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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(3): 165-168, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734629

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In April 1937 it was forbidden for German Jewish students to sit for examinations. However, a few Jewish medical students were able to continue studying at Berlin University. The order to expel all Jewish students from German Universities was published on the morning after Kristallnacht (November 1938) and was strictly imposed. OBJECTIVES: To identity the last Jewish medical students who managed, in spite of the severe restrictions, to continue their study and apply for the examinations in Berlin from summer 1937 through 1938. METHODS: Reviews of the dissertations written in the medical faculty of Berlin during 1937-1938 identified the Jewish students. We presented their demographic and academic characteristics. RESULTS: Sixteen Jewish students were identified: six Germans, six Americans, and four Eastern Europeans. Their average age was 18.7 ± 1.0 years, 22.5 ± 2.0 years, and 20.8 ± 2.5 years, respectively. The last Jewish student took the exams in July 1938 and submitted a thesis one month later. One German student was half Jewish. Five gained the rights to take the examinations as foreign students by renouncing their German citizenship. They were the main group affected by the government's restrictions. The American and the Eastern European students were more protected by law. CONCLUSIONS: Each of those groups had different academic careers. The Americans were the last Jewish students allowed to study in Germany. It seems that they were less aware of the national socialist atmosphere in the medical faculty in Berlin during 1937-1938.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/historia , Judíos/historia , Nacionalsocialismo/historia , Berlin , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
3.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 33(3-4): 34-35, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308593

RESUMEN

As a junior colleague of Dr. D. E. Strandness, Jr., for almost 30 years, I had the unique professional opportunity to witness the development of duplex ultrasonography at the University of Washington. "Gene" as he liked to be called, was a surgeon with a persistent curiosity about vascular disease. He led the multidisciplinary team that developed the technique of duplex ultrasound, measured its diagnostic accuracy, and performed research studies to reduce stroke due to carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. My reflections on the legacy of Dr. Strandness are offered with gratitude for the curiosity "bug" he nurtured in me, which continues today.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Conducta Exploratoria , Cirujanos/historia , Ultrasonografía Doppler Dúplex/historia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares/historia , Educación Médica/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Cirujanos/psicología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares/educación
4.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(6): 307-309, dic. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198785

RESUMEN

Buscando antecedentes y pioneros de la pedagogía médica en España, se recupera la figura y obra del médico y docente catalán Francesc Salvà I Campillo (1751-1828) mediante la revisión historiográfica de libros sobre enseñanza de la medicina, que no libros de texto ni monografías especializadas, escritos por Salvà, un personaje polifacético e ilustrado. Se muestran las concepciones pedagógicas del autor sobre la 'enseñanza del arte de curar' basada en el estudio de casos. Sus escritos a modo de ensayos muestran una gran preocupación por la mejora de la enseñanza de la medicina en Cataluña y en el resto de España. Además, son de una lectura amena y atañen a aspectos hoy en día todavía de gran actualidad: la financiación de los estudios médicos, el enfoque práctico de la enseñanza y la importancia de la higiene para la mejora de las condiciones de vida de un proletariado industrial entonces emergente en Cataluña. Francesc Salvà I Campillo bien puede considerarse el precursor de la pedagogía médica española con una indudable influencia posterior a lo largo del siglo XIX


Looking for background and pioneers of medical education in Spain, the figure and work of the Catalonian doctor and teacher Francesc Salvà I Campillo (1751-1828) is recovered, through a historiographical review of books on teaching of medicine, but no textbooks nor specialized monographs, written by Salvà, a multifaceted and enlightened character. The author's pedagogical conceptions about the 'teaching of the art of healing' based on case studies are shown. His writings as essays show great concern for the improvement of the teaching of medicine in Catalonia and in the rest of Spain. In addition, they are of a pleasant reading on aspects that still concern high-date issues today: the financing of medical studies, the practical approach to teaching and the importance of hygiene for improving the living conditions of a proletariat from the industrial sector then emerging in Catalonia. Francesc Salvà I Campillo may well be considered the forerunner of Spanish medical education with an undoubted subsequent influence throughout the 19th century


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Educación Médica/historia , Educación Médica/métodos , Historiografía , Enseñanza/historia , España , Enseñanza/educación
6.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(4): 167-171, ago. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195077

