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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 636-644, jul. 2024. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538072

RESUMEN

Thechemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Chuquiraga arcuataHarling grown in the Ecuadorian Andes were studied. One hundred and twenty-six compounds were identified in the essential oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (45.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (44.1%) had the major percentages. The most abundant compounds were camphor (21.6%), myrcene (19.5%), and 1,8-cineole (13.4%). Antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH, ABTS,and FRAP assays. The essential oil had a moderate scavenging effect and reduction of ferric ion capacity through FRAP assay. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against four pathogenic bacteria and a fungus. The essential oil exhibited activity against all microorganism strains under test, particularly against Candida albicansand Staphylococcus aureuswith MICs of 2.43-12.10 µg/mL.


Se estudió la composición química, actividades antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite esencial procedente de las partes aérea (hojas y flores) de Chuquiraga arcuataHarling cultivadas en los Andes ecuatorianos. Se identificaron 126 compuestos en el aceite esencial. Los hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45,8%) y los monoterpenos oxigenados (44,1%) tuvieron el mayor porcentaje. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron alcanfor (21,6%), mirceno (19,5%) y 1,8-cineol (13,4%). La actividadantioxidante se examinó mediante ensayos DPPH, ABTS y FRAP. El aceite esencial tuvo un efecto eliminador moderado y una reducción de la capacidad de iones férricos mediante el ensayo FRAP. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial contra cuatro bacterias y un hongo patógenos. El aceite esencial mostró actividad contra todas las cepas de microorganismos bajo prueba, particularmente contra Candida albicansy Staphylococcus aureuscon CMI de 2,43-12,10 µg/mL.


Asunto(s)
Aceites Volátiles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Antioxidantes/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Flores/química , Ecuador , Antioxidantes/farmacología
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299394, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743790

RESUMEN

Working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) play a crucial role in learning during early childhood. The literature suggests a non-linear developmental trajectory of executive functions (EFs) with varied results according to gender, usually attributed to environmental factors. However, there is insufficient and inconclusive data on whether this pattern is reproduced in the Latin American preschool population since most studies have been conducted in English-speaking, European, and Asian environments. Thus, objectively comparing children's executive performance across diverse international geographical contexts becomes challenging. This study aimed to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the performance in WM and IC of 982 Ecuadorian preschoolers aged between 42 and 65 months (M = 53.71; SD = 5.714) and belonging to medium-high, medium, and low-medium socioeconomic strata. The participants consisted of 496 boys (M = 53.77; SD = 5.598) and 486 girls (M = 53.65; SD = 5.834), representing nine cities in Ecuador. To assess the effect of age and gender on performance in these two domains, the sample was divided into four 6-month age intervals. Two tests were administered to the participants, and a survey was conducted with 799 of their usual caregivers. Viewing the cross-sectional mean scores of the WM and IC tests as a temporal continuum reveals an upward trend in each age interval studied. Girls outperformed boys on the IC test, showing statistically significant differences in the earliest age interval. The gender differences in executive performance reported in the literature emphasize the need to explore the modulating effect of environmental variables on early childhood development. This information could offer valuable insights for adapting and optimizing cognitive and didactic strategies in early childhood tailored to the characteristics and needs of the preschool population.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Función Ejecutiva , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Ecuador , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Inhibición Psicológica , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Edad
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0285648, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718052

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acne is a common disease that is associated with scarring and substantial psychosocial burden. The Global Burden of Skin Disease reported that the burden from acne as measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from 188 countries and specifically that it is greatest in Western Europe, high-income North America and Southern Latin America. This paper aimed to identify risk factors for acne scarring specific to the Ecuadorian population in order to adapt the 4-ASRAT tool accordingly. METHODS: This was an observational prospective study. Participants were recruited to complete a survey that was developed based on the potential risk factors for acne scarring and had facial photographs taken. To determine risk factors and their respective weighting, a logistic regression was performed. RESULTS: The study included 404 participants. Results from univariate analyses indicated that being male (OR = 2.76 95%CI [1.72; 4.43]), having severe or very severe acne scarring (OR = 4.28 95%CI [1.24; 14.79]), acne duration over 1 year (OR = 1.71 95%CI [1.12; 2.60]), oily skin (OR = 2.02 95%CI [1.27; 3.22]) and the presence of acne on the neck (OR = 2.26 95%CI [1.30; 3.92]), were all significantly associated with the presence of acne scarring. Male sex (2.56 95%CI [1.58;4.17]), oily skin (1.96 95%CI [1.20;3.20]) and severe or very severe acne (3.75 95%CI [1.05;13.37]) remained significant risk factors for acne scarring in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: By identifying acne scarring risk factors and applying the tool in everyday dermatology visits, we can reduce the physical and psychological burden that acne scarring causes in the adolescent and adult populations. Further research should be conducted to reassess potential risk factors and complete the adaptation of the tool for the Ecuadorian population, with a larger and more representative study population.


