Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.183
Filtrar
1.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 638-646, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208687

RESUMEN

Suicide, suicide ideations, and psychiatric disorder rates tend to increase after natural disasters such as earthquake. In 2016 Ecuador experienced a 7.8Mw earthquake and, more recently, the Covid-19 confinement. Both events may have negatively affected the mental health of the Ecuadorian population. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the suicide rates and choice of suicide method in the Ecuadorian population between January 2011 and December 2020. The dataset used is publicly available on the Ecuadorian National Institute of Statistics and Censuses. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for potential sociodemographic factors associated with each suicide method compared to other reported suicide methods. There were 10,380 registered cases of suicide in Ecuador between 2011 and 2020. Significant suicide rates per provinces were seen in Napo with 12.63 and Azuay with 12.52, followed by Bolívar with 12.30, and Orellana with 11.36 suicides/100,000 habitants. Hanging accounted for 7082 cases (68.2 %). The mestizos (82 %) were the most prevalent ethnicity of all suicide cases. School-age children with 6-12 years (OR 8.83, 95 % CI 5.34-14.59) and adolescents with 13-19 years (OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.29-1.66) were more likely to use hanging as method of suicide. In conclusion, we observed an increase of suicide rates from 8.15 per 100,000 in 2011 to 8.81 in 2020. The confinement of COVID-19 pandemic in the period evaluated did not significantly affect the suicide rates. An increased suicide rate was observed in the province hardest hit by the 2016 earthquake.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Terremotos , Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Ecuador/epidemiología , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Etnicidad
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361220

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many companies to adopt different work modalities to ensure their operation during this period. In this study, we described and compared working conditions and perceptions among face-to-face workers, teleworkers, and hybrid workers in Ecuador. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 542 participants, using a self-report survey to assess sociodemographic data, working conditions, and workers' perceptions. Variables were described and then compared by the Chi-square test, ANOVA, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results indicated a higher proportion of on-site workers without higher education and in the public sector compared to the other modalities. At the same time, there was evidence of increased perceived productivity. People in the hybrid modality tended to have more than one job, earning a higher monthly salary, perceiving a decrease in productivity, an increase in daily working hours, and a lower capacity for time management. In addition, most teleworkers reported fair working conditions, a dedicated workspace, and easy adaptation to this work mode. This study builds a more in-depth understanding of how workers perceived their working conditions among work modalities for organizational decision-making because the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic is modifying the ways of working permanently.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Teletrabajo , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología
3.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096221140250, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419228

RESUMEN

Unvaccinated patients with comorbidities that impair the immune function, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, are more likely to develop severe COVID-19. The COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome has raised new concerns in intensive care units globally owing to the presence of secondary fungal infections. We report the case of a 71-year-old man from Ecuador with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, severe COVID-19 pneumonia, and lung cavitation associated with triple infections with Trichosporon asahii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The patient with a history of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes was admitted to our hospital from a private care center with a diagnosis of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. On arrival, the patient presented with signs of hypoxemic respiratory failure. During his stay at another hospital, he had received tocilizumab and corticosteroid therapy. Therefore, intubation was performed and mechanical ventilation was initiated. The patient developed a septic shock and renal failure with a glomerular filtration rate of 27.5 mL/min/1.73 m2; therefore, two hemodiafiltration sessions were started. The bronchoalveolar lavage revealed erythematous lesions in the bronchial tree and abundant purulent secretions and erosions in the bronchial mucosa, with a cavitary lesion in the right bronchial tree. The bronchoalveolar lavage samples were used to isolate Trichosporon asahii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa carbapenemase class A. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Biotyper mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) molecular identification were performed. This case report suggested that patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, with or without comorbidities, are more susceptible to opportunistic infections.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfección , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria , Masculino , Humanos , Anciano , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , COVID-19/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Ecuador , Pulmón
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2144, 2022 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414955

