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1.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(4): e270-e283, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580428

RESUMEN

The concurrent pressures of rising global temperatures, rates and incidence of species decline, and emergence of infectious diseases represent an unprecedented planetary crisis. Intergovernmental reports have drawn focus to the escalating climate and biodiversity crises and the connections between them, but interactions among all three pressures have been largely overlooked. Non-linearities and dampening and reinforcing interactions among pressures make considering interconnections essential to anticipating planetary challenges. In this Review, we define and exemplify the causal pathways that link the three global pressures of climate change, biodiversity loss, and infectious disease. A literature assessment and case studies show that the mechanisms between certain pairs of pressures are better understood than others and that the full triad of interactions is rarely considered. Although challenges to evaluating these interactions-including a mismatch in scales, data availability, and methods-are substantial, current approaches would benefit from expanding scientific cultures to embrace interdisciplinarity and from integrating animal, human, and environmental perspectives. Considering the full suite of connections would be transformative for planetary health by identifying potential for co-benefits and mutually beneficial scenarios, and highlighting where a narrow focus on solutions to one pressure might aggravate another.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ecosistema , Animales , Humanos , Cambio Climático , Biodiversidad , Modelos Teóricos , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología
2.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 367, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605060

RESUMEN

Coral reefs support the world's most diverse marine ecosystem and provide invaluable goods and services for millions of people worldwide. They are however experiencing frequent and intensive marine heatwaves that are causing coral bleaching and mortality. Coarse-grained climate models predict that few coral reefs will survive the 3 °C sea-surface temperature rise in the coming century. Yet, field studies show localized pockets of coral survival and recovery even under high-temperature conditions. Quantifying recovery from marine heatwaves is central to making accurate predictions of coral-reef trajectories into the near future. Here we introduce the world's most comprehensive database on coral recovery following marine heatwaves and other disturbances, called Heatwaves and Coral-Recovery Database (HeatCRD) encompassing 29,205 data records spanning 44 years from 12,266 sites, 83 countries, and 160 data sources. These data provide essential information to coral-reef scientists and managers to best guide coral-reef conservation efforts at both local and regional scales.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Arrecifes de Coral , Animales , Ecosistema , Temperatura , Cambio Climático
3.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 368, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605058

RESUMEN

Globally, there is a concerning decline in many insect populations, and this trend likely extends to all arthropods, potentially impacting unique island biota. Native non-endemic and endemic species on islands are under threat due to habitat destruction, with the introduction of exotic, and potentially invasive, species, further contributing to this decline. While long-term studies of plants and vertebrate fauna are available, long-term arthropod datasets are limited, hindering comparisons with better-studied taxa. The Biodiversity of Arthropods of the Laurisilva of the Azores (BALA) project has allowed gathering comprehensive data since 1997 in the Azorean Islands (Portugal), using standardised sampling methods across islands. The dataset includes arthropod counts from epigean (pitfall traps) and canopy-dwelling (beating samples) communities, enriched with species information, biogeographic origins, and IUCN categories. Metadata associated with the sample protocol and events, like sample identifier, archive number, sampled tree species, and trap type are also recorded. The database is available in multiple formats, including Darwin Core, which facilitates the ecological analysis of pressing environmental concerns, such as arthropod population declines and biological invasions.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Bosques , Animales , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Especies Introducidas , Azores
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8594, 2024 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615154

RESUMEN

Mixed forests play a fundamental ecological role increasing biodiversity and providing ecosystem services; it has been suggested they have higher resilience and resistance against disturbances, particularly fire. Here, we compare tree mortality in post-fire mixed and pure stands in Spain, on 2,782 plots and 30,239 trees during the period 1986 to 2007. We show evidence that mixed stands can have higher post-fire mortality than pure stands, and specific mixtures of species with different fire-related strategies increase the stand's vulnerability to fire damage versus pure stands of either species, such is the case of Pinus halepensis-Pinus nigra mixtures. Mixtures of two species often had higher mortality than species growing in pure stands. Combinations of species with different fire-related strategies can both enhance or reduce forest resistance. The role and management of mixed forests should be reconsidered after these findings, in order to enhance forest resilience to fires.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Pinus , Bosques , Árboles , Biodiversidad
5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17281, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619550

