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1.
Global Health ; 15(1): 84, 2019 12 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796093

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most international electives in which medical students from high-income countries travel abroad are largely unstructured, and can lead to problematic outcomes for students as well as sending and receiving institutions. We analyse the problems of unstructured medical electives and describe the benefits of an elective experience that includes more organisation and oversight from the sending medical school. RESULTS: A number of structured elective programmes have been developed, including those at the Medical School for International Health, Israel and the University of Dundee, United Kingdom. These programmes provide significant pre-departure training in global health and the ethical dimensions of electives, support and monitoring during the elective, and post-elective debrief. Crucially, the programmes themselves are developed on the basis of long-term engagement between institutions, and have an element of reciprocity. We further identify two major problems in current medical electives: the different ethical contexts in which electives take place, and the problem of 'voluntourism', in which the primary beneficiary of the activity is the medical student, rather than the receiving institution or health system. These two issues should be seen in the light of unequal relations between sending and receiving institutions, which largely mirror unequal relations between the Global North and South. CONCLUSION: We argue that more structured elective programmes could form a useful corrective to some of the problems identified with medical electives. We recommend that medical schools in countries such as the UK strongly consider developing these types of programmes, and if this is not possible, they should seek to further develop their pre-departure training curricula.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/organización & administración , Intercambio Educacional Internacional , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Curriculum , Humanos , Reino Unido
10.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(4): 159-164, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183075

RESUMEN

La educación médica en Costa Rica se inicia en 1959 con la creación de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La interacción entre la Junta de Protección Social y la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social ha fortalecido su desarrollo. La fundación de las escuelas de medicina privadas en la década de los setenta, así como la creación del Sistema Nacional de Acreditación de la Educación Superior como garante de la calidad académica de las instituciones de educación superior y el Colegio de Médicos y Cirujanos, ente que regula el ejercicio profesional y la idoneidad del recurso médico, han contribuido de forma importante a este desarrollo. Todos estos esfuerzos institucionales conjuntos permiten a los estudiantes de grado y posgrado el acceso a planes de estudio de calidad, para dar mejores servicios de salud a la población costarricense, permitiendo el avance en los índices de salud del país y el desarrollo de un sistema sanitario que cubre el 95% de la población. Los desafíos se dirigen a una mejor planificación, que regule la formación de este recurso, a la atención de la población mayor de 65 años, tanto en lo preventivo como en las patologías propias de la edad, al desarrollo de estrategias mediante la tecnología informática que potencie la formación de redes para la investigación en educación médica, a la formación de profesionales a nivel general y a una especialización de mayor calidad


Medical education in Costa Rica began in 1959 with the creation of the School of Medicine of the University of Costa Rica. The subsequent interaction between the Social Protection Board and the alliances with the Costa Rican Social Security Fund has strengthened its development. Black in the seventies, the foundation of the private schools of medicine, and the creation of the National System of Accreditation of Higher Education as guarantor of the minimum academic quality and the role of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, entity that regulates the professional practice and the suitability of the resource edict, has contributed in an important way with this development. All these joint institutional efforts allow undergraduate and graduate students, access to quality study plans, to provide better health services to the Costa Rican population and allowing advancement in the health indices presented by the country and the development of a health system that covers 95% of the population. The challenges are focused on the achievement of a better planning, that regulates the formation of this course, the attention for the population over 65 years, both in the preventive, as in the pathologies of that time, the development of strategies through the computer technology that enhances the formation of networks for research in medical education and the training of general and specialty professionals of higher quality


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación Médica/métodos , Modelos Educacionales , Educación Basada en Competencias/métodos , Educación de Postgrado/métodos , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Costa Rica , Acreditación , Prueba de Admisión Académica
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 268, 2019 Jul 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319835