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening is a cost-effective method responsible for reducing cervical cancer-related mortality by 70% in countries that have achieved high coverage through nationwide screening strategies. However, there are disparities in access to screening. In Ecuador, although cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, only 58.4% of women of reproductive age have ever been screened for cervical cancer. METHODOLOGY: A qualitative study was performed to understand the current barriers to screening and to identify strategies that could increase uptake in Azuay province, Ecuador. Seven focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with under-screened women and health professionals (HPs). The FGDs were recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was done using the socio-ecological framework to categorize and analyse the data. RESULTS: Overall, 28 women and 27 HPs participated in the study. The two groups perceived different barriers to cervical cancer screening. The HPs considered barriers to be mainly at the policy level (lack of a structured screening plan; lack of health promotion) and the individual level (lack of risk perception; personal beliefs). The women identified barriers mainly at organizational level, such as long waiting times, lack of access to health centres, and inadequate patient-physician communication. Both groups mentioned facilitators at policy level, such as national campaigns promoting cervical cancer screening, and at community and individual level, including health literacy and women's empowerment. CONCLUSIONS: The women considered access to health services the main barrier to screening, while the HPs identified a lack of investment in screening programmes and cultural patterns at the community level as major obstacles. To take an integrated approach to cervical cancer prevention, the perspectives of both groups should be taken into account. Additionally, new strategies and technologies, such as self-administered human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and community participation, should be implemented to increase access to cervical cancer screening.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Ecuador , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos
5.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364139

RESUMEN

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. has gained a reputation in the food industry as an incredible crop capable of supplying the world's largest edible oil production. In Ecuador, an important oil palm-producing country, this crop is affected in a high percentage by the bud rot disease, which is responsible for palm death. The main objective of the investigation was dedicated to understanding the palm defense mechanism facing bud rot disease, translated in the induction of reactive oxygen species, activation of defensive machinery comprising enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative components, secondary metabolites, carotenoids accumulation in the palm during all stages of disease infection. For this, a survey was conducted in different oil palm plantations in the Esmeraldas province, one of the most representative for its highest incidence of bud rot disease. The survey completed DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, and other spectrophotometric analyses to underline the biochemical, biological, and physiological palm response front of bud rot incidence. The palm defense strategy in each disease stage could be represented by the phenolic compound's involvement, an increment of antioxidant activity, and the high enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). The results of the investigation made understandable the palm defense strategy front of this disease, respectively, the antioxidative defense and the palm secondary compounds involved.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Arecaceae , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ecuador , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Fenilanina Amoníaco-Liasa/metabolismo
6.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(6): 326-329, Nov-Dic. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-378

RESUMEN

El síndrome de quilomicronemia familiar (SQF) es una entidad genética de herencia autosómica recesiva. Las mutaciones en genes (como APOC2, APOAV, LMF-1, GPIHBP-1) que codifican para proteínas que regulan la maduración, transporte o polimerización de lipoproteína lipasa-1 son las causas más comunes, pero no las únicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue reportar el primer caso documentado en el Ecuador.Caso clínico: hombre de 38 años que presentó hepatoesplenomegalia crónica, trombocitopenia, atrofia pancreática e hipertrigliceridemia severa refractaria al tratamiento. Se realizó un análisis molecular por secuenciación de nueva generación que determinó una deficiencia de lipoproteína lipasa OMIM #238600 en homocigosis. La confirmación genética es necesaria a fin de poder establecer la etiología de HTGS para un adecuado manejo de esta patología.(AU)


Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a genetic entity with autosomal recessive inheritance. Mutations in genes (such as APOC2, APOAV, LMF-1, GPIHBP-1) that code for proteins that regulate the maturation, transport, or polymerization of lipoprotein lipase-1 are the most common causes, but not the only ones. The objective of this study was to report the first documented case in Ecuador.Clinical caseA 38-year-old man presented with chronic hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, pancreatic atrophy, and severe hypertriglyceridemia refractory to treatment. A molecular analysis was performed by next generation sequencing that determined a deficiency of Lipoprotein Lipase OMIM #238600 in homozygosis. Genetic confirmation is necessary in order to establish the etiology of HTGS for an adequate management of this pathology.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Trastornos del Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Pancreatitis , Hipertrigliceridemia , Lipoproteína Lipasa , Remanentes de Quilomicrones , Ecuador , Quilomicrones , Investigación , Arteriosclerosis
7.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(4): 6957, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328965

