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2.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc99, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364378

RESUMEN

Objective: COVID-19 challenges curriculum managers worldwide to create digital substitutes for classroom teaching. Case-based teaching formats under expert supervision can be used as a substitute for practical bedside teaching, where the focus is on teaching clinical reasoning skills. Methods: For medical students of LMU and TU Munich, the interactive, case-based, and supervised teaching format of Clinical Case Discussion (CCD) was digitised and implemented as dCCD in their respective curricula. Case discussions were realised as videoconferences, led by a student moderator, and took place under the supervision of a board-certified clinician. To prevent passive participation, additional cognitive activations were implemented. Acceptance, usability, and subjective learning outcomes were assessed in dCCDs by means of a special evaluation concept. Results: With regard to acceptance, students were of the opinion that they had learned effectively by participating in dCCDs (M=4.31; SD=1.37). The majority of students also stated that they would recommend the course to others (M=4.23; SD=1.62). The technical implementation of the teaching format was judged positively overall, but findings for usability were heterogeneous. Students rated their clinical reasoning skills at the end of the dCCDs (M=4.43; SD=0.66) as being significantly higher than at the beginning (M=4.33; SD=0.69), with low effect size, t(181)=-2.352, p=.020, d=0.15. Conclusion: Our evaluation data shows that the dCCD format is well-accepted by students as a substitute for face-to-face teaching. In the next step, we plan to examine the extent to which participation in dCCDs leads to an increase in objectively measured clinical reasoning skills, analogous to a face-to-face CCD with on-site attendance.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/métodos , Educación a Distancia/organización & administración , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/organización & administración , Competencia Clínica , Educación a Distancia/normas , Educación Médica/normas , Evaluación Educacional , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/normas
3.
Front Public Health ; 8: 609599, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330345

RESUMEN

In the wake of COVID-19, there is an urgent need for a diverse public health work force to address problems presented or exacerbated by the global pandemic. Educational programs that create our work force both train and shape the makeup of access through graduate applications. The Graduate Record Exam has a number of standing issues, with additional barriers created by the pandemic. We trace the GRE waiver movement over several years, focusing on the gradual adoption in CEPH accredited programs and the rapid expansion of temporary waivers as a response to testing access. Going forward, we need to consider gaps in waivers during the pandemic and how this data can be used to shape our future use of the GRE.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica/normas , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Salud Pública/educación , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes de Medicina , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
4.
Yi Chuan ; 42(11): 1133-1139, 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229319

RESUMEN

Medical Genetics bridges basic research and clinical studies. It is one of the important basic courses for medical students. To cultivate students' self-regulated learning ability and improve the teaching quality of Medical Genetics, a presentation-assimilation-discussion (PAD) class mode is adopted in the teaching process. In the teaching setup, we gave students the proceedings and time guarantee for self-regulated learning, and guided the students through teaching, discussion and homework for their independent learning. The resulting evaluation of "Self-Regulated Learning Scale for College Students" shows that the students' learning motivation and learning strategy are enhanced compared with those before the implementation of PAD teaching, the total score of the evaluation is significantly increased, the students' self-regulated learning ability is improved, and satisfactory teaching results are achieved. We conclude that PAD class could contribute to students' self-regulated learning.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Genética Médica , Aprendizaje , Enseñanza , Educación Médica/normas , Genética Médica/educación , Humanos , Autocontrol , Enseñanza/normas
5.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 489-493, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236581

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social distancing, implemented to decrease the spread of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), forced major changes in medical practices, including an abrupt transition from face-to-face to remote patient care. Pre-clinical medical studies were concomitantly switched to electronic distance learning. OBJECTIVES: To explore potential implications of COVID-19 on future pre-clinical medical studies. METHODS: We examined responses of pre-clinical medical students to the remote electronic learning in terms of quality of and satisfaction with teaching and technical support, attendance to classes, and the desire to continue electronic learning in the post-epidemic era. A survey of responses from first-year students at the Adelson School of Medicine was conducted. To optimize the reliability of the survey, a single research assistant conducted telephone interviews with each student, using a structured questionnaire concerning aspects of participation and satisfaction with teaching and with technical components of the remote electronic learning. RESULTS: With 100% response rate, the students reported high satisfaction with the electronic learning regarding its quality, online interactions, instructions given, technical assistance, and availability of recording for future studies. Most of the students (68.6%) noted a preference to continue < 90% of the learning online in the post-outbreak era. A high level of overall satisfaction and a low rate of technical problems during electronic learning were significantly correlated with the desire to continue online learning (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The high satisfaction and the positive experience with the electronic distance learning imposed by the COVID-19 epidemic implied a successful transition and might induce future changes in pre-clinical medical studies.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación a Distancia , Educación Médica/normas , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Actitud , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enseñanza/normas , Comunicación por Videocoferencia
6.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(5): 554-562, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138892

