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2.
Acad Med ; 96(2): 186-192, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492834

RESUMEN

Clerkship grades (like money) are a social construct that function as the currency through which value exchanges in medical education are negotiated between the system's various stakeholders. They provide a widely recognizable and efficient medium through which learner development can be assessed, tracked, compared, and demonstrated and are commonly used to make decisions regarding progression, distinction, and selection for residency. However, substantial literature has demonstrated how grades imprecisely and unreliably reflect the value of learners. In this article, the authors suggest that challenges with clerkship grades are fundamentally tied to their role as currency in the medical education system. Associations are drawn between clerkship grades and the history of the U.S. economy; 2 major concepts are highlighted: regulation and stock prices. The authors describe the history of these economic concepts and how they relate to challenges in clerkship grading. Using lessons learned from the history of the U.S. economy, the authors then propose a 2-step solution to improve upon grading for future generations of medical students: (1) transition from grades to a federally regulated competency-based assessment model and (2) development of a departmental competency letter that incorporates competency-based assessments rather than letter grades and meets the needs of program directors.


Asunto(s)
Prácticas Clínicas/normas , Economía/historia , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Internado y Residencia/ética , Prácticas Clínicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Competencia Clínica/normas , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
3.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(6): 397-402, nov.-dic. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198378

RESUMEN

En este documento se refieren las bases legales nacionales y, más en concreto, las autonómicas andaluzas que dan respaldo a la figura del profesor contratado doctor vinculado y a la posibilidad de convocar las plazas correspondientes en las facultades de medicina de las universidades públicas españolas. Se exponen, asimismo, las características asistenciales y académicas que deben darse para llevar a cabo la convocatoria pública de dichas plazas. Se resume, a continuación, cuál es la situación actual existente en relación con dicha figura del profesorado en las facultades de medicina españolas. Se analizan también las ventajas y las posibles limitaciones que actualmente se derivan de contar con profesores contratados doctores vinculados y ello tanto para los médicos especialistas eventualmente interesados en optar a una de estas plazas como para el centro sanitario y la facultad de medicina correspondientes. Finalmente, se reseña la posible utilidad del documento elaborado por la Conferencia Nacional de Decanos de Facultades de Medicina de España (CNDFME) en la Asamblea General que se celebró en la Facultad de Medicina de Oviedo del 17 al 19 de mayo del 2018 y actualizado en marzo de 2020


A discussion is presented on the national legal foundations, and more specifically, those of Andalusia, that support the figure of the tenure-eligible lecturer and the possibility of filling the corresponding positions in the faculties of medicine in Spanish public universities are discussed. The clinical and academic characteristics that they must have in order to fill those public positions are also presented. The current situation as regards such a figure as a lecturer in Spanish faculties of medicine is then summarised. An analysis is made of the advantages and the possible limitations arising from having a tenure-eligible lecturer, and how this affects both the medical specialists possibly interested in opting for one of these positions, as well as for the corresponding health centres and faculties of medicine. Finally, mention is made of the possible use of the document prepared by the National Conference of Medical Faculty Deans (CNDFME) in the General Assembly held in the Oviedo Faculty of Medicine from 17 to 19 May 2018, and updated in March 2020


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Docentes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Facultades de Medicina/legislación & jurisprudencia , Acreditación/normas , Docentes/normas , España , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Contratos/normas
6.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 184-189, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577586

RESUMEN

Several lawsuits have recently been filed against U.S. universities; the plaintiffs contend that considerations of race and ethnicity in admissions decisions discriminate against Asian Americans. In prior cases brought by non-Latino whites, the U.S. Supreme Court has upheld these considerations, arguing that they are crucial to a compelling interest to increase diversity. The dissenting opinion, however, concerns the possibility that such policies disadvantage Asian Americans, who are considered overrepresented in higher education. Here, the authors explain how a decision favoring the plaintiffs would affect U.S. medical schools. First, eliminating race and ethnicity in holistic review would undermine efforts to diversify the physician workforce. Second, the restrictions on considering race/ethnicity in admissions decisions would not remedy potential discrimination against Asian Americans that arise from implicit biases. Third, such restrictions would exacerbate the difficulty of addressing the diversity of experiences within Asian American subgroups, including recognizing those who are underrepresented in medicine. The authors propose that medical schools engage Asian Americans in diversity and inclusion efforts and recommend the following strategies: incorporate health equity into the institutional mission and admissions policies, disaggregate data to identify underrepresented Asian subgroups, include Asian Americans in diversity committees and support faculty who make diversity work part of their academic portfolio, and enhance the Asian American faculty pipeline through support and mentorship of students. Asian Americans will soon comprise one-fifth of the U.S. physician workforce and should be welcomed as part of the solution to advancing diversity and inclusion in medicine, not cast as the problem.