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Social support has been found in many contexts, and in urban Ecuador, to be protective of health, particularly in the context of disaster. Fewer studies have explored the presence and impact of social support in rural Ecuador. This study engages a rural community in Ecuador to examine the general levels of social support, differences in social support based on different demographic groupings and relationships among social support and health outcomes and protective health behaviors. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to survey 416 people in a rural Ecuadorian community that had recently experienced an earthquake. Spanish-language versions of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 were applied, as well as questions about demographics and risk reduction behaviors. Body mass index, blood pressure, and cholesterol and blood sugar levels were assessed. Analysis of variance assessed differences in social support among demographic groupings, risk reduction behaviors, and health outcomes. RESULTS: Levels of social support were moderate. Few statistically significant (ie p<0.05) differences in amount of social support received or in sources of social support were found. Men, people 80 years or older, divorced or widowed people, and people living in peripheral areas received less social support than women, people of all other ages, married/cohabitating people, and people living within the village, respectively. Effect sizes of these differences were small. No relationship between social support and health outcomes were found, and few were found for risk reduction factors. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that social support may function differently in rural Ecuador than in urban contexts. Those promoting social support in rural communities may wish to focus on community-level, not individual-level, interventions. Limitations of applying an assessment of social support from urban Ecuadorian contexts to rural Ecuadorian contexts are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural , Apoyo Social , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Ecuador , Estudios Transversales , Estado Civil
8.
Clin Investig Arterioscler ; 34(6): 326-329, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184299

RESUMEN

Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a genetic entity with autosomal recessive inheritance. Mutations in genes (such as APOC2, APOAV, LMF-1, GPIHBP-1) that code for proteins that regulate the maturation, transport, or polymerization of lipoprotein lipase-1 are the most common causes, but not the only ones. The objective of this study was to report the first documented case in Ecuador. CLINICAL CASE: A 38-year-old man presented with chronic hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, pancreatic atrophy, and severe hypertriglyceridemia refractory to treatment. A molecular analysis was performed by next generation sequencing that determined a deficiency of Lipoprotein Lipase OMIM #238600 in homozygosis. Genetic confirmation is necessary in order to establish the etiology of HTGS for an adequate management of this pathology.


Asunto(s)
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I , Hipertrigliceridemia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I/metabolismo , Lipoproteína Lipasa/genética , Ecuador , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiología
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6033, 2022 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229469

RESUMEN

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are inherited remnants of retroviruses that colonized host germline over millions of years, providing a sampling of retroviral diversity across time. Here, we utilize the strength of Darwin's finches, a system synonymous with evolutionary studies, for investigating ERV history, revealing recent retrovirus-host interactions in natural populations. By mapping ERV variation across all species of Darwin's finches and comparing with outgroup species, we highlight geographical and historical patterns of retrovirus-host occurrence, utilizing the system for evaluating the extent and timing of retroviral activity in hosts undergoing adaptive radiation and colonization of new environments. We find shared ERVs among all samples indicating retrovirus-host associations pre-dating host speciation, as well as considerable ERV variation across populations of the entire Darwin's finches' radiation. Unexpected ERV variation in finch species on different islands suggests historical changes in gene flow and selection. Non-random distribution of ERVs along and between chromosomes, and across finch species, suggests association between ERV accumulation and the rapid speciation of Darwin's finches.


Asunto(s)
Retrovirus Endógenos , Pinzones , Passeriformes , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Ecuador , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Pinzones/genética , Flujo Génico , Passeriformes/genética , Filogenia
10.
Am J Public Health ; 112(11): 1546-1550, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223568

RESUMEN

Drowning is a common cause of death and disability worldwide. We report the experience of Ecuador, a middle-income country, where a lifeguard training program was implemented to reduce incidents of drowning. We describe how "Project Ecuador" was able to expand from one to 20 beaches in a five-year period. We detail how these interventions triggered the creation of a self-sustained national program and a law proposal that guarantee a safe environment across the Ecuadorian coastal region. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(11):1546-1550. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307013).