RESUMEN

One of the main goals of clinicians is to constantly improve the healthcare by spreading their expertise and by introducing innovations in medical science. Therefore, publishing is of utmost importance. Moreover, publishing helps authors in developing their academic carrier. Learning how to properly write and submit a manuscript should be a goal for all medical students, residents, clinicians and researchers. Everyone, from students to senior physicians and surgeons, advance in their carrier by publishing papers and by getting their work cited by others. The aim of this paper, published in three parts, is to enable the readers to write and publish their work effectively; the current part is addressing the actual writing workflow of a clinical paper and its submission process to a journal.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Educación Médica , Edición , Comunicación Académica/normas , Escritura , Investigación Biomédica/normas , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Educación Médica/normas , Humanos , Manuscritos Médicos como Asunto
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e21668, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019384

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in nursing and medical education is to foster the critical thinking ability and autonomous learning ability for students. But the effect of different teaching methods on these abilities of nursing or medical students has not been conclusive, and few studies have directly compared the differences in the effects of different teaching methods. As a result, it is necessary for students to evaluate the impact of different teaching methods on critical thinking ability and autonomous learning ability. METHODS: A systematic search will be performed using Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data (Chinese database), VIP Information (Chinese database), Chinese Biomedical Literature, and English language databases, including PubMed and Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL Complete (EBSCO0, Cochrane library to identify relevant studies from inception to July 10, 2020. We will include random controlled trials that evaluated the different teaching methods. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 quality assessment tool will be used to assess the risk of bias in each study. Standard pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis will be performed using STATA V.12.0, MetaDiSc 1.40, and R 3.4.1 software to compare the diagnostic efficacy of different hormonal biomarkers. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This study will summarize the direct and indirect evidence to determine the effectiveness of different teaching methods for medical or nursing students and attempt to find the most effective teaching method. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval and patient consent are not required, because this study is a meta-analysis based on published studies. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070017.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/métodos , Educación en Enfermería/métodos , Curriculum , Educación Médica/normas , Educación en Enfermería/normas , Humanos , Metaanálisis en Red , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Pensamiento
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239917, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002086

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As the field of global health expands, the recognition of structured training for field-based public health professionals has grown. Substantial effort has gone towards defining competency domains for public health professionals working globally. However, there is limited literature on how to implement competency-based training into learning curricula and evaluation strategies. OBJECTIVES: This scoping review seeks to collate the current status, degree of consensus, and best practices, as well as gaps and areas of divergence, related to the implementation of competencies in global health curricula. Specifically, we sought to examine (i) the target audience, (ii) the levels or milestones, and (iii) the pedagogy and assessment approaches. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE: A review of the published and grey literature was completed to identify published and grey literature sources that presented information on how to implement or support global health and public health competency-based education programs. In particular, we sought to capture any attempts to assign levels or milestones, any evaluation strategies, and the different pedagogical approaches. RESULTS: Out of 68 documents reviewed, 21 documents were included which contained data related to the implementation of competency-based training programs; of these, 18 were peer-reviewed and three were from the grey literature. Most of the sources focused on post-graduate public health students, professional trainees pursuing continuing education training, and clinical and allied health professionals working in global health. Two approaches were identified to defining skill level or milestones, namely: (i) defining levels of increasing ability or (ii) changing roles across career stages. Pedagogical approaches featured field experience, direct engagement, group work, and self-reflection. Assessment approaches included self-assessment surveys, evaluations by peers and supervisors, and mixed methods assessments. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of global health competencies needs to respond to the needs of specific agencies or particular groups of learners. A milestones approach may aide these efforts while also support monitoring and evaluation. Further development is needed to understand how to assess competencies in a consistent and relevant manner.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/métodos , Salud Global/educación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Educación Médica/normas , Personal de Salud/educación , Personal de Salud/normas , Humanos
10.
Acad Med ; 95(12S Addressing Harmful Bias and Eliminating Discrimination in Health Professions Learning Environments): S51-S57, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889920