Asunto(s)
Americanos Asiáticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Diversidad Cultural , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Médicos , Estados Unidos/etnología
7.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190159, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040193

RESUMEN

As Diretrizes Curriculares do curso de graduação em Medicina de 2014 incluem a Saúde Mental (SM) como uma das áreas obrigatórias do internato. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o internato integrado de SM e de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (MFC) da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) e a fundamentação da escolha da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) como cenário de formação dos internos. Trata-se do relato da experiência do internato integrado de SM e MFC da UFRJ e da discussão de seus marcos teóricos. A alta prevalência de sofrimento psíquico e transtornos mentais na APS, o fato de ela ser a porta de entrada do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e o fato de que a faculdade de Medicina deve formar médicos generalistas fazem deste cenário lócus privilegiado para o treinamento dos internos de Medicina em SM.(AU)


Las Directrices Curriculares del Curso de Graduación en Medicina de Curso de 2014 incluyen la salud mental (SM) como una de las áreas obligatorias del internado. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar el internado integrado de SM y Medicina de Familia y Comunidad (MFC) de la UFRJ y la fundamentación de la Escuela de Atención Primaria de la Salud (APS) como escenario de formación de los internos. Se trata del relato del internado integrado de SM y MFC de la UFRJ y de la discusión de sus marcos teóricos. La alta prevalencia de sufrimiento psíquico y trastornos mentales en la APS, el hecho de que la APS es la puerta de entrada del sistema único de salud (SUS) y el hecho de que la facultad de medicina debe formar a médicos generalistas, hace que este escenario sea un locus privilegiado para el entrenamiento de los internos de medicina en salud mental.(AU)


The 2014 Curricular Guidelines of the medical undergraduate courses include Mental Health (MH) as one of the required areas of internship. The objective of this paper is to present the integrated internship for MH and Family and Community Medicine (FCM) of UFRJ, as well as the rationale for choosing Primary Health Care (PHC) as the setting for the internship training. It presents a report of the experience of the integrated internship for MH and FCM of UFRJ and the discussion of its theoretical frameworks. The high prevalence of psychological distress and mental disorders in PHC, the fact that PHC is the gateway to the unified national health system (SUS) and the fact that the medical school must train general practitioners, make PHC a privileged locus for the training of medical interns in mental health.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud/normas , Salud Mental/educación , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Internado y Residencia/tendencias , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria
9.
J Physician Assist Educ ; 30(4): 214-218, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664010

RESUMEN

The number of students with a disability matriculating into institutions of medical education, including physician assistant programs, is increasing. Educational institutions must develop procedures with regard to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) including the provision of reasonable accommodations to provide equal opportunities for all. These procedures must be compliant with federal and state laws while protecting academic integrity, maintaining technical standards, and successfully navigating the institutional and individual faculty barriers. Knowledge of the ADA and the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 as well as some familiarity with the legal precedent regarding these laws will facilitate planning and decision-making for students with disabilities. This is imperative for educating not just those with specific disabilities but also the evolving learners of today. Such knowledge, coupled with the continued prioritization of technical standards and student outcomes, will assist in the curricular development of the future.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad/educación , Asistentes Médicos/educación , Personas con Discapacidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Facultades de Medicina/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estados Unidos
10.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(5): 648-656, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661742

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To know the characteristics of medical education and identify its strengths and weaknesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A transversal and quantitative study of the characteristics of medical education in 29 medical schools in Mexico was carried out, between April and September 2017. Questionnaire with Likert scale was applied to explore context, regulation, structure, process, results and impact of medical education. Bivariate analysis was performed with a Chi square test and the significance level was equal to or less than 0.05. RESULTS: The political context obtained 64%, economical context 10% and mechanisms of regulation 31%. The educational structure was 61% and the social impact was 93%. CONCLUSIONS: Public policies, regulatory mechanisms and public investment must be strengthened to improve the quality of medical education.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/normas , Sector Privado/normas , Sector Público/normas , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Estudios Transversales , Curriculum , Educación Médica/economía , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación Médica/organización & administración , México , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Médicos/provisión & distribución , Sector Privado/economía , Sector Privado/organización & administración , Probabilidad , Política Pública , Sector Público/economía , Sector Público/organización & administración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Am J Med Sci ; 358(5): 317-325, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655713

