación de Recursos/economía , Asignación de Recursos/métodos , Países en Desarrollo , Difusión de Innovaciones , Economía , Recursos en Salud/economía , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-02-09.
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53252


Sugar-sweetened beverage excise taxes are an effective evidence-based noncommunicable diseases (NCD) prevention policy. Along with tobacco and alcohol excise taxes, they are a tool to attain the Sustainable Development Goals, and are recommended by the World Health Organization to modify behavioral risk factors associated with obesity and NCDs, as featured in the WHO Global Action Plan. Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been described as a triple win for governments, because they 1) improve population health, 2) generate revenue, and 3) have the potential to reduce long-term associated healthcare costs and productivity losses. Taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implemented in more than 73 countries worldwide. In the Region of the Americas, 21 PAHO/WHO Member States apply national-level excise taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages and seven jurisdictions apply local sugar-sweetened beverage taxes in the United States of America. While the number of countries applying national excise taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages in the Region is promising, most of these taxes could be further leveraged to improve their impact on sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and health. This publication provides economic concepts related to the economic rationale for using sugar-sweetened beverage taxes and the costs associated with obesity; key considerations on tax design including tax types, bases, and rates; an overview of potential tax revenue and earmarking; evidence on the extent to which these taxes are expected to impact prices of taxed beverages, the demand for taxed beverages, and substitution to untaxed beverages; and responses to frequent questions about the economic impacts of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.

Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta , Bebidas Azucaradas , Impuestos , Américas , Industria del Azúcar , Economía , Enfermedades no Transmisibles
Ambio ; 50(4): 794-811, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606247


Like the rest of the world, African countries are reeling from the health, economic and social effects of COVID-19. The continent's governments have responded by imposing rigorous lockdowns to limit the spread of the virus. The various lockdown measures are undermining food security, because stay at home orders have among others, threatened food production for a continent that relies heavily on agriculture as the bedrock of the economy. This article draws on quantitative data collected by the GeoPoll, and, from these data, assesses the effect of concern about the local spread and economic impact of COVID-19 on food worries. Qualitative data comprising 12 countries south of the Sahara reveal that lockdowns have created anxiety over food security as a health, economic and human rights/well-being issue. By applying a probit model, we find that concern about the local spread of COVID-19 and economic impact of the virus increases the probability of food worries. Governments have responded with various efforts to support the neediest. By evaluating the various policies rolled out we advocate for a feminist economics approach that necessitates greater use of data analytics to predict the likely impacts of intended regulatory relief responses during the recovery process and post-COVID-19.

África , Ansiedad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Países en Desarrollo , Economía , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Políticas
Acad Med ; 96(2): 186-192, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492834


Clerkship grades (like money) are a social construct that function as the currency through which value exchanges in medical education are negotiated between the system's various stakeholders. They provide a widely recognizable and efficient medium through which learner development can be assessed, tracked, compared, and demonstrated and are commonly used to make decisions regarding progression, distinction, and selection for residency. However, substantial literature has demonstrated how grades imprecisely and unreliably reflect the value of learners. In this article, the authors suggest that challenges with clerkship grades are fundamentally tied to their role as currency in the medical education system. Associations are drawn between clerkship grades and the history of the U.S. economy; 2 major concepts are highlighted: regulation and stock prices. The authors describe the history of these economic concepts and how they relate to challenges in clerkship grading. Using lessons learned from the history of the U.S. economy, the authors then propose a 2-step solution to improve upon grading for future generations of medical students: (1) transition from grades to a federally regulated competency-based assessment model and (2) development of a departmental competency letter that incorporates competency-based assessments rather than letter grades and meets the needs of program directors.