RESUMEN

In 2015, the Pritzker School of Medicine experienced increasing student interest in the changing sociopolitical landscape of the United States and the interaction of these events with student and patient identity. To address this interest, an Identity and Inclusion Steering Committee was formed and formally charged with "providing ongoing direction for programs and/or curricula at Pritzker that support an inclusive learning environment and promote respectful and effective communication with diverse patients and colleagues around issues of identity." The authors describe this committee's structure and steps taken by the committee to create an inclusive community of students at Pritzker characterized by learning through civil discourse. Initiatives were guided by a strategy of continuous quality improvement consisting of regular iterative evaluation, ongoing school-wide engagement, and responsiveness to issues and concerns as they emerged. Data collected over the committee's 4-year existence demonstrate significant improvement in students' sense of inclusion and respect for different perspectives on issues related to identity, such as access to health care, racialized medicine, safe spaces, and nursing labor strikes. The authors discuss several principles that support the development of an inclusive community of students as well as challenges to the implementation of such programming. They conclude that a strategy of continuous quality improvement guided by values of social justice, tolerance, and civil discourse can build community inclusion and enhance medical training for the care of diverse patient populations.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/tendencias , Identificación Social , Desarrollo de Personal/métodos , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/normas , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Aprendizaje
11.
Acad Med ; 95(12S Addressing Harmful Bias and Eliminating Discrimination in Health Professions Learning Environments): S44-S50, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889933

RESUMEN

Racism and bias are American medicine's fatal flaw. They permeate clinical practice and biomedical research, and their influence on medical education is even more profound because it is through medical education that racism and bias are perpetuated across generations and throughout history. This insidious influence has persisted despite the stated values of the medical profession and well-intentioned efforts to lessen their impact. The authors assert that racism and bias in the learning and work environment of medical school can be mitigated only through a formal change management process that leads to change that is institutionally transformational and individually transformative. The authors describe the sequence of events at one U.S. medical school, beginning in 2016, that led from student activism to an initiative that encompasses every functional sphere within medical education. They also reflect on personal and structural lessons learned during the course of designing and implementing this initiative. Eliminating racism and bias demands that medical educators embrace a change process that is lifelong, people-centered, incremental, and nonlinear. It requires the courage to constantly course correct while never losing sight of the ultimate goal: health care and medical education that are free of racism and bias.


Asunto(s)
Sesgo , Racismo/psicología , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/normas , Educación Médica/tendencias , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Innovación Organizacional , Racismo/prevención & control , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Facultades de Medicina/tendencias , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/normas
12.
Yi Chuan ; 42(8): 810-816, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952116

RESUMEN

Medical Genetics is an important research content of basic medicine and closely related to clinical medicine. Medical Genetics can not only lay a solid theoretical foundation for understanding medical problems for medical students, but also provide them an indispensable technical means for clinical medical practice. In order to improve students' understanding and mastery of the core content of Medical Genetics and cultivate senior medical talents with innovative spirit and independent thinking abilities, the PBL (problem-based learning) teaching method was introduced in the teaching of medical genetics for students enrolled in the eight-year medical education program. By integrating formative evaluation and teaching feedback mechanism into PBL teaching, we have achieved good teaching effects. In this paper, we will discuss the importance and necessity of formative evaluation and teaching feedback in PBL teaching, introduce the PBL teaching plan, teaching process and teaching effect of Medical Genetics in our school, share our thoughts on PBL teaching mode, and provide new ideas for the teaching reform of Medical Genetics.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Genética Médica , Enseñanza , Educación Médica/normas , Genética Médica/educación , Humanos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Estudiantes de Medicina , Enseñanza/normas
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239928, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991616