RESUMEN

The ongoing climate change on the Tibetan Plateau, leading to warming and precipitation anomalies, modifies phosphorus (P) cycling in alpine meadow soils. However, the interactions and cascading effects of warming and precipitation changes on the key "extracellular" and "intracellular" P cycling genes (PCGs) of bacteria are largely unknown for these P-limited ecosystems. We used metagenomics to analyze the individual and combined effects of warming and altered precipitation on soil PCGs and P transformation in a manipulation experiment. Warming and increased precipitation raised Olsen-P (bioavailable P, AP) by 13% and 20%, respectively, mainly caused by augmented hydrolysis of organic P compounds (NaOH-Po). The decreased precipitation reduced soil AP by 5.3%. The richness and abundance of the PCGs' community in soils on the cold Tibetan plateau were more sensitive to warming than altered precipitation. The abundance of PCGs and P cycling processes decreased under the influence of individual climate change factors (i.e., warming and altered precipitation alone), except for the warming combined with increased precipitation. Pyruvate metabolism, phosphotransferase system, oxidative phosphorylation, and purine metabolism (all "intracellular" PCG) were closely correlated with P pools under climate change conditions. Specifically, warming recruited bacteria with the phoD and phoX genes, which encode enzymes responsible for phosphoester hydrolysis (extracellular P cycling), strongly accelerated organic P mineralization and so, directly impacted P bioavailability in alpine soil. The interactions between warming and altered precipitation profoundly influenced the PCGs' community and facilitated microbial adaptation to these environmental changes. Warming combined with increased precipitation compensated for the detrimental impacts of the individual climate change factors on PCGs. In conclusion, warming combined with rising precipitation has boosting effect on most P-related functions, leading to the acceleration of P cycling within microbial cells and extracellularly, including mineralization and more available P release for microorganisms and plants in alpine soils.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Suelo , Humanos , Disponibilidad Biológica , Cambio Climático , Fósforo
6.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 175, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619636

RESUMEN

Alpine lakes are aquatic ecosystems that maintain and regulate water supply for the downstream streams, rivers, and other reservoirs. This study examined the water characteristics of various alpine lakes in Gilgit-Baltistan, Northern Pakistan. For this purpose, water was sampled and investigated for basic parameters, anions, and cations using the multi-parameter analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Physicochemical parameters of alpine lakes were noted under the World Health Organization water guidelines, except for fluoride (F-) and turbidity in 4.3% and 36% of samples, respectively. Water quality index (WQI) classified samples (93%) as excellent and good quality (7%). Results showed maximum chronic daily intake values (0.14 ± 0.01 mg/kg-day) for nitrate (NO3-) and hazard quotient (0.80 ± 0.24) for F- in children via water intake from Upper Kachura and Shausar Lakes, respectively. Statistical analyses of Piper and Gibbs's plots revealed that the water quality is mainly characterized by bedrock geology.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Calidad del Agua , Niño , Humanos , Lagos , Abastecimiento de Agua , Fluoruros
7.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17282, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619685

RESUMEN

Given the current environmental crisis, biodiversity protection is one of the most urgent socio-environmental priorities. However, the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs), the primary strategy for safeguarding ecosystems, is challenged by global climate change (GCC), with evidence showing that species are shifting their distributions into new areas, causing novel species assemblages. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate PAs' present and future effectiveness for biodiversity under the GCC. Here, we analyzed changes in the spatiotemporal patterns of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity (PD) of plants associated with the Neotropical seasonally dry forest (NSDF) under GCC scenarios. We modeled the climatic niche of over 1000 plant species in five representative families (in terms of abundance, dominance, and endemism) of the NSDF. We predicted their potential distributions in the present and future years (2040, 2060, and 2080) based on an intermediate scenario of shared socio-economic pathways (SSP 3.70), allowing species to disperse to new sites or constrained to the current distribution. Then, we tested if the current PAs network represents the taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities. Our results suggest that GCC could promote novel species assemblages with local responses (communities' modifications) across the biome. In general, models predicted losses in the taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities of all the five plant families analyzed across the distribution of the NSDF. However, in the northern floristic groups (i.e., Antilles and Mesoamerica) of the NSDF, taxonomic and PD will be stable in GCC projections. In contrast, across the NSDF in South America, some cores will lose diversity while others will gain diversity under GCC scenarios. PAs in some NSDF regions appeared insufficient to protect the NSDF diversity. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess how the PA system could be better reconfigured to warrant the protection of the NSDF.