Asunto(s)
Ahogamiento , Ahogamiento/prevención & control , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30697, 2022 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181107

RESUMEN

Type II diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a worldwide disease with an important economic and health impact. Currently, depression, anxiety and stress are common disorders among diabetic populations but their respective prevalence may well be underestimated. So far, Latin American countries have only reported limited information about the impact of mental diseases on DM2 outpatients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors related to depression, anxiety, and stress among ambulatory DM2 populations from two third-level hospitals in Quito, Ecuador. A cross-sectional study based on a random sample was carried out in two hospitals. Patients were evaluated by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). In addition, a validated survey was used to grade socioeconomic, demographic, clinical, and comorbidity variables. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 22.0). STROBE guidelines were used for reporting this trial. A total of 208 adult patients with DM2 were included (women 58%; men 42%). The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 31.7% (95% CI, 25.5-38.5%), 33.7% (95% CI, 27.3-40.5%), and 25.0% (95% CI, 19.3-31.5%), respectively. Male gender was associated with a decreased risk for depression (OR 0.39 [95% CI, 0.18-0.81]; P = .01), anxiety (OR 0.31 [95% CI, 0.16-0.65]; P = .002), and stress (OR 0.35 [95% CI, 0.15-0.77]; P = .009). A higher level of education was associated with low risk for depression (OR 0.23 [95% CI, 0.11-0.46]; P < .001), anxiety (OR 0.47 [95% CI, 0.25-0.90]; P = .02), and stress (OR 0.24 [95% CI, 0.12-0.49]; P = .001). In contrast, patients with DM2 complications were more likely to have depression (OR 2.96 [95% CI, 1.32-6.63]; P = .008) and anxiety (OR 2.56 [95% CI, 1.20-5.48]; P = .01). Finally, an income higher than the basic salary reduced the risk of depression alone (OR 0.39 [95% CI, 0.16-0.91]; P = .03). In conclusion, a high prevalence rate of depression, anxiety, and stress was found in the DM2 outpatient population. Thus, more tailored care surveillance for DM2 patients is needed considering the bio-psycho-social environment to provide an integral health management.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
12.
An. psicol ; 38(3): 439-447, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-208815

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Establecer un modelo predictor de la salud mental a partir del miedo y la ansiedad al COVID-19 y el estrés percibido en pacien-tes de atención primaria del Ecuador. Método: El trabajo corresponde a un estudio correlacional, comparativo y predictor por medio de las escalas de Ansiedad al Coronavirus, Miedo al COVID-19, Estrés Percibido y Salud general. Participantes:460 pacientes hospitalarios de atención primaria (38.9% hombres y 61.1% mujeres) de las ciudades de Ambato y Quito. Con edades entre 18 a 79 años (M= 36 años; DE= 14,48). Resultados: Existen niveles moderados de miedo al covid-19 y estrés y bajos de ansiedad al co-vid-19. Los síntomas que más prevalecen son los de somatización y ansie-dad-insomnio. Se confirma la relación del miedo y la ansiedad al COVID-19 y el estrés percibido con el malestar en salud mental. El miedo y la an-siedad alCOVID-19 predicen el estrés percibido y este a su vez la salud mental con el 54% de explicación de los cambios de la varianza. Conclusión: El miedo y la ansiedad al covid-19 son predictores del estrés y el estrés es un predictor de los síntomas psicológicos y de malestar en la salud mental en muestra ecuatoriana.(AU)


Objective: To develop a predictive model of mental health based on fear and anxiety of COVID-19 and perceived stress in a sample of pri-mary care patients in Ecuador. Method: A correlational, comparativeand predictive study applying Anxiety to Coronavirus, Fear of COVID-19, Perceived Stress and General Health scales, and SEM as a data analysis technique. Participants: 460 primary care hospital patients (38.9% men and 61.1% women) from Ambato and Quito cities, between 18 and 79 years old (M = 36 years; SD = 14.48). Results:Data suggest the presence of mod-erate levels of fear of covid-19 and stress and low levels of anxiety to covid-19. The most prevalent symptoms are somatization and anxiety-insomnia. Therelationship of fear and anxiety to COVID-19 and per-ceived stress with mental health discomfort is confirmed. Fear and anxiety about COVID-19 predict perceived stress and this, in turn, predicts mental health with a 41.2% of explained variance. Conclusion: Fear and anxiety about covid-19 are predictors of stress, and stress is a predictor of psycho-logical symptoms and mental health discomfort in Ecuadorian primary care patients.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Miedo , Ansiedad , Estrés Psicológico , Virus del SRAS , Percepción , Atención Primaria de Salud , Predicción , Salud Mental , Pacientes Internos , Pandemias , Ecuador , Psicología , Psicología Clínica , Medicina de la Conducta
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273867, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260603