RESUMEN

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por las obras literarias como un elemento importante para comprender mejor los aspectos subjetivos del proceso de enfermar. Asimismo, se ha reconocido su valor docente en los estudios de ciencias de la salud para facilitar una visión global de la vivencia de la enfermedad. Las obras de los médicos escritores tienen la ventaja adicional de que permiten observar la realidad que vivieron bajo el doble prisma de la literatura y la medicina. En el presente artículo se muestra una visión de la formación médica durante la restauración borbónica en opinión de uno de los escritores españoles más importantes del siglo XX, Pío Baroja, a través de su novela El árbol de la ciencia, de marcado carácter autobiográfico, y de sus memorias. En ambas obras muestra una visión muy pesimista de la formación y de los profesores de la época, que es contrastada con las opiniones de otros autores. Se concluye que las obras literarias tienen interés para explicar situaciones históricas específicas, pero deben analizarse en comparación con las fuentes históricas para valorar el componente subjetivo del autor en su justa medida


In the last decades, the interest of literary works as an element to enhance the knowledge in the subjective issues of disease process has increased. Moreover, its pedagogical value in the teaching of health science students has been recognized to allow a better understanding of how patients feel their disease. The works of physicians-writers have the additional interest that they permit to observe the reality of their time under the double approach of literature and medicine. The present article shows a view of the medical training during the Spanish Restoration following the opinion of one of the most important Spanish writers of the twentieth century, Pío Baroja. For this purpose, we review his novel El árbol de la ciencia, an autobiographical work, as well as his personal memoirs. In both, Baroja had a high pessimistic view of his medical training and of his university professors that has been compared with data from other authors. We conclude that literary works of physicians-writers are of interest to learn about their specific time but should be compared with historical sources to evaluate the subjective component of each author in the right way


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Educación Médica/historia , Biografías como Asunto , Literatura/historia , Enseñanza/organización & administración , Medicina en la Literatura
7.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 15-26, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638597

RESUMEN

The heritage of Slovenian house names and surnames reflects, among others, the former medicine and pharmaceutical occupations, midwifery, and folk medicine practices, and besides that, also health status and illnesses of people. Surnames, which are especially strongly intertwined with family, local and social history, are closely related to folk medicine and magic. Unlike house names (vulgo), which are the usual nicknames for physical and mental characteristics and abilities, surnames denote medical occupations and medicinal folk practice as such. According to the most recent data (as of January 1, 2020) of The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at least 40 surnames reminiscent former medical or pharmaceutical professions. These newly discovered digital data in open access are precious for the history of medicine because they allow comparing surnames geographically, by frequency, and through the time.


Asunto(s)
Historia de la Medicina , Historia de la Farmacia , Nombres , Médicos/historia , Animales , Educación Médica/historia , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/historia , Eslovenia
8.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(7): 740-762, jul. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-194132

RESUMEN

La seguridad social es un derecho fundamental al que todos los miembros de una sociedad deberían tener acceso puesto que incluye un conjunto de beneficios vinculados a estabilidad económica, de salud y mejor calidad de vida, aunque aún es un reto para alcanzar la cobertura sanitaria universal. En el presente artículo se muestra una revisión de las condiciones socioeconómicas de México, asociadas a la seguridad social, en diversos procesos históricos: Porfiriato, Revolución Mexicana, Revolución pasiva, Proteccionismo, Neoliberalismo y Lopezobradorismo. En cada uno se identificaron aspectos políticos, financieros y sociales relacionados con la mejora o estancamiento de la seguridad social. Estos hallazgos reflejan la importancia de reflexionar de manera propositiva sobre las variables socioeconómicas para comprender el éxito o fracaso de las políticas públicas y los resultados negativos para la salud de la población


The social security is a fundamental right which all society members should have access because includes a set of benefits linked to economic and health stability and better quality of life, although it's still a challenge to achieving universal health coverage. This article presents a review of socioeconomic conditions from Mexico associated to social security in various historical processes: Porfiriato, Mexican Revolution, Passive revolution, Protectionism, Neoliberalism and Lopezobradorismo. Political, financial and social aspects were identified in each of these and that were associated to the improvement or stagnation of social security. These findings reflect the importance of analyzing proactively about the socioeconomic variables to understanding the success or failure of public politics and their negative results for the population health