Dada la actual crisis ambiental, la protección de la biodiversidad se presenta como una de las prioridades socio ambientales más urgentes. Sin embargo, la efectividad de las áreas protegidas (AP), la estrategia principal para salvaguardar los ecosistemas, se ve desafiada por el cambio climático global (CCG), con evidencia que muestra que las especies están desplazando sus distribuciones hacia nuevas áreas, provocando conjuntos de especies novedosos. Por lo tanto, es necesario evaluar la efectividad actual y futura de las AP para la biodiversidad bajo el CCG. En este contexto, analizamos cambios en los patrones espacio­temporales de diversidad taxonómica y filogenética de plantas asociadas al bosque estacionalmente seco neotropical (BES) bajo escenarios de CCG. Modelamos el nicho climático de más de 1,000 especies de plantas en cinco familias representativas (en términos de abundancia, dominancia y endemismo) del BES. Pronosticamos sus distribuciones potenciales en los años actuales y futuros (2040, 2060 y 2080) basándonos en un escenario intermedio de trayectorias socioeconómicas compartidas (SSP 3.70), permitiendo que las especies se dispersen a nuevos sitios o estén limitadas a la distribución actual. Luego, evaluamos si la red actual de AP representa las diversidades taxonómicas y filogenéticas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el CCG podría promover conjuntos de especies novedosos con respuestas locales (modificaciones en las comunidades) en todo el bioma. En general, los modelos pronosticaron pérdidas en las diversidades taxonómicas y filogenéticas de las cinco familias de plantas analizadas en la distribución del BES. Sin embargo, en los grupos florísticos del norte (es decir, Antillas y Mesoamérica) del BSDN, la diversidad taxonómica y filogenética se mantendrá estable en las proyecciones de CCG. En cambio, en toda la región del BES en América del Sur, algunos núcleos perderán diversidad mientras que otros ganarán diversidad bajo escenarios de CCG. Algunas AP en regiones del BES parecen ser insuficientes para proteger la diversidad del bioma. Por lo tanto, es urgente evaluar cómo se podría reconfigurar mejor el sistema de AP para garantizar la protección del BES.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Bosques , Filogenia , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3219, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622143

RESUMEN

Diverse aerobic bacteria use atmospheric hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) as energy sources to support growth and survival. Such trace gas oxidation is recognised as a globally significant process that serves as the main sink in the biogeochemical H2 cycle and sustains microbial biodiversity in oligotrophic ecosystems. However, it is unclear whether archaea can also use atmospheric H2. Here we show that a thermoacidophilic archaeon, Acidianus brierleyi (Thermoproteota), constitutively consumes H2 and CO to sub-atmospheric levels. Oxidation occurs across a wide range of temperatures (10 to 70 °C) and enhances ATP production during starvation-induced persistence under temperate conditions. The genome of A. brierleyi encodes a canonical CO dehydrogenase and four distinct [NiFe]-hydrogenases, which are differentially produced in response to electron donor and acceptor availability. Another archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, can also oxidize atmospheric H2. Our results suggest that trace gas oxidation is a common trait of Sulfolobales archaea and may play a role in their survival and niche expansion, including during dispersal through temperate environments.


Asunto(s)
Acidianus , Archaea , Temperatura , Ecosistema , Oxidación-Reducción , Hidrógeno
9.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3228, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622147

RESUMEN

Seamounts are globally distributed across the oceans and form one of the major oceanic biomes. Here, we utilized combined analyses of bulk metagenome and virome to study viral communities in seamount sediments in the western Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic analyses and the protein-sharing network demonstrate extensive diversity and previously unknown viral clades. Inference of virus-host linkages uncovers extensive interactions between viruses and dominant prokaryote lineages, and suggests that viruses play significant roles in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycling by compensating or augmenting host metabolisms. Moreover, temperate viruses are predicted to be prevalent in seamount sediments, which tend to carry auxiliary metabolic genes for host survivability. Intriguingly, the geographical features of seamounts likely compromise the connectivity of viral communities and thus contribute to the high divergence of viral genetic spaces and populations across seamounts. Altogether, these findings provides knowledge essential for understanding the biogeography and ecological roles of viruses in globally widespread seamounts.