RESUMEN

A solid understanding of basic sciences is a prerequisite for successful completion of medical education. Therefore, it is essential to improve the quality of teaching and to ensure the applicability of basic sciences. Based on practical experiences and previous research, we developed an innovative step-by-step concept, called ENHANCE, for the implementation or revision of teaching units, especially for basic sciences. We used comparative self-assessment gains, a questionnaire to assess teaching quality as well as end-of-semester evaluations (students' satisfaction and open-ended questions) to evaluate the ENHANCE concept. It was found that ENHANCE-based teaching units were related to increased students' satisfaction, high attendance rates and that restructuring the course curriculum yielded in a positive assessment of teaching effectiveness. The revised courses were rated as the very best of all classes in several semesters. Qualitative data showed that students particularly appreciated the level of comprehension and how helpful the courses were for the understanding and preparation of the regular curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/métodos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Ciencia/educación , Enseñanza/normas , Educación Médica/normas , Humanos , Mejoramiento de la Calidad
15.
South Med J ; 113(8): 368-371, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747962

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly led to global human devastation, including multiple deaths, sicknesses, and financial reverberations across many individuals and communities. As COVID-19 gained its foothold in the United States, medical school administrators, faculty, and students had to undergo rapid change to mitigate the disease spread, putting all parties in dubious situations. Medical school administrators had to make swift and judicious decisions that would best serve the student body and the diverse patient population at clinical sites. Medical schools with students practicing in rural, remote regions with a dearth of healthcare resources have even more complicated decisions to make in these unprecedented times. We provide an overview of rapid decision-making processes that can be used by curriculum leaders and medical school administrators to continue to meet accreditation requirements while attempting to keep medical students safe and prepared for graduation in response to the COVID-19 health crisis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Curriculum , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Acreditación , Betacoronavirus , Educación Médica/normas , Humanos , Salud Rural , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
17.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(4): 223-229, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195112

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los futuros profesionales de Medicina y Salud Pública se enfrentarán a rápidos cambios en el conocimiento científico y tecnológico derivados del proceso de la globalización. La formación universitaria debe reconocer que la internacionalización de sus actividades es imprescindible para la trasferencia de conocimiento. Los Colegios Tordesillas de Doctorado nacieron con el propósito de crear una red sólida de cooperación académico-científica entre universidades brasileñas, portuguesas y españolas. MÉTODOS: La Universidad Miguel Hernández coordina el Colegio Doctoral Tordesillas de Salud Pública e Historia de la Ciencia compuesto por las Facultades de Medicina de las Universidades de Porto y Miguel Hernández, y de Medicina y Salud Pública de São Paulo desde julio de 2017. Su objetivo principal es dotar a los programas de posgrado de nuevos contenidos docentes y potenciar la innovación en la investigación a través de la cooperación internacional. En febrero de 2018 se celebró el primer seminario internacional para establecer alianzas en investigación y docencia. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron intereses comunes importantes de colaboración en investigación y docencia de posgrado en las siguientes áreas: en Salud Pública en estudios sobre políticas públicas, evaluación de la innovación en pruebas diagnósticas, relaciones entre los ámbitos político y científico y conflictos de intereses; en derechos de reproducción y en la creciente medicalización de la sociedad; en Historia de la Ciencia, en estudios sobre el análisis de las reformas sanitarias en países europeos y latinoamericanos en el siglo XX. DISCUSIÓN: La internacionalización universitaria es una pieza clave en la transferencia de conocimiento científico. Los Colegios Tordesillas de Doctorado ofrecen un contexto más flexible para superar obstáculos legales y administrativos para esta internacionalización