RESUMEN

At the end of World War II anti-Semitism was pervasive in the United States. Quotas to limit the number of Jewish students were put in place at most U.S. medical schools in the 1920s and were well-entrenched by 1945. By 1970 the quota was gone. Why? Multiple factors contributed to the end of the quota. First, attitudes toward Jews shifted as Americans recoiled from the horrors of the Holocaust and over half a million Jewish GIs returned home from World War II. Many entered the higher education system. Second, governmental and private investigations in New York City, New York State and Philadelphia exposed the quota. Third, New York State, led by Governor Thomas E. Dewey, established 4 publicly supported nondiscriminatory medical schools. These schools adsorbed many New York Jewish applicants. Fourth, from the 1920s through the 1960s some medical schools consistently or intermittently ignored the quota. Finally, the federal and several state governments passed nondiscrimination in higher education legislation. The quotas ended because of a combination of changing societal attitudes and government and private social action. This remarkable social change may be instructive as higher education now grapples with allegations of a quota system for Asian-Americans.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Judíos/educación , Prejuicio , Facultades de Medicina , Americanos Asiáticos/educación , Educación Médica/ética , Educación Médica/historia , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Prejuicio/historia , Prejuicio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Facultades de Medicina/ética , Facultades de Medicina/legislación & jurisprudencia , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Estados Unidos
14.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 4(3): 254-255, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213416

RESUMEN

The Government has superseded the Medical Council of India (MCI) with an interim board of governors that has assumed the powers and functions of the Council, pending passage of the National Medical Commission Bill. While a systemic revamp of medical education is intended, uncertainty prevails on whether medical academia will now be more inclusive.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación Médica/normas , Discriminación Social/ética , Discriminación Social/prevención & control , Consejo Directivo , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , India , Metáfora
15.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(3): 184-192, mayo-jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191572

RESUMEN

Una buena gestión y calidad de la Formación Sanitaria Especializada (FSE) exige el compromiso explícito de los responsables de las CCAA y de los centros sanitarios. Esto implica la acreditación y reconocimiento de tutores, desarrollar el marco normativo que establece el RD 183/2008 (a los nueve años de su publicación sólo Cataluña, Canarias, Castilla y León, Extremadura, La Rioja y el País Vasco, lo han hecho), una mención explícita de la FSE en los planes estratégicos de las organizaciones sanitarias y en los contratos-programa con las unidades docentes y una participación activa de los jefes de estudio en los consejos de dirección de los centros. Por parte del Ministerio de Sanidad, es preciso agilizar la acreditación de las nuevas unidades docentes y abordar, junto con las CCAA, los problemas de financiación del proyecto de troncalidad y la organización de las unidades docentes troncales. Respecto al sentido de la formación, esta se ha de centrar en la seguridad del paciente, aquí la simulación es una metodología formativa idónea, y en la humanización, con una práctica de la medicina bajo un modelo deliberativo, siendo los formadores ejemplo para los que aprenden


The commitment of the heads of the Autonomous Communities and the health centers is key to a good management and the quality of the Specialized Healthcare Training (SHT). This implies the accreditation and recognition of tutors, developing the regulatory framework established by Royal Decree 183/2008 (nine years after its publication, only Catalonia, the Canary Islands, Castilla y León, Extremadura, La Rioja and the Basque Country have done so), an explicit mention of the SHT in the strategic plans of the health organizations and an active participation of the heads of SHT in the boards of directors. On the part of the Ministry of Health, it is necessary to speed up the accreditation process of new teaching units and, together with the Autonomous Communities, and address the financing problems of the core curriculum project and the organization of the core teaching units. Regarding the sense of training, this has to focus on safety patient, here the simulation is a suitable training methodology, and in the humanization, with a practice of medicine under a deliberative model, being the trainers an example for those who learn


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Foros de Discusión , Mentores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Acreditación/normas , Educación Médica/normas , Grupos Focales/normas
16.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 36(1): 106-115, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116323

RESUMEN

The new university law 30220 of 2014 introduced the mandatory institutional licensing of all Peruvian universities by the National Superintendence of Higher University Education (SUNEDU, in Spanish). The first undergraduate program to go through this process will be medicine. The licensing of medical programs is necessary to ensure that the conditions in which the program is taught in Peru are adequate, with a high probability of closing some medical schools. Once a medical school has demonstrated that it meets the basic conditions of quality, a qualitative and quantitative evaluation is carried out that includes three criteria: scientific production in the Web of Science, impact measured through the H index, and results of the national medical exam, to determine the years of licensing. This article evaluates the quantitative indicators linked to research using Web of Science and Scopus, in addition to making technical and methodological revisions of them. Suggestions for the other indicators are also covered by this article.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica/normas , Concesión de Licencias , Edición/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Concesión de Licencias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Perú , Facultades de Medicina/legislación & jurisprudencia
17.
Acta Med Port ; 32(1): 11-13, 2019 Feb 01.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753797