Asunto(s)
Virus , Filogenia , Océanos y Mares , Ecosistema , Genes Virales
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3236, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622174

RESUMEN

Insects sustain key ecosystem functions, but how their activity varies across the day-night cycle and the underlying drivers are poorly understood. Although entomologists generally expect that more insects are active at night, this notion has not been tested with empirical data at the global scale. Here, we assemble 331 quantitative comparisons of the abundances of insects between day and night periods from 78 studies worldwide and use multi-level meta-analytical models to show that insect activity is on average 31.4% (CI: -6.3%-84.3%) higher at night than in the day. We reveal diel preferences of major insect taxa, and observe higher nocturnal activity in aquatic taxa than in terrestrial ones, as well as in warmer environments. In a separate analysis of the small subset of studies quantifying diel patterns in taxonomic richness (31 comparisons from 13 studies), we detect preliminary evidence of higher nocturnal richness in tropical than temperate communities. The higher overall (but variable) nocturnal activity in insect communities underscores the need to address threats such as light pollution and climate warming that may disproportionately impact nocturnal insects.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Insectos , Animales , Clima
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8686, 2024 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622214

RESUMEN

On 28 March 2005, the Indonesian islands of Nias and Simeulue experienced a powerful Mw 8.6 earthquake and coseismic uplift and subsidence. In areas of coastal uplift (up to ~ 2.8 m), fringing reef coral communities were killed by exposure, while deeper corals that survived were subjected to habitats with altered runoff, sediment and nutrient regimes. Here we present time-series (2000-2009) of Mn/Ca, Y/Ca and Ba/Ca variability in massive Porites corals from Nias to assess the environmental impact of a wide range of vertical displacement (+ 2.5 m to - 0.4 m). High-resolution LA-ICP-MS measurements show that skeletal Mn/Ca increased at uplifted sites, regardless of reef type, indicating a post-earthquake increase in suspended sediment delivery. Transient and/or long-term increases in skeletal Y/Ca at all uplift sites support the idea of increased sediment delivery. Coral Mn/Ca and Ba/Ca in lagoonal environments highlight the additional influences of reef bathymetry, wind-driven sediment resuspension, and phytoplankton blooms on coral geochemistry. Together, the results show that the Nias reefs adapted to fundamentally altered hydrographic conditions. We show how centuries of repeated subsidence and uplift during great-earthquake cycles along the Sunda megathrust may have shaped the modern-day predominance of massive scleractinian corals on the West Sumatran reefs.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Terremotos , Animales , Antozoos/fisiología , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Fitoplancton
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8715, 2024 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622248

RESUMEN

Metataxonomic studies of ecosystem microbiotas require the simultaneous processing of samples with contrasting physical and biochemical traits. However, there are no published studies of comparisons of different DNA extraction kits to characterize the microbiotas of the main components of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, and to our knowledge for the first time, five DNA extraction kits were used to investigate the composition and diversity of the microbiota of a subset of samples typically studied in terrestrial ecosystems such as bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, invertebrate taxa and mammalian feces. DNA extraction kit was associated with changes in the relative abundance of hundreds of ASVs, in the same samples, resulting in significant differences in alpha and beta diversity estimates of their microbiotas. Importantly, the impact of DNA extraction kit on sample diversity varies according to sample type, with mammalian feces and soil samples showing the most and least consistent diversity estimates across DNA extraction kits, respectively. We show that the MACHEREY-NAGEL NucleoSpin® Soil kit was associated with the highest alpha diversity estimates, providing the highest contribution to the overall sample diversity, as indicated by comparisons with computationally assembled reference communities, and is recommended to be used for any large-scale microbiota study of terrestrial ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Microbiota , Animales , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN/genética , Heces , Suelo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Mamíferos/genética
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 143, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622626