Asunto(s)
Acné Vulgar , Cicatriz , Humanos , Ecuador/epidemiología , Acné Vulgar/epidemiología , Acné Vulgar/complicaciones , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Femenino , Cicatriz/etiología , Cicatriz/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Prospectivos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven
4.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1337357, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689770

RESUMEN

Introduction: A major sublineage within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) LAM family characterized by a new in-frame fusion gene Rv3346c/55c was discovered in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 2007, called RDRio, associated to drug resistance. The few studies about prevalence of MTB RDRio strains in Latin America reported values ranging from 3% in Chile to 69.8% in Venezuela, although no information is available for countries like Ecuador. Methods: A total of 814 MTB isolates from years 2012 to 2016 were screened by multiplex PCR for RDRio identification, followed by 24-loci MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. Results: A total number of 17 MTB RDRio strains were identified, representing an overall prevalence of 2.09% among MTB strains in Ecuador. While 10.9% of the MTB isolates included in the study were multidrug resistance (MDR), 29.4% (5/17) of the RDRio strains were MDR. Discussion: This is the first report of the prevalence of MTB RDRio in Ecuador, where a strong association with MDR was found, but also a very low prevalence compared to other countries in Latin America. It is important to improve molecular epidemiology tools as a part of MTB surveillance programs in Latin America to track the transmission of potentially dangerous MTB stains associated to MDR TB like MTB RDRio.


Asunto(s)
Genotipo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efectos de los fármacos , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/microbiología , Variación Genética , Antituberculosos/farmacología , Adulto , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Adolescente
5.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(3): e13272, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692845

RESUMEN

Native microbial consortia have been proposed for biological wastewater treatment, but their diversity and function remain poorly understood. This study investigated three native microalgae-bacteria consortia collected from the Amazon, Highlands, and Galapagos regions of Ecuador to assess their metagenomes and wastewater remediation potential. The consortia were evaluated for 12 days under light (LC) and continuous dark conditions (CDC) to measure their capacity for nutrient and organic matter removal from synthetic wastewater (SWW). Overall, all three consortia demonstrated higher nutrient removal efficiencies under LC than CDC, with the Amazon and Galapagos consortia outperforming the Highlands consortium in nutrient removal capabilities. Despite differences in α- and ß-diversity, microbial species diversity within and between consortia did not directly correlate with their nutrient removal capabilities. However, all three consortia were enriched with core taxonomic groups associated with wastewater remediation activities. Our analyses further revealed higher abundances for nutrient removing microorganisms in the Amazon and Galapagos consortia compared with the Highland consortium. Finally, this study also uncovered the contribution of novel microbial groups that enhance wastewater bioremediation processes. These groups have not previously been reported as part of the core microbial groups commonly found in wastewater communities, thereby highlighting the potential of investigating microbial consortia isolated from ecosystems of megadiverse countries like Ecuador.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Metagenómica , Consorcios Microbianos , Aguas Residuales , Ecuador , Aguas Residuales/microbiología , Consorcios Microbianos/genética , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/metabolismo , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Microalgas/clasificación , Microalgas/metabolismo , Purificación del Agua , Biodegradación Ambiental , Metagenoma
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302000, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709720