Prácticas Clínicas/normas , Economía/historia , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Internado y Residencia/ética , Prácticas Clínicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Competencia Clínica/normas , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
Trab. educ. saúde ; 19: e00305137, jan. 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139810


Resumo Nesta breve exposição, pretende-se discutir como a crise político-econômica conjugou-se, à perfeição, à pandemia, para construir soluções lucrativas aos grandes capitais. O texto apresenta, com base na análise de dados recentes, como o Estado brasileiro, no governo Bolsonaro, empenha-se em aprofundar o programa de ajuste, por meio de privatizações de estatais e de rebaixamento dos direitos e do valor da força de trabalho, como base de um programa político-econômico e fiscal. A Nota explora ainda a hipótese de que tal plataforma tem o potencial de assegurar o continuado apoio da grande burguesia ao governo de Bolsonaro e Guedes.

Abstract In this brief presentation, we intend to discuss how the political-economic crisis combined perfectly with the pandemic to build profitable solutions for big capitalists. Based on the analysis of recent data, the text shows how the Brazilian State, under the Bolsonaro government, is committed to deepening the adjustment program, through privatization of state enterprises and downgrading the workforce's rights and value, as the basis of a political-economic and fiscal program. The Note also explores the hypothesis that such a platform has the potential to ensure the continued support of the great bourgeoisie to the government of Bolsonaro and Guedes.

Resumen En esta breve exposición, se pretende discutir como la crisis político económica se conjugó, a la perfección, con la pandemia, para construir soluciones lucrativas para los grandes capitales. El texto, basado en el análisis de datos recientes, presenta como el Estado brasileño, en el gobierno Bolsonaro, se empeña en profundizar el programa de ajuste, por medio de la privatización de las estatales y rebajando los derechos y el valor de la fuerza de trabajo, como base de un programa político económico y fiscal. La Nota explora aun la hipótesis de que tal plataforma tiene el potencial de asegurar el continuado apoyo de la gran burguesía al gobierno de Bolsonaro y Guedes.

Humanos , Economía , Recursos Humanos , Pandemias
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 10, 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478499


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread throughout more than 160 countries, infecting millions of people worldwide. To address this health emergency, countries have organized the flow of production and innovation to reduce the impact on health. This article shows the response of the Brazilian scientific community to meet the urgent needs of the public unified health system [SUS], aiming to guarantee universal access to an estimated population of 211 million. By December 2020, Brazil had recorded more than six million cases and approximately 175,000 deaths. METHODS: We collected data on research, development and innovation projects carried out by 114 public universities (plus Oswaldo Cruz Foundation [Fiocruz] and Butantan Institute), as reported on their websites. Additionally, we examined the studies on COVID-19 approved by the National Comission for Research Ethics, as well as those reported on the Ministry of Education website as of May 15, 2020. RESULTS: The 789 identified projects were classified according to research categories as follows: development and innovation (n = 280), other types of projects (n = 226), epidemiologic research (n = 211), and basic research on disease mechanisms (n = 72). Most proposals focused on the development and innovation of personal protective equipment, medical devices, diagnostic tests, medicines and vaccines, which were rapidly identified as research priorities by the scientific community. Some promising results have been observed from phase III vaccine trials, one of which is conducted in partnership with Oxford University and another of which is performed with Sinovac Biotech. Both trials involve thousands of volunteers in their Brazilian arms and include technology transfer agreements with Fiocruz and the Butantan Institute, respectively. These vaccines proved to be safe and effective and were immediately licensed for emergency use. The provision of doses for the public health system, and vaccination, started on January 17, 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The mobilized Brazilian scientific community has generated comprehensive research, development and innovation proposals to meet the most urgent needs. It is important to emphasize that this response was only possible due to decades of investment in research, development and innovation in Brazil. We need to reinforce and protect the Brazilian science, technology and innovation system from austerity policies that disregard health and knowledge as crucial investments for Brazilian society, in line with the constitutional right of universal health access and universal health coverage.