RESUMEN

Polystyrene nanoplastic (PS-NPs) and Engine oil (EO) pose multiple ecotoxic effects with increasing threat to fish ecosystems. The current study investigated the toxicity of 15 days exposure to PS-NPs and / or EO to explore their combined synergistic effects on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). Hematobiochemical parameters, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers as well as histological alterations were evaluated. The experimental design contained 120 acclimated Nile tilapia distributed into four groups, control, PS-NPs (5 mg/L), EO (1%) and their combination (PS-NPs + EO). After 15-days of exposure, blood and tissue samples were collected from all fish experimental groups. Results indicated that Nile tilapia exposed to PS-NPs and / or EO revealed a significant decrease in almost all the measured hematological parameters in comparison to the control, whereas WBCs and lymphocyte counts were significantly increased in the combined group only. Results clarified that the combined PS-NPs + EO group showed the maximum decrease in RBCs, Hb, MCH and MCHC, and showed the maximum significant rise in interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in comparison to all other exposed groups. Meanwhile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) showed a significant (p < 0.05) decline only in the combination group, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) showed a significant decline in all exposed groups in comparison to the control. Both malondialdehyde (MDA) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a significant elevation only in the combination group. Uric acid showed the maximum elevation in the combination group than all other groups, whereas creatinine showed significant elevation in the EO and combination group when compared to the control. Furthermore, the present experiment proved that exposure to these toxicants either individually or in combination is accompanied by pronounced histomorpholgical damage characterized by severe necrosis and hemorrhage of the vital organs of Nile tilapia, additionally extensively inflammatory conditions with leucocytes infiltration. We concluded that combination exposure to both PS-NPs and EO caused severe anemia, extreme inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation effects, thus they can synergize with each other to intensify toxicity in fish.


Asunto(s)
Cíclidos , Microplásticos , Animales , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Microplásticos/farmacología , Poliestirenos/toxicidad , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Ecosistema , Hígado/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo
14.
Genome Biol ; 25(1): 97, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622738

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As most viruses remain uncultivated, metagenomics is currently the main method for virus discovery. Detecting viruses in metagenomic data is not trivial. In the past few years, many bioinformatic virus identification tools have been developed for this task, making it challenging to choose the right tools, parameters, and cutoffs. As all these tools measure different biological signals, and use different algorithms and training and reference databases, it is imperative to conduct an independent benchmarking to give users objective guidance. RESULTS: We compare the performance of nine state-of-the-art virus identification tools in thirteen modes on eight paired viral and microbial datasets from three distinct biomes, including a new complex dataset from Antarctic coastal waters. The tools have highly variable true positive rates (0-97%) and false positive rates (0-30%). PPR-Meta best distinguishes viral from microbial contigs, followed by DeepVirFinder, VirSorter2, and VIBRANT. Different tools identify different subsets of the benchmarking data and all tools, except for Sourmash, find unique viral contigs. Performance of tools improved with adjusted parameter cutoffs, indicating that adjustment of parameter cutoffs before usage should be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our independent benchmarking facilitates selecting choices of bioinformatic virus identification tools and gives suggestions for parameter adjustments to viromics researchers.


Asunto(s)
Benchmarking , Virus , Metagenoma , Ecosistema , Metagenómica/métodos , Biología Computacional/métodos , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Virus/genética
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2715-2726, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629535

RESUMEN

Riparian zones are typical fragile and sensitive ecological areas. Fluctuations in water level are the main factor affecting the soil environment in these zones, and vegetation restoration is considered an important means of soil conservation there. However, the interactive effects of water level fluctuations and vegetation restoration on the soil microbial community structure in the reservoir riparian zone remain unclear. Therefore, we selected abandoned grassland and artificial forestland at different water level elevations as research objects in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir. We used 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology to explore the composition and diversity of soil prokaryotic microbial communities and investigated the main environmental factors driving the soil microbial community structure. The results showed that the α diversity of soil prokaryotes was the highest at the low water level of the riparian zone. The Pielou_e index, Shannon index, and Simpson index at the 163 m elevation were significantly higher than those at the 168 m elevation, and the Chao1 index and Shannon index were significantly higher than those at the 173 m elevation. However, no significant difference was found in the soil microbial community α diversity between abandoned grassland and artificial forestland. At the same time, water level fluctuations and vegetation restoration had significant effects on the community composition of soil prokaryotic microorganisms, and there were significant differences in biomarker categories in different study sites. Notably, the effects of vegetation restoration types on the soil prokaryotic microbial community structure were stronger than that of water level fluctuations. In addition, the results of hierarchical segmentation showed that soil pH was the main driving factor for the change in soil prokaryotic microbial community structure in the Three Gorges Reservoir. These results deepen our understanding of the variations in microbial community structure in the reservoir riparian zone and provide scientific reference for the restoration and reconstruction of the riparian zone ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Suelo , Suelo/química , Ecosistema , Agua , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Bosques , Microbiología del Suelo
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2727-2740, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629536