RESUMEN

Wastewater surveillance represents an alternative approach to regulating contamination and the early detection of infectious agents and outbreaks of diseases of public health importance. This study evaluated domestic wastewater effects on recreational waters in estuarine and seawater bodies in Guayas and Santa Elena provinces in Ecuador, South America. Fecal indicator bacteria (thermotolerant coliforms) served as key indicators for evaluation. Physical, chemical, and microbiological quality markers following the Ecuadorian environmental quality standard and the discharge of effluents to the water resource were analyzed. Samples were collected from 44 coastal sites and 2 oxidation lagoons during the dry and rainy seasons of 2020 and 2021, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in samples with higher E. coli concentrations using reverse transcription quantitative PCR to detect the genes N and ORF1ab. All samples analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 showed Ct ˂ 40 for at least one gene. Four samples showed at least 20 genome copies of gene N per reaction. These were at an artisanal fishing port, an estuarine area (Palmar), a recreational bay, and an oxidation lagoon. A moderate correlation was found between SARS-CoV-2 RNA, thermotolerant coliform and E. coli (p-value ≤ 0.0037), and a strong and positive correlation between thermotolerant coliform and E. coli. (p-value ≤ 0.00001), highlighting the utility of these established parameters as a proxy of the virus. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms between seasons (p-value = 0.016) and sites (p-value = 0.005). The highest levels of coliforms were found in the dry season (63000 MPN/100 mL) in Anconcito and during the rainy season (14000 MPN/100 mL) at Esterillo in Playas County. It is recommended that the decentralized autonomous governments of the surveyed provinces in Ecuador implement urgent corrective actions and establish medium-term mechanisms to minimize a potential contamination route. Additional parameters must be included in the monitoring, such as Enterococcus and intestinal parasites, due to their public health implications. In the oxidation lagoons, maintenance actions must be carried out, including the dissolution of sediments, an increase in water retention times, and in situ treatment of the sludge, to improve the system's performance.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Calidad del Agua , Ecuador , Aguas del Alcantarillado/virología , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , SARS-CoV-2/genética , ARN Viral/genética , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Viral/análisis , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Humanos , Enterobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Microbiología del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua de Mar/virología , Agua de Mar/microbiología , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Aguas Residuales/virología , Aguas Residuales/microbiología
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1322882, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694517

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has a broad clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic-mild form to severe phenotype. The severity of COVID-19 is a complex trait influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. Ethnic differences have been observed in relation to COVID-19 severity during the pandemic. It is currently unknown whether genetic variations may contribute to the increased risk of severity observed in Latin-American individuals The aim of this study is to investigate the potential correlation between gene variants at CCL2, OAS1, and DPP9 genes and the severity of COVID-19 in a population from Quito, Ecuador. This observational case-control study was conducted at the Carrera de Biologia from the Universidad Central del Ecuador and the Hospital Quito Sur of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social (Quito-SUR-IESS), Quito, Ecuador. Genotyping for gene variants at rs1024611 (A>G), rs10774671 (A>G), and rs10406145 (G>C) of CCL2, OAS1, and DPP9 genes was performed on 100 COVID-19 patients (43 with severe form and 57 asymptomatic-mild) using RFLP-PCR. The genotype distribution of all SNVs throughout the entire sample of 100 individuals showed Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (P=0.53, 0.35, and 0.4 for CCL2, OAS1, and DPP9, respectively). The HWE test did not find any statistically significant difference in genotype distribution between the study and control groups for any of the three SNVs. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with the GG of the CCL2 rs1024611 gene variant had an increased association with the severe COVID-19 phenotype in a recessive model (P = 0.0003, OR = 6.43, 95% CI 2.19-18.89) and for the OAS1 rs10774671 gene variant, the log-additive model showed a significant association with the severe phenotype of COVID-19 (P=0.0084, OR=3.85, 95% CI 1.33-11.12). Analysis of haplotype frequencies revealed that the coexistence of GAG at CCL2, OAS1, and DPP9 variants, respectively, in the same individual increased the presence of the severe COVID-19 phenotype (OR=2.273, 95% CI: 1.271-4.068, P=0.005305). The findings of the current study suggests that the ethnic background affects the allele and genotype frequencies of genes associated with the severity of COVID-19. The experience with COVID-19 has provided an opportunity to identify an ethnicity-based approach to recognize genetically high-risk individuals in different populations for emerging diseases.