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The educational beliefs of medical academics influence how they act in class and thus influence student learning. One component of these are beliefs academics hold about the qualities of teachers themselves. These teacher qualities range from behaviours and competencies to more personal attributes such as the teacher's identity and mission. However, it is unclear what medical academics believe to be key teacher qualities. Therefore, this study explored the variety of medical academics' beliefs about 'teacher qualities', aiming to identify and characterise profiles of academics with similar beliefs. METHODS: We interviewed 26 expert academics from two medical schools to explore their beliefs about teacher qualities. A concentric onion-model focusing on teacher qualities was used to analyse and categorise the data deductively. Within each theme we developed subthemes inductively. To gain insight into the variety of beliefs we then clustered the participants into teacher profiles according to the themes. To better understand each of the profiles we carried out a quantitative study of the differences between profiles regarding subthemes, contextual and personal factors, and analysed statistical significance using Fisher's exact- and Student's t-tests for categorical and continuous data, respectively. RESULTS: Four profiles of medical academics were identified, corresponding to the most central theme that each participant had reflected on: the 'Inspirer', 'Role-model', 'Practitioner', and 'Critic'. The focus of the profiles varied from external constraining factors within the 'Critic' profile to affective personal qualities within the 'Role-model' and 'Inspirer' profiles. The profiles could be regarded as hierarchically ordered by inclusiveness. Educational institute was the only significant factor related to the profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the relevance of affective teacher qualities, the 'Inspirer' profile demonstrates the importance of developing a clear mission as a teaching academic, centred around student learning and professional development. In our view, academics who inspire their students continue to be inspired themselves. The practical implications are described for faculty development programmes, and for the potential value of using these profiles within medical schools. In the discourse on educational beliefs, the authors argue that more attention should be paid to affective qualities, in particular to explicating the educational mission of academics.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Docentes Médicos/organización & administración , Competencia Profesional , Gestión de la Calidad Total , Adulto , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Estados Unidos
12.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 601-605, 2019 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267900

RESUMEN

The Stop the Bleed (STB) course teaches trainees prehospital hemorrhage control with a focus on mass education. Identifying populations most likely to benefit can help save on the significant cost and limited resources. In this study, we attempted to identify those populations and performed a cost analysis. Trainees underwent STB education and completed a survey on completion to assess demographics and prior experiences where STB skills could have been useful. Five hundred seventy-one trainees categorized as first responders (14%), students (56%), and the working public (30%) completed the survey. Most trainees found the lecture and simulation helpful, 96 per cent and 98 per cent, respectively. There were significant differences among groups who had previously been in situations where the STB course would have been helpful (88% first responders versus 40% students versus 43% public workers) (P < 0.001). Teaching a class of 10 students costs approximately $455; the cost can be as high as $1246 for a class of 50 students. Most STB trainees found the course helpful. First responders are most likely to be exposed to situations where course information could be helpful. Focusing on specific high-yield groups rather than mass education might be a more efficient approach to STB education.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/organización & administración , Socorristas/educación , Hemorragia/prevención & control , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa/prevención & control , Adulto , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Educación Profesional/organización & administración , Tratamiento de Urgencia , Femenino , Personal de Salud/educación , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública/educación , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tasa de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos
13.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(3): 403-410, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258446

RESUMEN

Background: The following case example provides an overview of one innovative way to engage health professions faculty with health sciences librarians in the development of an interprofessional book discussion and identifies strategies to address implementation challenges. Academic health sciences librarians worked with the Interprofessional Education (IPE) Steering Committee to organize interprofessional book discussion groups for incoming health professions students. This inaugural book discussion brought together students and faculty of different disciplines to engage students in "learning from, with, and about" other professions. Case Presentation: When Breath Becomes Air, by Paul Kalanithi, allowed involved discussions on important health sciences issues. The project included outreach, designing pre- and post-surveys, scheduling participants, and communicating with all participants before, during, and after the event. A total of seventy-nine students and thirty-six faculty, representing all health professions schools, participated in the small group IPE book discussions over two weeks. Conclusions: Small group book discussions have been shown to be an effective tool to engage students and faculty in IPE. The results of the participant surveys were positive, and the IPE Steering Committee found value in including health sciences librarians throughout the process. Lessons learned from the pilot project include needing an efficient scheduling system, strongly communicating at all stages of the project, and starting the planning process months ahead of time. The IPE Steering Committee plans to conduct similar book discussions every fall semester moving forward and explore options for other IPE events.


Asunto(s)
Libros , Conducta Cooperativa , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Docentes Médicos/psicología , Empleos en Salud/educación , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Bibliotecólogos/psicología , Adulto , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 179, 2019 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151448

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As the global burden of chronic disease grows, and infectious disease threats loom large, the need for medical graduates with expertise in public health medicine (PHM) is growing. A recurrent challenge is integrating this broad knowledge into crowded medical curricula and making PHM relevant. This study describes the process of integrating public health content into an Australian graduate entry medical course. METHODS: A redesign of the PHM curriculum at Deakin University School of Medicine was conducted in 2014 to make the curriculum practice-based and solution-oriented. Central to the redesign was the development of a curriculum map. RESULTS: Public health is now taught from a practice-based framework adapted from the World Health Organization emphasizing skills aligned with the Australasian Faculty of Public Health Medicine domains that prepare students for specialisation. Learning outcomes are structured to build depth and application in student knowledge. Mapping the curriculum provided the ability to measure alignment of learning outcomes with course, university and accrediting body outcomes. Regular feedback from students indicates engagement has improved along with perceived relevance to future careers. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors with public health skills are increasingly sought after in Australia, particularly in rural areas. Deakin graduates are well placed to meet this demand.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/métodos , Educación en Salud Pública Profesional/métodos , Australia , Curriculum , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Educación en Salud Pública Profesional/organización & administración , Humanos , Práctica de Salud Pública
16.
Med Educ Online ; 24(1): 1630238, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248353