RESUMEN

We describe a new genus with a new species belonging to Araceae, from southern Ecuador. Vivaria calvasensis gen. et sp. nov. inhabits semi-arid inter- Andean mountains at altitudes ranging between 1100-1300 m a.s.l. The species belongs to the tribe Spathicarpae, which in Ecuador is represented by two other genera, Incarum and Croatellia, both typical for humid environments such as montane forests. This new genus is clearly supported by molecular evidence based on the matK gene, and morphological traits that separate it from the closely-related genera included in this tribe. The analyzed material was collected during several field campaigns carried out during four years in two populations from Loja province (Calvas and Macará), southern Ecuador, near the border with Peru.


Asunto(s)
Araceae , Lepidópteros , Animales , Ecuador , Bosques , Perú
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 419, 2022 10 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obstetric and gyneco-obstetric violence (OV, GOV) is a concerning public health problem, particularly in Latin America. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of OV and GOV and to assess its socio-geographical distribution in Ecuador. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from a national survey conducted in 2019 (n = 17,211) among women aged 15 years and over. Independent variables included age, marital status, education, ethnicity, place of residence and region. The chosen outcomes were lifetime experience of OV and GOV. Frequency tables were calculated and crude and adjusted regression models estimating prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were computed. RESULTS: Nearly one-third (32.8%) of the participants had experienced OV and two-fifths (41.86%) GOV at least once in their lifetime. Prevalence of OV were particularly common in women 26-35 and 46-55 years old, with primary or middle education and in urban regions. In comparison, GOV had a higher prevalence in women aged > 65 years and with no formal education. Both subtypes of violence were more common among women with current or earlier partners compared with the single ones. Also the two outcomes were more prevalent in the non-white population, OV among the populations of colour (POC), while GOV both, in the POC and Indigenous group. Additionally, women from the Highlands and Amazon reported higher OV and GOV than the Coastal group. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that OV and GOV are common in Ecuador and identified an unequal distribution of their prevalence across different socio-geographical groups. Further studies including more social factors and a continuous monitoring of OV and GOV are recommended. Current policies, laws to protect women and guidelines regarding the treatment of women, particularly in health care settings, need to be constantly advocated for and effectively implemented in the country.


Asunto(s)
Violencia , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(9): 1172-1177, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228248

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize hand hygiene behavioural intention by hospital services clusters in a medium-sized hospital in an Ecuadorian city. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study based on the World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Knowledge Questionnaire for Health-Care Workers. The responses on hand hygiene behavioural intention for the Five Moments for hand hygiene according to the World Health Organization were recorded in three categories: before patient contact, before and after sterile technique and management of body fluids, and after contact with the environment of the patient. The variables were the knowledge regarding the source of germs causing nosocomial infections, the optimal time to achieve disinfection with alcohol, hospital services clusters (clinical medicine, surgery, and therapeutic services), and history of previous formal hand hygiene training. The variables in each moment were analysed using a saturated log-linear model. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 34 years (Q1 32.1-Q3 36.4). Of them, 62% belonged to the clinic cluster and 87.6% had previous formal hand hygiene training. The incorrect response rates for before and after sterile technique and management of body fluids, before patient contact, and after contact with the environment of the patient were 30.2, 88.4, and 99.2%, respectively. In before patient contact, the incorrect responses for optimal time depended on the department (worse surgery cluster situation), and in before and after sterile technique and management of body fluids and after contact with the environment of the patient, the incorrect responses for source of germs depended on the previous formal hand hygiene training and the department (worse surgery and clinic clusters). CONCLUSION: The incorrect answer related to hand hygiene behavioural intention was high compared to other reports, and the worse situation was found in after contact with the environment of the patient and before patient contact. These data suggest the need of strengthening permanently the hand hygiene programme.