Asunto(s)
2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetasa , COVID-19 , Quimiocina CCL2 , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Adulto , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetasa/genética , COVID-19/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Frecuencia de los Genes , Anciano , Adulto Joven
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(3): 437-447, mayo 2024. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538171

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to optimize by response surface design, the extraction of the leaf essential oil (EO) from Minthostachys mollis [HBK] Griseb., grown in Ecuador, using steam distillation. The factors used were extraction time (XTIE) of 60, 105 and 150 min and plant material/water ratio (XRMA) of 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. The optimal combination was reached with XRMA 1:5 and XTIE 150 min, obtaining a process yield of 0.67%. The chemical composition of the EO analyzed by GC - MS was determined, where the main compounds were carvacryl acetate (44.01%), carvacrol (16.51%) and menthone (8.20%). The anti oxidant capacity of EO was evaluated using the FRAP and ABTS methodologies, with an IC 50 243.21 µmol Fe 2+ /g and 0.12 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of EO was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Escherich ia coli and Staphylococcus aureus .


El objetivo del estudio fue optimizar, mediante un diseño de superficie respuesta, la extracción d el aceite esencial (AE) de hojas de Minthostachys mollis [HBK] Griseb. del Ecuador, mediante destilación por arrastre de vapor. Los factores fueron el tiempo de extracción (XTIE) de 60, 105 y 150 min, y relación de material vegetal/ agua destilada (XRMA) d e 1:3, 1:4 y 1:5. La combinación óptima se logró con XTIE 150 min y XRMA 1:5 para un rendimiento de 0,67%. Se determinó la composición química del AE por GC - MS donde los compuestos mayoritarios fueron acetato de carvacrilo (44,01%), carvacrol (16,51%) y me ntona (8,20%). Se evaluó la capacidad antioxidante del AE por las metodologías FRAP y ABTS, con CI 50 de 243,21 µmol Fe 2+ /g y 0,12 mg/mL, respectivamente. Además, se demostró la actividad antimicrobiana contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Es cherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus .


Asunto(s)
Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Aceites Volátiles/química , Antiinfecciosos/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/química , Ecuador
9.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59390

RESUMEN

Since 2015, there has been a notable increase in global efforts by various stakeholders to promote and advance surgical care policies, as proposed by the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) namely, the development of the National Surgical Obstetric Anesthesia Planning (NSOAP), a country- driven framework that offers a comprehensive approach to health ministries to enhance their surgical systems. Ecuador has affirmed its position as a leading advocate for surgical care in Latin America. Following a two-year process, Ecuador is the first country in the Region of the Americas to launch an NSSP as a key component of a robust health system, including improving emergency responsiveness and pre- paredness


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud , Especialidades Quirúrgicas , Ecuador
10.
Zebrafish ; 21(2): 119-127, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621203

RESUMEN

Research-based education at the undergraduate level is ideal for fostering the training of future scientists. In an undergraduate Developmental Biology course, this learning strategy requires the availability of model species and enough research reagents, not only for technique training but also for the development of student original projects. This might be challenging in most countries, where resources are limited. Hence, there is a need to develop low-cost solutions for use in the classroom. In this study, we describe the optimization and use of two low-cost protocols in zebrafish embryos for hands-on practical sessions and project-based learning in a Developmental Biology undergraduate course in Ecuador. These protocols were designed for the practical and experimental learning of vertebrate meroblastic cleavage, gastrulation, and neural crest differentiation. The proposed protocols have been previously described in the literature and use silver nitrate and alcian blue, two relatively inexpensive reagents, to label cell membranes and cartilage. The silver nitrate protocol allows the study of cell contact formation during cleavage and the identification of cellular changes during gastrulation, including yolk internalization and epiboly. The alcian blue staining allows the analysis of cranial mesenchymal differentiation into cartilage. These protocols are ideal for practical sessions due to their ease of application, quick results, adaptability to the class schedule, and robustness in the hands of beginning researchers. Finally, these protocols are adaptable for research-based class projects.