RESUMEN

Lake wetlands are extremely important and special ecosystems, which are important for regional water resource storage, environmental protection, and biodiversity maintenance. Sediment bacteria are an important component of lake ecosystems and are a major driver of biogeochemical cycling in lakes. In order to investigate the community structure of bacteria in typical lake sediments in Yinchuan City and their influencing factors, three typical lakes in Yinchuan City (Yuehai Lake, Mingcui Lake, and Xiniu Lake) were selected for the study and surface sediments were collected in January, April, July, and October 2021. The composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined using 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technology, and the response relationships between them and heavy metals were explored. The results showed that the ecological hazard coefficient for heavy metals in the sediments of three typical lakes in Yinchuan City was far less than 40, and the ecological hazard index was far less than 150, all of which indicated a minor ecological hazard. There were no significant differences in bacterial community diversity among the three lakes, but there were significant variations in diversity among the lakes in different seasons and significant differences in community composition. The dominant phyla (top three in terms of relative abundance) in Yuehai Lake, Mingcui Lake, and Xiniu Lake were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. The dominant lower orders were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria. The main divergent species that occurred at the phylum level in typical lakes in Yinchuan were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria. The sediment bacterial community structure of Yuehai Lake was significantly correlated with Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, As, and Pb; the sediment bacterial community structure of Lake Mingcui was significantly correlated with Fe, Pb, and Cr; and the sediment bacterial community structure of Xiniu Lake was not significantly correlated with heavy metals. The types and contents of sediment heavy metals had a significant effect on the bacterial community structure of sediments in Yinchuan Yuehai Lake and Mingcui Lake and were important environmental factors that caused changes in the bacterial community structure of lake sediments.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Lagos/química , Ecosistema , Plomo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Bacterias/genética , Proteobacteria/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , China , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Monitoreo del Ambiente
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2806-2816, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629543

RESUMEN

Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) is an important index for the quantitative evaluation of carbon sources and sinks in terrestrial ecosystems. Based on MOD17A3 and meteorological data, the vegetation NEP was estimated from 2000 to 2021 in the Loess Plateau (LP) and its six ecological subregions of the LP (loess sorghum gully subregions:A1, A2; loess hilly and gully subregions:B1, B2; sandy land and agricultural irrigation subregion:C; and earth-rock mountain and river valley plain subregion:D). Combined with the terrain, remote sensing, and human activity data, Theil-Sen Median trend analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression residual analysis, and geographic detector were used, respectively, to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of NEP and its response mechanism to climate, terrain, and human activity. The results showed that:① On the temporal scale, from 2000 to 2021 the annual mean NEP of the LP region (in terms of C) was 104.62 g·(m2·a)-1. The annual mean NEP for both the whole LP and each of the ecological subregions showed a significant increase trend, and the NEP of the LP increased by 6.10 g·(m2·a)-1 during the study period. The highest growth rate of the NEP was 9.04 g·(m2·a)-1, occurring in the A2 subregion of the loess sorghum gully subregions. The subregion C had the lowest growth rate of 2.74 g·(m2·a)-1. Except for the C subregion, all other ecological subregions (A1, A2, B1, B2, and D) were carbon sinks. ② On the spatial scale, the spatial distribution of annual NEP on the LP was significantly different, with the higher NEP distribution in the southeast of the LP and the lower in the northwest of the LP. The high carbon sink area was mainly distributed in the southern part of the loess sorghum gully subregions, and the carbon source area was mainly distributed in the northern part of the loess sorghum gully subregions and most of the C subregion. The high growth rate was mainly distributed in the central and the southern part of the A2 subregion and the southwest part of the B2 subregion. ③ Human activities had the greatest influence on the temporal variation in NEP in the LP and all the ecological subregions, with the correlation coefficient between human activity data and NEP being above 0.80, and the relative contribution rates of human factors was greater than 50%. The spatial distribution was greatly affected by meteorological factors, among which the precipitation and solar radiation were the main factors affecting the spatial changes in the NEP of the LP. The temporal and spatial variations in the NEP in the LP were influenced by natural and human social factors. To some extent, these results can provide a reference for the terrestrial ecosystem in the LP to reduce emissions and increase sinks and to achieve the goal of double carbon.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Ecosistema , Humanos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Arena , Carbono/análisis , China , Cambio Climático
18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17258, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629937