RESUMEN

The authors address the legal void that exists regarding medical student access to clinical records and health information that local healthcare organizations hold under legal and institutional custody. They develop a legal thesis that configures the creation of medical student professional secrecy and its connection with the duty of confidentiality as assumptions that underlie the medical student's right to access and reuse health information. Medical students have the legitimacy to access health information and clinical records, as they bear an unequivocal informational, legitimate, constitutionally protected and sufficiently relevant need. They conclude that the legislature must work together with universities and hospital institutions to legally establish the concept of Medical Student Professional Secrecy, its link to the duty of confidentiality and the right of the medical student to access and reuse health information. Furthermore, it must do so in a specific legal act and in the precise terms of the text approved unanimously by the Council of Portuguese Medical Schools, by the National Council of Medical Ethics and Deontology, by the National Council of the Portuguese Medical Association and by its President.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información/legislación & jurisprudencia , Confidencialidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Registros de Salud Personal , Facultades de Medicina/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estudiantes de Medicina/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Unión Europea , Instituciones de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Portugal
19.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(1): 60-66, ene.-feb. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191550

RESUMEN

FUNDAMENTO Y OBJETIVO: La presencia de mujeres pioneras en estudios superiores de Medicina en España cuenta con notables realizaciones. Este estudio indaga tesis doctorales en Medicina defendidas por mujeres en España desde 1882 a 1954 (el 1% de la producción total para ese periodo) e indexadas en las bases Cisne de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se recuperan y revisan 50 tesis doctorales. Se realiza un estudio longitudinal retrospectivo de análisis documental de tesis doctorales identificadas por año de defensa, título de cada tesis, nombre de la doctora, especialidad médica adscribible y palabras clave. RESULTADOS: El número de tesis de mujeres autoras se incrementa linealmente a lo largo del tiempo. Las especialidades médicas más comunes de tales tesis son: Ginecología y Obstetricia, Farmacología, Hematología, Pediatría y Endocrinología. También se realiza un conteo de frecuencias de los descriptores, en el cual destacan los términos: farmacología/terapia, educación, patogenia, enfermedad y niños. DISCUSIÓN Y CONCLUSIONES: La Medicina española dispone de 50 tesis doctorales pioneras defendidas por mujeres entre 1882 y 1954, aunque estas representan solo el 1% de la producción total de tesis doctorales en Medicina para ese periodo. Tan exiguo porcentaje alerta de un sesgo por techo de cristal que podría estar gravitando aún sobre las mujeres médicas. Una recomendación final se emite alentando a mejorar la situación de la mujer investigadora en Medicina


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The presence of pioneer women in Spanish Medical Education has a notable impact. The objective of this study is to investigate doctoral theses in Medicine written by women in Spain between 1882 and 1954 and indexed in the Cisne library catalogue of Madrid Complutense University. These theses account for 1% of the total output for the period. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This retrospective longitudinal document analysis study examines doctoral theses identified by year of submission, title, author's name, ascribable medical speciality, and keywords. A total of 50 doctoral theses were identified and reviewed. RESULTS: The number of theses by female authors increased linearly over time. The most common medical specialities studied by female candidates were gynaecology and obstetrics, pharmacology, haematology, paediatrics, and endocrinology. The frequency of study descriptors was also calculated, and the following key terms detected: pharmacology/therapy, education, pathogenesis, disease, and children. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 50 doctoral theses in medicine were written by pioneer female candidates in Spain between 1882 and 1954, accounting for just 1% of total output during this period. This tiny percentage indicates potential bias due to a glass ceiling that may continue to be a barrier to female doctors today. More still needs to be done to improve conditions for female medical researchers


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/historia , Especialización/historia , Tesis Académicas como Asunto , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Educación Médica/historia , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Especialización/legislación & jurisprudencia , Médicos Mujeres/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , España
20.
Anat Sci Educ ; 12(1): 97-104, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255559

RESUMEN

Anatomy education forms the foundation of a successful medical education. This has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to meet up with current realities. Despite these innovative ideas, there are challenges facing anatomy education, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Problems such as inadequate teaching experts and outdated curricula have made anatomy education in sub-Saharan Africa uninviting and disinteresting. Several interventions have been suggested, such as the procurement of teaching tools and upgrading of teaching infrastructure. However, in this age of information technology; anatomy education, especially in sub-Saharan Africa could benefit from the integration of electronic tools and resources. This article explores the electronic tools and resources such as three-dimensional printing, educational games, and short videos that are readily available for the teaching of anatomy in sub-Saharan Africa. The author concludes by discussing how these electronic tools and resources can be used to address many of the challenges facing anatomy education in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía/educación , Instrucción por Computador/métodos , Curriculum/tendencias , Educación Médica/métodos , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , África del Sur del Sahara , Anatomía/legislación & jurisprudencia , Instrucción por Computador/instrumentación , Instrucción por Computador/tendencias , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación Médica/tendencias , Docentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Políticas , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/tendencias , Facultades de Medicina/legislación & jurisprudencia , Facultades de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina/tendencias , Recursos Humanos/estadística & datos numéricos
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