Asunto(s)
Nitrato de Plata , Pez Cebra , Humanos , Animales , Ecuador , Azul Alcián , Biología Evolutiva
11.
PeerJ ; 12: e17199, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38680892

RESUMEN

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. is associated with nosocomial infections in intensive care unit patients, resulting in high mortality. Although Acinetobacter spp. represent a serious public health problem worldwide, there are a few studies related to the presence of carbapenemases in health care facilities and other environmental settings in Ecuador. The main aim of this study was to characterize the carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolates obtained from four hospitals (52) and from five rivers (27) close to Quito. We used the disc diffusion and EDTA sinergy tests to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the production of metallo ß-lactamases, respectively. We carried out a multiplex PCR of gyrB gene and the sequencing of partial rpoB gene to bacterial species identification. We performed molecular screening of nine carbapenem-resistant genes (blaSPM, blaSIM, blaGIM, blaGES, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, and blaOXA-143) by multiplex PCR, followed by identification using sequencing of blaOXA genes. Our findings showed that carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were the main species found in health care facilities and rivers. Most of the clinical isolates came from respiratory tract samples and harbored blaOXA-23, blaOXA-366, blaOXA-72, blaOXA-65, blaOXA-70, and blaOXA-143-like genes. The river isolates harbored only the blaOXA-51 and probably blaOXA-259 genes. We concluded that the most predominant type of carbapenem genes among isolates were both blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-65 among A. baumannii clinical isolates.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter , Proteínas Bacterianas , beta-Lactamasas , Ecuador/epidemiología , beta-Lactamasas/genética , beta-Lactamasas/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Humanos , Infecciones por Acinetobacter/microbiología , Infecciones por Acinetobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Acinetobacter/genética , Acinetobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Acinetobacter/efectos de los fármacos , Acinetobacter/enzimología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Carbapenémicos/farmacología , Ríos/microbiología , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/efectos de los fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/aislamiento & purificación , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzimología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302293, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640122

RESUMEN

Smoking is a worldwide epidemic and increased prices are one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce tobacco consumption. This article aims to estimate the price and income elasticity of cigarettes for different population groups in Ecuador. The National Survey of Urban and Rural Household Income and Expenditures (ENIGHUR) 2011-2012 was used, which has information on household cigarette consumption and its sociodemographic characteristics. Deaton's Almost Ideal Demand System, which decouples the effect of quality on the price of the good, was applied. The elasticities were calculated for several groups: urban/rural, income levels (tertiles), education level, sex and age ranges of the household head, and frequency of cigarette purchases in households. The estimated price elasticity nationwide is -0.89 and the income elasticity is 0.41, both statistically significant. Households headed by women (-2.22) are more sensitive to an increase in cigarette prices than those headed by men (-0.65) and households headed by people between 20 and 40 years of age (-2.32) have a higher price elasticity compared to country-level estimations. Differences within other groups are not statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Impuestos , Productos de Tabaco , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Ecuador/epidemiología , Comercio , Factores Socioeconómicos , Elasticidad
13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1903): 20220326, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643787

RESUMEN

Under anthropogenic pressures and climate change, most ecosystems are showing signs of reduced resilience. Unfortunately, some are more at risk of collapse and, without interventions, they may lose biodiversity, ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here, we describe two tools that were developed under the auspices of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the Red List of Ecosystems and the Nature-based Solutions Global Standard, and their capacity to first identify the ecosystems at risk of collapse in a nation and then develop solutions based on nature to improve their resilience. Nature-based solutions include, for example ecosystem-based adaptation, where solutions are developed to meet the needs of the local people while protecting nature to ensure greater resilience of the social-ecological system, not only the natural ecosystem. We discuss through a case study in the Andean high mountains and páramo social-ecological system how these approaches have been used in Colombia. We then discuss lessons learned and challenges that may reduce the capacity of a community to initiate such interventions, such as national policies and funding restrictions. We also discuss through another early case in Ecuador the importance to adapt these types of interventions to the geographical and cultural context of the social-ecological systems. This article is part of the theme issue 'Bringing nature into decision-making'.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Colombia , Ecuador , Biodiversidad
14.
Waste Manag ; 181: 20-33, 2024 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574689