RESUMEN

Forests, critical components of global ecosystems, face unprecedented challenges due to climate change. This study investigates the influence of functional diversity-as a component of biodiversity-to enhance long-term biomass of European forests in the context of changing climatic conditions. Using the next-generation flexible trait-based vegetation model, LPJmL-FIT, we explored the impact of functional diversity on long-term forest biomass under three different climate change scenarios (video abstract: https://www.pik-potsdam.de/~billing/video/2023/video_abstract_billing_et_al_LPJmLFIT.mp4). Four model set-ups were tested with varying degrees of functional diversity and best-suited functional traits. Our results show that functional diversity positively influences long-term forest biomass, particularly when climate warming is low (RCP2.6). Under these conditions, high-diversity simulations led to an approximately 18.2% increase in biomass compared to low-diversity experiments. However, as climate change intensity increased, the benefits of functional diversity diminished (RCP8.5). A Bayesian multilevel analysis revealed that both full leaf trait diversity and diversity of plant functional types contributed significantly to biomass enhancement under low warming scenarios in our model simulations. Under strong climate change, the presence of a mixture of different functional groups (e.g. summergreen and evergreen broad-leaved trees) was found more beneficial than the diversity of leaf traits within a functional group (e.g. broad-leaved summergreen trees). Ultimately, this research challenges the notion that planting only the most productive and climate-suited trees guarantees the highest future biomass and carbon sequestration. We underscore the importance of high functional diversity and the potential benefits of fostering a mixture of tree functional types to enhance long-term forest biomass in the face of climate change.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Bosques , Biomasa , Teorema de Bayes , Hojas de la Planta
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 172, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630153

RESUMEN

The exploitation of exciting features of plastics for diverse applications has resulted in significant plastic waste generation, which negatively impacts environmental compartments, metabolic processes, and the well-being of aquatic ecosystems biota. A shotgun metagenomic approach was deployed to investigate the microbial consortia, degradation pathways, and enzyme systems involved in the degradation of plastics in a tropical lentic pond sediment (APS). Functional annotation of the APS proteome (ORFs) using the PlasticDB database revealed annotation of 1015 proteins of enzymes such as depolymerase, esterase, lipase, hydrolase, nitrobenzylesterase, chitinase, carboxylesterase, polyesterase, oxidoreductase, polyamidase, PETase, MHETase, laccase, alkane monooxygenase, among others involved in the depolymerization of the plastic polymers. It also revealed that polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), polylactic acid (PLA), polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon have the highest number of annotated enzymes. Further annotation using the KEGG GhostKOALA revealed that except for terephthalate, all the other degradation products of the plastic polymers depolymerization such as glyoxylate, adipate, succinate, 1,4-butanediol, ethylene glycol, lactate, and acetaldehyde were further metabolized to intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Taxonomic characterization of the annotated proteins using the AAI Profiler and BLASTP revealed that Pseudomonadota members dominate most plastic types, followed by Actinomycetota and Acidobacteriota. The study reveals novel plastic degraders from diverse phyla hitherto not reported to be involved in plastic degradation. This suggests that plastic pollution in aquatic environments is prevalent with well-adapted degrading communities and could be the silver lining in mitigating the impacts of plastic pollution in aquatic environments.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Consorcios Microbianos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Consorcios Microbianos/genética , Estanques , Lipasa , Adipatos , Polímeros
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(3): 45, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630407

RESUMEN

The recent growth in global warming, soil contamination, and climate instability have widely disturbed ecosystems, and will have a significant negative impact on the growth of plants that produce grains, fruits and woody biomass. To conquer this difficult situation, we need to understand the molecular bias of plant environmental responses and promote development of new technologies for sustainable maintenance of crop production. Accumulated molecular biological data have highlighted the importance of RNA-based mechanisms for plant stress responses. Here, we report the most advanced plant RNA research presented in the 33rd International Conference on Arabidopsis Research (ICAR2023), held as a hybrid event on June 5-9, 2023 in Chiba, Japan, and focused on "Arabidopsis for Sustainable Development Goals". Six workshops/concurrent sessions in ICAR2023 targeted plant RNA biology, and many RNA-related topics could be found in other sessions. In this meeting report, we focus on the workshops/concurrent sessions targeting RNA biology, to share what is happening now at the forefront of plant RNA research.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis , ARN de Planta/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Ecosistema , Agricultura , Suelo
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