RESUMEN

Given the economic burden and numerous morbidities associated with obesity and poor dietary choices, it is increasingly important for medical students to receive education on nutrition and preventive medicine so that they are equipped to advise patients about healthy lifestyle choices. Currently, 71% of US medical schools do not reach the minimum benchmark of 25 hours of nutrition education set by the National Academy of Sciences. In order to improve the quality and quantity of nutrition education at the Keck School of Medicine of USC (KSOM), medical students and faculty have partnered with LA Kitchen (LAK), a local teaching kitchen, and the Wellness Center at LA County Medical Center (LAC+USC). They developed a hands-on preclinical culinary and nutrition course that aims to teach students practical skills and knowledge that they will be able to apply to their own lives and pass onto patients. Following the completion of the first three years of the course (2016-2018), analysis suggests that the class was well-received and has improved students' nutrition knowledge, confidence in lifestyle counseling, and personal culinary skills. Given these highly encouraging observations, the project is currently aimed at incorporating nutrition education more broadly into the required preclinical curriculum at KSOM.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria/métodos , Dieta , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Ciencias Nutricionales/educación , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/organización & administración , Curriculum , Humanos , Relaciones Interinstitucionales , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración
17.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 32(4): 472-479, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219869

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed evidence of recent innovations in sedation education and discuss experiences with sedation training in Taiwan. RECENT FINDINGS: Current Status of Sedation Training: Didactic training and supervised clinical mentoring are common methods of sedation training. Although training course designed by professional societies to meet individual hospital credentialing requirements, the course content and training expectations vary and are likely inadequate to non-anesthesiologist sedation practitioners. Less Common Forms of Sedation Training: These include screen-based simulation, high-fidelity manikin-based simulation. Screen-based simulation sedation training is popular, convenient, and relatively inexpensive. Although there are numerous courses available, course content has not been standardized. High-fidelity simulation has been accepted to improve knowledge, self-confidence, awareness of emergency, crisis resource management, and teamwork, but it is costly, time intensive, and requires expertise in using simulation equipment. Although screen-based training is attractive and convenient, there is no evidence to suggest that it can replace high-fidelity simulation. Another recently developed education modality is virtual reality simulation. It has gained recent popularity as an immersive approach to medical training, but minimal content has been developed for sedation training. Beyond training, several other potential innovations may improve sedation effectiveness and patient safety. These include adherence to practice guidelines established by professional organizations, utilization of a pre-procedure sedation checklist, interpreting capnography, and implementation of real-time bedside drug displays that provide predictions of concentrations and their associated effects. SUMMARY: Effective sedation education and training, especially for nonanesthesiologists, is essential to improve patient safety for procedural sedation. Several innovative approaches have been proposed and are relatively early in their development and implementation. Further studies designed to assess the impact of these new training modalities on patient safety and outcomes are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiología/educación , Educación Médica/métodos , Enseñanza Mediante Simulación de Alta Fidelidad/métodos , Invenciones , Innovación Organizacional , Analgesia , Lista de Verificación/normas , Competencia Clínica , Sedación Consciente , Sedación Profunda , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Educación Médica/normas , Adhesión a Directriz , Enseñanza Mediante Simulación de Alta Fidelidad/organización & administración , Enseñanza Mediante Simulación de Alta Fidelidad/normas , Humanos , Seguridad del Paciente , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Realidad Virtual
20.
N C Med J ; 80(3): 163-166, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072947

RESUMEN

North Carolina's five medical schools are responding to the changing health care landscape and continued shortage of rural, primary care physicians through curricular innovations. Early indications suggest that these innovations-involving themes of longitudinal training, immersive experiences, practice transformation, and health equity promotion-will lead to a new physician workforce.


Asunto(s)
Difusión de Innovaciones , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Curriculum , Humanos , North Carolina , Médicos de Atención Primaria/provisión & distribución , Servicios de Salud Rural , Facultades de Medicina
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