RESUMEN

The transition towards Circular Economy (CE) is a promising approach to sustainable development that may cause significant social impacts. Despite the benefits of CE initiatives, key players such as informal recyclers face serious social issues such as poverty, lack of social security, and discrimination. Although evaluating social impacts remains a considerable challenge, Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) is recognized as a suitable methodology with a life cycle perspective. While most SLCA experiences are conducted in the formal sector, it is important to consider the informal sector, which plays a crucial role in developing countries. This article presents an analysis of SLCA studies in informal recycling settings in order to identify the challenges and adjustments required for informal settings. The analysis is based on a literature review and a documentary review of a pilot application of SLCA in the informal recycling system in Cuenca, Ecuador. The results show that SLCA requires adaptation to be applied in informal settings. There are particular challenges in delineating boundaries due to the fuzzy nature and variability of informal activities. Tasks such as establishing specific indicators, developing reference scales and data collection, require careful planning and active stakeholder participation. For instance, indicators regarding Fair Salary or Working hours were adapted based on best practices. Furthermore, tasks such as verifying and disseminating results should be included in interpretation phases to generate long-term impacts and influence behaviors. The study underscores SLCA's multidimensional view but highlights the need for further standardization and adaptation for informal sectors.


Asunto(s)
Reciclaje , Reciclaje/métodos , Humanos , Ecuador , Sector Informal , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Desarrollo Sostenible
15.
J Water Health ; 22(3): 536-549, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557569

RESUMEN

Bacterial communities in drinking water provide a gauge to measure quality and confer insights into public health. In contrast to urban systems, water treatment in rural areas is not adequately monitored and could become a health risk. We performed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to analyze the microbiome present in the water treatment plants at two rural communities, one city, and the downstream water for human consumption in schools and reservoirs in the Andean highlands of Ecuador. We tested the effect of water treatment on the diversity and composition of bacterial communities. A set of physicochemical variables in the sampled water was evaluated and correlated with the structure of the observed bacterial communities. Predominant bacteria in the analyzed communities belonged to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The Sphingobium genus, a chlorine resistance group, was particularly abundant. Of health concern in drinking water reservoirs were Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae; these families are associated with human and poultry fecal contamination. We propose the latter families as relevant biomarkers for establishing local standards for the monitoring of potable water systems in highlands of Ecuador. Our assessment of bacterial community composition in water systems in the Ecuadorian highlands provides a technical background to inform management decisions.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Humanos , Ecuador , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Bacterias , Proteobacteria/genética , Microbiología del Agua
16.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 71(1): 52, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683070

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: To identify and registry the most important aeroallergens trapped at the aerobiology station in the city of Samborondon, Ecuador. METHODS: Pollen grains and fungal spore counts were performed according to the standardized technique with a Hirst-type collection equipment, Burkard spore trap for seven days, following the recommendations of the National Allergy Bureau (NAB) of the American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI). The equipment was installed on the roof of the Universidad de Especialidades Espiritu Santo (UEES), 25 m above ground level, coordinates: 2°07 ́57 ́ ́S 79°52 ́06 ́ ́W, in the city of Samborondon. The sampling period was performed from November 2022 to April 2023. RESULTS: We identified the following pollen families: Poaceae (258 grains/m3), Apocynaceae (Plumeria rubra pc) (214 grains/m3), Lamiaceae (180 grains/m3), Asteraceae Ambrosía spp.- (60 grains/m3), Chenopodiacea (27 grains/m3), Myrtaceae (17 grains/m3), Pinaceae (11 grains/m3), Betulaceae (7 grains/m3). Also identified fungical spores: Fuzariella spp./Leptosphaeria spp. (1899/m3), Cladosporium spp. (1407/m3), Nigrospora spp. (1183/m3), Dreschlera/Helmintosporum spp. (329/m3), Alternaria spp. (98/m3), Pithomyces spp. (79/m3), Curvularia spp. (48/m3), Stemphylium spp. (46/m3). CONCLUSIONS: We reported the first study of aerobiology (capture and identification of environmental pollens and fungi) in the city of Samborondon. The inhabitants of this area are exposed to different aeroallergens with a predominance of Poaceaes pollen and Fuzzariella spp./Leptosphaeria spp. spores. The identified allergens should be part of the usual allergy studies. The results of this first preliminary study should be compared with information from the forthcoming years, which will help to identify variations in the concentration of seasonal aeroallergens, annual fluctuations, and extend the traps to other parts of the city.