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Seguridad Social/historia , Organización de la Financiación/historia , Planificación Socioeconómica/historia , México , Política Financiera , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Bienestar Social/historia , Educación Médica/historia
9.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(2): 95-100, 2020 Mar 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536103

RESUMEN

The first official general medicine was established in the United States, and society of general medicine established in 1947. After that the European and American countries began to study of general medicine and construct system. In 1966, the commonwealth launched the first global residency training program in general medicine.At present, many countries have formed a perfect general practitioner training system. In 1988, the concept of general medicine was introduced into China. In 1989, the Chinese Medical Association established the General Medicine Education Committee, marked the beginning of general medical education in China. In 1993, General Medicine Branch of Chinese Medical Association was set up, was a symbol of the birth of general medicine in China. Compared with some European and American countries, China's general medicine was a late starter, and the training of general practitioners has experienced the development of diversification, at present, it is in line with the international training mode.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/historia , China , Historia del Siglo XX , Estados Unidos
10.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(3): 111-115, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193876

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las nuevas generaciones de estudiantes y las distintas problemáticas de las asignaturas instan a modificar las actividades formativas hacia nuevas formas utilizando tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. OBJETIVO: Identificar la opinión de los alumnos de primer y segundo año de la carrera de medicina, Universidad de Valparaíso, respecto del uso de un sistema inalámbrico de respuesta (clicker) y Kahoot en el aula. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo, fenomenológico. Para la producción de información se realizaron 2 grupos focales con un total de 18 participantes, los cuales se transcribieron según el principio de verbatim. El análisis utilizado fue de contenido. Se efectuó triangulación de la información con técnica de investigadores. RESULTADOS: El uso de clickers y Kahoot se ha valorado positivamente. Se produjo información acerca de las ventajas e inconvenientes de cada una de las tecnologías. Ambas logran focalizar la atención de los estudiantes y aumentan su sensación de disfrute, aprendizaje y calidad de vida al ser estrategias de gamificación. CONCLUSIÓN: Ambas estrategias tienen la potencialidad de modificar favorablemente los ambientes del aula, con ventajas y limitaciones que deben ser conocidas por los docentes. Es relevante insertarlas dentro de estrategias educativas coherentes para potenciar los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje


INTRODUCTION: The new generations of students and different issues related to class subjects have driven us to modify our educational activities towards new strategies using information and communications technology (ICT) in the classroom. AIM: To identify the undergraduate students' opinion in first and second year of medicine at the Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile, regarding the use of clickers and Kahoot in the classroom. Subjects and methods: Qualitative and phenomenological research. In order to gather information two focus groups were organised with a total of 18 participants, the answers from the interview were transcribed using the verbatim principle. The study used a content analysis and triangulation method. RESULTS: The use of ICT in the classroom has been considered positive. The research found information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the use of clickers and Kahoot. Both types of technology were able to keep the students' attention, increasing the sense of enjoyment of the lesson, learning and quality of life as they are using games as a teaching strategy. CONCLUSION: Both strategies have the potential to modify the classroom environment in a positive manner, with advantages and limitations that should be known by educators. It is relevant to insert them into coherent educational strategies to improve the learning-teaching processes


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Continua/organización & administración , Innovación Organizacional , Educación de Postgrado/organización & administración , México , Educación Médica/historia
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 650-658, June 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098302

RESUMEN

Revisando un siglo de historia, el desarrollo de las actividades anatómicas en la ciudad de Concepción, en el sur de Chile, no estuvieron ajenas a dificultades. El presente trabajo reunió los antecedentes históricos que relatan los inicios y desarrollo de la enseñanza de la anatomía en la naciente Universidad de Concepción. Se realizó una búsqueda que incluyó la revisión de libros históricos, revistas, archivos digitales y registros institucionales como actas y archivos fotográficos. La fundación de la Universidad, los inicios de las actividades anatómicas en 1919 y el aporte de sus principales pioneros, evidencian las dificultades de la enseñanza de esta disciplina en Chile. Desde una perspectiva histórica, conocer dentro de este siglo de enseñanza los recursos físicos utilizados para la disección cadavérica, el detalle de las metodologías pedagógicas utilizadas y los recursos anatómicos disponibles, resultan ser un aporte al conocimiento del desarrollo de la anatomía en Chile.