Asunto(s)
Infección Hospitalaria , Higiene de las Manos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador , Adhesión a Directriz , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Personal de Salud/educación , Hospitales , Humanos , Intención
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1841, 2022 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183054

RESUMEN

The infant mortality rate (IMR) is still a key indicator in a middle-income country such as Ecuador where a slightly increase up to 11.75 deaths per thousand life births has been observed in 2019. The purpose of this study is to propose and apply a prioritization method that combines clusters detection (Local Indicators of Spatial Association, LISA) and a monotonic statistic depicting time trend over 10 years (Mann-Kendall) at municipal level. Annual national databases (2010 to 2019) of live births and general deaths are downloaded from National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC). The results allow identifying a slight increase in the IMR at the national level from 9.85‰ in 2014 to 11.75‰ in 2019, neonatal mortality accounted for 60% of the IMR in the last year. The LISA analysis allowed observing that the high-high clusters are mainly concentrated in the central highlands. At the local level, Piñas, Cuenca, Ibarra and Babahoyo registered the highest growth trends (0.7,1). The combination of techniques made it possible to identify eight priority counties, half of them pertaining to the highlands region, two to the coastal region and two to the Amazon region. To keep infant mortality at a low level is necessary to prioritize critical areas where public allocation of funds should be concentrated and formulation of policies.


Asunto(s)
Censos , Mortalidad Infantil , Ecuador/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Renta , Lactante , Recién Nacido
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1977, 2022 10 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307789

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the multiple initiatives implemented to reduce stunting in Ecuador, it continues to be a public health problem with a significant prevalence. One of the most affected groups is the rural indigenous population. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic malnutrition in indigenous children under 5 years of age and its association with health determinants, focusing on one of the territories with the highest prevalence of stunting. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 1,204 Kichwa indigenous children under the age of five, residing in rural areas of the counties with the highest presence of indigenous in the province of Chimborazo-Ecuador. A questionnaire on health determinants was applied and anthropometric measurements were taken on the child and the mother. Stunting was determined by the height-for-age z-score of less than 2 standard deviations, according to the World Health Organization´s parameters. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression. RESULTS: 51.6% (n = 646) of the children are stunted. Height-for-age z-scores were significantly better for girls, children under 12 months, families without overcrowding, and families with higher family income. The variables that were significantly and independently associated with stunting were: overcrowding (PR 1.20, 95% CI 1-1.44), the mother required that the father give her money to buy medicine (PR 1.33, 95% CI 1.04-1.71), the father did not give her money to support herself in the last 12 months (1.58, 95% CI 1.15-2.17), mother's height less than 150 cm (PR 1.42, 95% CI 1.19-1.69) and the child was very small at birth (PR 1.75, 95% CI 1.22-2.5). CONCLUSION: One out of every two rural indigenous children included in this study is stunted. The high prevalence of stunting in the indigenous and rural population is multicausal, and requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach. This study identified three fundamental elements on which public policy could focus: (a) reduce overcrowding conditions, improving economic income in the rural sector (for example, through the strengthening of agriculture), (b) provide prenatal care and comprehensive postnatal care, and (c) promote strategies aimed at strengthening the empowerment of women.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Niño , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Preescolar , Prevalencia , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Desnutrición/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etiología
18.
Quito; OPS; 2022-09-30. (OPS/ECU/22-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56338