OBJETIVO: Identificar y registrar los aeroalérgenos más importantes captados en la estación de aerobiología en la ciudad de Samborondón, Ecuador. MÉTODOS: Los conteos de granos de polen y esporas de hongos se realizaron según la técnica estandarizada, con un equipo colector tipo Hirst, Burkard spore trap for seven days, siguiendo las recomendaciones de la National Allergy Bureau (NAB) de la American Academy Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI). El equipo se instaló en la azotea de la Universidad Espíritu Santo (UEES), en la ciudad de Samborondón, a 25 m de altura desde el nivel del suelo, 2°07´57´´S 79°52´06´´O. El periodo de captación se llevó a cabo entre noviembre de 2022 y abril de 2023. RESULTADOS: Identificamos las siguientes familias polínicas: Poaceae (258 granos/m3), Apocynaceae (Plumeria rubra pc) (214 granos/m3), Lamiaceae (180 granos/m3), Asteraceae Ambrosía spp.- (60 granos/m3), Chenopodiacea (27 granos/m3), Myrtaceae (17 granos/m3), Pinaceae (11 granos/m3), Betulaceae (7 granos/m3). Además esporas fúngicas: Fuzariella spp./Leptosphaeria spp. (1899/m3), Cladosporium spp. (1407/m3), Nigrospora spp. (1183/m3), Dreschlera/Helmintosporum spp. (329/m3), Alternaria spp. (98/m3), Pithomyces spp. (79/m3), Curvularia spp. (48/m3), Stemphylium spp. (46/m3). CONCLUSIONES: Se reporta el primer estudio de aerobiología (captación e identificación de pólenes y hongos ambientales), en la ciudad de Samborondón. Los habitantes de esta zona están expuestos a diferentes aeroalérgenos con predominancia al polen de Poaceaes y esporas de Fuzzariella spp./Leptosphaeria spp. Los alérgenos identificados deberían formar parte de los estudios alergológicos habituales. Los resultados de este primer estudio preliminar deberían ser comparados con información de los siguientes años para ayudar a identificar las variaciones de concentración de aeroalérgenos estacionales, las fluctuaciones anuales, y extender los captadores a otros puntos de la ciudad.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos , Polen , Esporas Fúngicas , Ecuador , Polen/inmunología , Monitoreo del Ambiente
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673293

RESUMEN

There is increasing guidance promoting the provision of mental health and psychosocial support programs to both migrant and host community members in humanitarian settings. However, there is a lack of information on the respective experiences and benefits for migrant and host community members who are participating in mental health and psychosocial support programming. We evaluated a community-based psychosocial program for migrant and host community women, Entre Nosotras, which was implemented with an international non-governmental organization in Ecuador in 2021. Data on participant characteristics and psychosocial wellbeing were collected via pre/post surveys with 143 participants, and qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset (n = 61) of participants. All quantitative analyses were conducted in STATA, and qualitative analysis was done in NVivo. Attendance was higher for host community members. Specifically, 71.4% of host community members attended 4-5 sessions, whereas only 37.4% of migrants attended 4-5 sessions (p = 0.004). Qualitative analysis shows that the intervention was less accessible for migrants due to a variety of structural barriers. However, this analysis also demonstrated that both groups of women felt a greater sense of social connectedness after participating in the program and expressed gratitude for the bonds they formed with other women. Some migrant women described negative experiences with the host community because they felt as though they could not confide in host community women and speak freely in front of them. These results underscore how the migratory context influences the implementation of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programs. As humanitarian guidelines continue to emphasize the integration of host community members and displaced persons, it is critical to account for how the same intervention may impact these populations differently.


Asunto(s)
Intervención Psicosocial , Migrantes , Humanos , Ecuador , Femenino , Adulto , Migrantes/psicología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Salud Mental , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
18.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079960, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670624