INTRODUCTION: Future public health and medical professionals will face new scientific and technological requirements resulting from the globalization process. University education must recognize that the internationalization of its activities is essential for the transfer of knowledge. The Tordesillas Doctoral Schools were born with the purpose of creating a solid network of scientific academic cooperation between Brazilian, Portuguese and Spanish universities. METHODS: The University Miguel Hernández has coordinated The Tordesillas Doctorate School of Public health and History of Science (July 2017) composed by the Faculty of Medicine, from Porto University, Miguel Hernández, and the Faculties of Medicine and Public Health of the University of São Paulo, whose aim is to provide postgraduate programs with new teaching content and enhance innovation in research trough international cooperation. In February 2018, the first International seminar of this The Tordesillas Doctorate School was held to establish partnerships in research and postdoctoral teaching. RESULTS: Important common interest for research and teaching collaboration was found: for Public Health in public policies evaluation studies, assessment of innovation in diagnostic tests, relations between the political and scientific agenda and conflict of interests, studies on health reproduction rights, and the increasing medicalization of society in all contexts. For History of Science interest was shown in analysis of sanitary reforms carried out in European and Latin American countries in the 2nd half of the 20th century. DISCUSSION: The university internationalization is as a key piece in the transfer of scientific knowledge. The Tordesillas Doctoral Schools offer a more flexible context to overcome legal and/or administrative obstacles for internationalization of university activities which might be found in each Institution


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación Médica/normas , Internacionalidad , Salud Pública/educación , Cooperación Internacional , Conocimiento , Investigación Científica y Desarrollo Tecnológico
18.
Intern Med J ; 50(9): 1150-1153, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666691

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound effect on society and higher education in Australia. In just a few weeks, entire courses have been re-structured and are now delivered online. The need to adapt rapidly has prompted many innovative changes that will ultimately have long-term benefits for medical education in Australia and New Zealand.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Educación a Distancia/organización & administración , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Conducta Cooperativa , Educación Médica/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Pandemias , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
19.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 32(3): 267-274, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604374

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study examined the degree to which pediatric essential core competencies (ECCs) are meeting their intended purpose to provide guidance to pediatric educators in professional physical therapy (PT) education programs and to determine facilitators, barriers, and recommendations to implementation of ECCs in curricula. METHODS: Pediatric PT educators from professional PT education programs were recruited to participate in a survey. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze close-ended questions for frequency of responses and content analysis to generate themes. RESULTS: Of the 162 completed surveys, most participants were aware of the ECCs (96%) and used them to inform pediatric curriculum (88%). A mean proportion (86%-95%) of participants perceived their program curricula addressed the ECCs very or moderately well. Multiple themes of facilitators/barriers/recommendations to ECC implementation were determined. CONCLUSIONS: Most pediatric educators are aware of and using the ECCs to guide pediatric education to prepare graduates for pediatric patients/clients.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación Médica/normas , Pediatría/educación , Pediatría/normas , Fisioterapeutas/educación , Fisioterapeutas/normas , Competencia Profesional/normas , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
20.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(4): 883-891, 2020 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726260

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: As scholarship moves into the digital sphere, applicant and promotion and tenure (P&T) committee members lack formal guidance on evaluating the impact of digital scholarly work. The P&T process requires the appraisal of individual scholarly impact in comparison to scholars across institutions and disciplines. As dissemination methods evolve in the digital era, we must adapt traditional P&T processes to include emerging forms of digital scholarship. METHODS: We conducted a blended, expert consensus procedure using a nominal group process to create a consensus document at the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors Academic Assembly on April 1, 2019. RESULTS: We discussed consensus guidelines for evaluation and promotion of digital scholarship with the intent to develop specific, evidence-supported recommendations to P&T committees and applicants. These recommendations included the following: demonstrate scholarship criteria; provide external evidence of impact; and include digital peer-review roles. As traditional scholarship continues to evolve within the digital realm, academic medicine should adapt how that scholarship is evaluated. P&T committees in academic medicine are at the epicenter for supporting this changing paradigm in scholarship. CONCLUSION: P&T committees can critically appraise the quality and impact of digital scholarship using specific, validated tools. Applicants for appointment and promotion should highlight and prepare their digital scholarship to specifically address quality, impact, breadth, and relevance. It is our goal to provide specific, timely guidance for both stakeholders to recognize the value of digital scholarship in advancing our field.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico/normas , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Evaluación del Rendimiento de Empleados , Becas , Consenso , Educación Médica/normas , Educación Médica/tendencias , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Becas/métodos , Becas/tendencias , Guías como Asunto , Humanos
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