Reviewing a century of history, the development of anatomical activities in the city of Concepción, in the south of Chile, did not occur without difficulties. The present work gathered the historical background related with the beginnings and development of Anatomy teaching at the Universidad de Concepcion. Research was carried out including the review of historical books, magazines, digital archives and institutional records such as files or photographic archives. The foundation of the university, the beginnings of anatomical activities in 1919 and the contribution of its highlighted pioneers, show the difficulties of teaching this discipline in Chile. From a historical perspective, having knowledge during this century of teaching, the physical resources used in cadaveric dissection, the detail of teaching methodologies applied, and the anatomical resources available, contribute the anatomy´s development knowledge in Chile.


Asunto(s)
Historia del Siglo XX , Educación Médica/historia , Anatomía/educación , Anatomía/historia , Chile
12.
Tunis Med ; 98(3): 211-218, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395814

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, efforts have been made to ensure that the teachers of the Faculty of Medicine of Tunis (FMT) cite their affiliation to the FMT and the University of Tunis El Manar in addition to their hospital institutions and their research structure in their publications. AIMS: In this study, we proposed to evaluate the FMT's membership in the publications of its teachers, to identify the different types of publications and to estimate the real number. METHODS: In this bibliometric cross-sectional study, we retrieved the FMT publications indexed in medline/pubmed database (1964-June2019). We have chosen the keywords corresponding to the publications of group1 (referenced FMT) and group2 (referenced FMT or annexed hospital-university institutions). Next, we calculated the rate of group1 on group2 and sorted the different types of items in group2. Finally, We estimated, after randomization, the actual number of FMT publications for a 99% confidence interval (99% CI). RESULTS: For groups 1 and 2, 1477 and 5194 publications were retrieved, respectively. The FMT membership rate averaged 28% ranging from 4% (1990-2010) to 44% (2011-2019). Of the FMT publications, 30% were free of charge and 55% were original articles. After a draw for 300 group2 publications, the estimated number of total FMT publications was between 4519 and 4934 for a 99% CI. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to mention its affiliation to «the Faculty of Medicine of Tunis¼ and to «the University of Tunis El Manar¼ in order to improve the visibility and ranking of our two academic institutions.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría , Docentes Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones/tendencias , Edición , Adulto , Bibliometría/historia , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Educación Médica/historia , Educación Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Docentes Médicos/historia , Docentes Médicos/tendencias , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Publicaciones/historia , Publicaciones/provisión & distribución , Edición/historia , Edición/estadística & datos numéricos , Edición/provisión & distribución , Edición/tendencias
14.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306595

RESUMEN

The article is devoted to the academician I. D. Strashun, constitutor of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, prominent scientist, hygienist, historian of medicine and notable specialist in the field of medical education and health care organization. During the years of restoration of national economy after the end of the Great Patriotic War, the extremely important issue in the activity of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR was implementation of ideological political work with scientists, also supposing unmasking false scientists worshiping bourgeois science. The academician I. D. Strashun too got into millstones of the "struggle against cosmopolitanism". The article uses materials from the personal files of academician I. D. Strashun belonging to the scientific archive of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.


Asunto(s)
Academias e Institutos/historia , Educación Médica , Medicina Militar/historia , Educación Médica/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Federación de Rusia , Primera Guerra Mundial
18.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(2): 135-150, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101286

RESUMEN

The anatomical textbook in the late Middle Ages was one part of a greater pedagogical process that involved students' seeing, hearing, reading, and eventually knowing information about the human body. By examining the role of the anatomical textbook and accompanying bodily images in anatomical learning, this article illuminates the complexity and self-consciousness of anatomical education in the medieval university, as professors focused on ways to enhance student memory of the material. Traditionally, the history of anatomy has been heavily influenced by the anatomical Renaissance of the late-sixteenth century, highlighting a focus on innovative medical knowledge and the scientific method. However, if we engage a pedagogical lens when looking at these medieval authors, it becomes quickly obvious that the whole point of university medicine was not to explore unknown boundaries and discover new ideas of medicine, but rather to communicate the current and established body of knowledge to those not familiar with it.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía/historia , Educación Médica/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Estudiantes de Medicina/historia , Anatomía/educación , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia Medieval , Italia , Universidades/historia
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