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify differences in the mean vitamin D concentrations in samples obtained from a private laboratory in Quito and to explore their relationship with the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods spanning from 2018 to 2022. DESIGN: A combination of an interrupted time series design and a retrospective cross-sectional approach. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study involved 9285 participants who had their 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels tested at a well-known private laboratory in Quito, Ecuador, from 2018 to 2022. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The 25(OH)D levels were analysed and assessed for correlations with age, and the year the measurements were taken. RESULTS: The mean 25(OH)D level was 27.53 ng/mL (± 14.11). Approximately 68.8% of participants had serum 25(OH)D levels of less than 30 ng/mL, and 0.6% showed potential harm from excess 25(OH)D, with levels over 100 ng/mL. The analysis indicated a significant monthly increase of 0.133 units in 25(OH)D levels (p=0.006). However, the period after March 2020, compared with before, saw a non-significant decrease of 1.605 units in mean 25(OH)D levels (p=0.477). CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings indicate a significant prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency, underscoring the necessity for preventative measures. However, the increasing trend in high 25(OH)D levels is concerning, emphasising the importance of prudent vitamin D supplement prescriptions and public education against self-medication. For efficient resource allocation and targeting of those with higher risks, it may be advantageous to concentrate vitamin D testing on specific population groups.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Ecuador/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Vitamina D/sangre , Femenino , Adulto , Masculino , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Estudios Retrospectivos , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Ciudades , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/sangre , Lactante
19.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 12(4): e2438, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666495

RESUMEN

There is no evidence evaluating the IL10 epigenetic upregulation among mestizo children in a high-altitude Andean city in Latin America. OBJECTIVE: To identify polymorphisms and methylation profiles in the IL10 gene associated with asthma in children aged 5 to 11. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with asthmatic and non-asthmatic children aged 5 to 11 years in Cuenca-Ecuador. Data on allergic diseases and risk factors were collected through a questionnaire for parents. Atopy was measured by skin prick test (SPT) to relevant aeroallergens. Three IL10 single nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated in all participants, and methylation analysis was performed in 54 participants. Association between risk factors, allergic diseases and genetic factors were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The results of polymorphisms showed no differences between cases and controls when comparing the SNPs rs3024495, rs3024496, rs1800896 allelic and genotypic frequencies. In the methylation analysis, no differences in the IL10 methylation profile were found between cases and controls; however, the multivariate analysis showed an association between the mother's smoking habits and the IL10 methylation profile. CONCLUSION: Smoking habit could be essential as an environmental exposure factor in regulating gene expression in children with asthma.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Metilación de ADN , Interleucina-10 , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Humanos , Asma/genética , Asma/epidemiología , Interleucina-10/genética , Femenino , Masculino , Niño , Preescolar , Ecuador/epidemiología , Fumar , Madres , Estudios de Casos y Controles
20.
Arch Osteoporos ; 19(1): 31, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647726

RESUMEN

Reports addressing the effects of oily fish intake on bone health are inconsistent. This study shows that consumption of ≥ 5.2 oily fish servings/week (728 g) is associated with lower prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in elderly women of Amerindian ancestry. Results suggest a beneficial effect of oily fish intake in this population. OBJECTIVES: Oily fish is a major dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and other nutrients that may have a positive effect on bone health. However, this association is inconsistent and seems to be more evident in certain ethnic groups. We aimed to assess the association between oily fish intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in frequent fish consumers of Amerindian ancestry living in rural Ecuador. METHODS: This study included 399 individuals aged ≥ 60 years living in three neighboring rural villages of coastal Ecuador. Dietary oily fish intake was quantified systematically using validated surveys and BMD was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ordinal logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, were fitted to assess the independent association between oily fish intake and bone health. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 68.8 ± 6.8 years, and 58% were women. The mean intake of oily fish was 8.5 ± 4.7 servings/week, with 308 (77%) reporting high fish intake (≥ 5.2 servings/week [728 g]). Ninety-four (24%) participants had normal BMD T-scores, 149 (37%) had osteopenia, and 156 (39%) had osteoporosis. Ordinal logistic regression models showed no association between high fish intake and bone health in the total population. When men and women were analyzed separately, the association became significant for women only in both unadjusted (OR: 2.52; 95% C.I.: 1.22 - 5.23) and fully-adjusted models (OR: 2.23; 95% C.I.: 1.03 - 4.81). CONCLUSION: Consumption of ≥ 5.2 oily fish servings/week is associated with lower prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in elderly women of Amerindian ancestry.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ecuador/epidemiología , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Osteoporosis/etnología , Animales , Peces , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas/epidemiología , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Alimentos Marinos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Indígenas Sudamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Absorciometría de Fotón
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