Investigación Biomédica , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Investigación Biomédica/economía , Brasil/epidemiología , Economía , Urgencias Médicas , Humanos , Industrias , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Universidades , Vacunación , Vacunas
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3398, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1150005


Objective: to analyze how the social isolation measures and closed borders affected the health and economy in an international border region. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the western region of Paraná, Brazil, using an electronic form created using Google® forms. A sample of 2,510 people was addressed. Descriptive analysis and the Chi-square test were performed, with a level of significance established at 5%. This public opinion survey, addressing unidentified participants, is in accordance with Resolutions 466/2012 and 510/2016. Results: the participants were 41.5 years old on average, most were women and worked in the education sector; 41.9% reported that the closing of borders/commercial businesses negatively influenced income; 17.7% reported the possibility of losing their jobs; 89.0% consider that a larger number of people would be sick if the borders/commercial had not been closed; 63.7% believe the health services are not prepared to deal with the pandemic; 74.9% realize that the Brazilian Unified Health System may not have sufficient service capacity; 63.4% reported anxiety; and 75.6% of commercial workers will experience changes in their income level. Conclusion: the closing of international borders and commercial businesses was related to a perception of physical and mental changes, job loss, and decreased income.

Objetivo: analisar como o isolamento social e o fechamento das fronteiras repercutem na saúde e na economia em região de fronteira internacional. Método: estudo descritivo-transversal realizado no Oeste do Paraná, Brasil, por meio do questionário eletrônico Formulários Google®. Foi estudada uma amostra de 2.510 pessoas. Utilizou-se a análise estatística descritiva e o teste qui-quadrado, com nível de significância de 5%. Pesquisa de opinião pública, com participantes não identificados, que atende às Resoluções 466/2012 e 510/2016. Resultados: a média de idade foi de 41,5 anos, a maioria é do sexo feminino e composta por trabalhadores do setor de educação; 41,9% indicam que o fechamento das fronteiras/comércio influenciou negativamente a renda e, para 17,7%, existe a possibilidade de desemprego. Para 89,0%, o número de pessoas adoecidas seria maior caso as fronteiras/comércio não tivessem sido fechadas; 63,7% indicam que os serviços de saúde não estão preparados para enfrentar a pandemia; 74,9% percebem que o Sistema Único de Saúde pode não ter capacidade de atendimento; 63,4% sinalizam ansiedade e 75,6% dos trabalhadores do comércio terão alterações na renda. Conclusão: o fechamento das fronteiras internacionais e do comércio relacionou-se à percepção de alterações físicas e mentais, perda de emprego e de renda.

Objetivo: analizar cómo el aislamiento social y el cierre de las fronteras afectan la salud y la economía en una región fronteriza internacional. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal desarrollado en el occidente de Paraná, Brasil, utilizando el cuestionario electrónico Formularios Google®. Se estudió una muestra de 2.510 personas. Se utilizó análisis estadístico descriptivo, prueba de chi-cuadrado con nivel de significancia del 5%. Encuesta de opinión pública, con participantes no identificados, que cumple con las Resoluciones 466/2012 y 510/2016. Resultados: el promedio de edad fue de 41,5 años, mayoritariamente mujeres y trabajadores del sector educativo; el 41,9% indicó que el cierre de las fronteras/comercio afectó negativamente los ingresos y que, para el 17,7%, existe la posibilidad de desempleo. Para 89,0%, el número de personas enfermas habría sido mayor si las fronteras/comercio no se hubieran cerrado; 63,7% indica que los servicios de salud no están preparados para enfrentar la pandemia; 74,9% percibe que el Sistema Único de Salud puede no ser capaz de brindar atención; 63,4% informó ansiedad; y 75,6% de los trabajadores del comercio tendrán cambios en los ingresos. Conclusión: el cierre de las fronteras internacionales y el comercio se relacionó con la percepción de cambios físicos y mentales, pérdida de empleo e ingresos.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Ansiedad , Aislamiento Social , Áreas Fronterizas , Adaptación Psicológica , Salud Pública , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Estadístico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Afecto , Salud Fronteriza , Economía , Pandemias , Servicios de Salud , Grupos Profesionales