RESUMEN

En el 2022 se celebra el 120.º aniversario de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). En calidad de organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la OPS brinda cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para abordar las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, como Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la Región de las Américas, participa en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible a nivel de país. A nivel subregional, la OPS trabaja con los mecanismos de integración para que la salud y sus determinantes tengan un lugar en la agenda política. En el informe anual correspondiente al 2021 se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS en los países y territorios en este período, con la aplicación de las estrategias de cooperación en los países, la respuesta a sus necesidades y prioridades, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la OPS y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. En consonancia con el tema general de "responder a la COVID-19 y prepararse para el futuro", se ponen de relieve las medidas que ha adoptado la OPS con respecto a la pandemia de COVID-19 y sus esfuerzos continuos en áreas prioritarias como las emergencias de salud, los sistemas y servicios de salud, las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles y la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y la equidad en la salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del bienio 2020-2021.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Urgencias Médicas , Sistemas de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Equidad , Equidad de Género , Diversidad Cultural , Cooperación Técnica , Américas , Ecuador
19.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145057

RESUMEN

The education sector is a cornerstone in the battle against malnutrition in children. However, there are still no consolidated protocols that outline strategies for how nutrition programs in low- and middle-income countries can be delivered through the education sector. Establishing the correct community diagnosis is essential prior to the elaboration of an intervention plan for a school population that takes into account more than just traditional variables related to the nutritional status. A total of 574 boys and girls aged 3-11 years from three educational institutions in different municipalities in Ecuador participated in the study. Sociodemographic, anthropometric (weight and height) and coproparasitological data were obtained. Nutrimetry, which is a combination of two classical anthropometrics indicators, was used for the analysis of the nutritional status, and the indicators' frequencies varied among the schools. In order to improve the nutritional status of children, we proposed a framework mainly focusing on establishing alliances with the education sector and taking into account gender equality; respect for the environment; and the customs, beliefs and traditions of each population. The results obtained from the analyses of other variables demonstrated the importance of an adequate diagnosis prior to any type of intervention at the nutritional level, since characteristics could vary by local area and have an impact on the successfulness of the intervention.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Estado Nutricional , Niño , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Instituciones Académicas
20.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 8(3): 370-395, Sept. 2022. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-207908

RESUMEN

En la actualidad los componentes psicológicos han alcanzado una importancia muy notable en la adquisición de comportamientos saludables. Por lo tanto, este estudio analiza las diferencias entre variables psicológicas que se relacionan con la práctica deportiva en estudiantes universitarios durante el confinamiento causado por la COVID-19. El estudio tuvo una muestra de 1239 participantes (765 varones y 474 mujeres), de edades comprendidas entre los 16 y 45 años (M = 21,44; DT = 3,94). Se utilizó un cuestionario que incluyó la Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), la Escala de las Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas en el Ejercicio; la Escala de Autoeficacia para la Actividad Física; y la Escala de Grado de Compromiso Deportivo. Los resultados más relevantes muestran diferencias significativas (p<0,01) en favor del género masculino en casi todas las variables psicológicas excepto en la desmotivación, así mismo en lo que respecta a la motivación controlada y desmotivación, se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las localidades pequeñas y grandes, siendo los valores más altos en las primeras (p<0,05 y <0,01). Se discuten los resultados con objeto de determinar las diferencias en cuanto a qué componentes psicológicos permitirían plantear intervenciones que sean más efectivas para lograr la práctica regular de actividades deportivas así como su compromiso y adherencia, mediante el uso de estrategias que vayan encaminadas a fomentar la motivación autónoma de los universitarios y contrarrestar los efectos de la motivación controlada y la desmotivación. (AU)


Nowadays, psychological components have attained a very notable importance in the acquisition of healthy behaviours. Therefore, this study analyses the differences between psychological variables that are related to sports practice in university students during the confinement caused by COVID-19. The study had a sample of 1239 participants (765 males and 474 females), aged 16-45 years (M = 21.44, SD = 3.94). A questionnaire, which included the Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale; the Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Scale; and the Degree of Sport Commitment Scale, was used. The most relevant results show significant differences (p<0.01) in favour of the male gender in almost all psychological variables except demotivation. Likewise, with regard to controlled motivation and demotivation, significant differences were found between small and large localities, with higher values in the former (p<0.05 and <0.01). The results are discussed in order to determine the differences in terms of which psychological components would allow for interventions that might be more effective in achieving regular sport practice, commitment, and adherence through the use of strategies aimed at fostering autonomous motivation in university students and counteracting the effects of controlled motivation and demotivation. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Psicología del Deporte , Atletas , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador , Universidades
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...