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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1171: 15-23, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823236

RESUMEN

Emerging technologies have the potential to transform our approach to medical education. A goal in this chapter is to inspire researchers, educators and scholars in the bio-medical visualisation field who can benefit from integrating wearable Augmented Reality (AR) technologies, like the HoloLens into their existing teaching and learning environments. We draw from case studies, existing research and the educational technology literature, to propose the design of purposeful learner-centered experiences that might benefit from wearable AR technologies in the classroom.


Asunto(s)
Realidad Aumentada , Educación Médica , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Aprendizaje
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1171: 25-35, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823237

RESUMEN

Health care professionals must not only have knowledge, but also be able to organise, synthesise and apply this knowledge in such a way that it promotes the development of clinical reasoning. Panels of Virtual patients (VPs) are widely being used in health professions education to facilitate the development of clinical reasoning. VPs can also be used to teach wider educational outcomes such as communication skills, resource utilisation and longitudinal patient care. This chapter will define virtual patients and examine the evidence behind their use in health professions learning and teaching. The chapter will discuss virtual patient design, such as gamification. Finally, the chapter will discuss where this pedagogical innovation is best integrated into assessment and potential barriers to implementation into existing curricula.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Empleos en Salud , Realidad Virtual , Competencia Clínica , Educación Médica/tendencias , Empleos en Salud/educación , Humanos , Aprendizaje
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 431-433, 2019 Aug 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612682

RESUMEN

To achieve the combination of ideological and political education curriculum and curriculum ideological and political education, the ideological and political education was integrated into the teaching of medical basic course Human Parasitology. Based on improving the cultivation of the teaching team, insisting on morality education and education-directed professional curriculum teaching, the pathway of integrating curriculum ideological and political education into medical science education was explored. Through putting the ideological and political elements contained throughout the professional curriculum teaching process, establishing new teaching patterns of integrating ideological and political education into the curriculum, and strengthening the collaboration between professional institutions and universities, we aimed to build Human Parasitology as a gold ideological and political education curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación Médica , Parasitología , Curriculum/normas , Curriculum/tendencias , Educación Médica/normas , Educación Médica/tendencias , Humanos , Parasitología/educación , Enseñanza , Universidades
7.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 408-413, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408381

RESUMEN

Faculty dissatisfaction with diminishing levels of student engagement in lifestyle medicine sessions prompted this exploratory project that compared differences in students' substantive engagement in medical preclinical and clinical level lifestyle medicine sessions. The preclinical and clinical level sessions had the same learning objectives and learning tasks, properly aligned with that level of student learning, but were offered in different learning formats, either traditional classroom approaches or technology-enhanced approaches. At the preclinical level, we transferred a nonmandatory, face-to-face session to a nonmandatory, fully online session. At the clinical level, we introduced two novel technology tools. We utilized Zoom technologies, which afforded students the ability to access the session from anywhere, and employed Hickey's use of "promoting" student submissions as one method for increasing student-student interaction during the synchronous session. We used indicators of behavioral engagement of Henrie et al. (Henrie CR, Halverson LR, Graham CR. Comput Educ 90: 36-53, 2015) as the framework for determining applicable engagement behaviors, including attendance, assignment completion, interactions (responding/feedback/endorsements), and the quality of (and faculty satisfaction with) the face-to-face and/or online interactions. We expected to observe higher levels of engagement behaviors in the technology-enhanced approach and found that to be the case at both the preclinical and clinical levels, in both mandatory/nonmandatory and synchronous/asynchronous formats. However, it was the increase in both the level and substance of the students' interactions in the technology-enhanced sessions that provided surprising results. A review of the sessions with enhanced engagement highlight the role of student autonomy, a construct with strongly established associations to student motivation and engagement.


Asunto(s)
Instrucción por Computador/métodos , Educación Médica/métodos , Tecnología Educacional/métodos , Docentes Médicos/psicología , Satisfacción Personal , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Instrucción por Computador/tendencias , Educación Médica/tendencias , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Tecnología Educacional/tendencias , Humanos
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1156: 41-48, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338776

RESUMEN

The introduction of online learning and interactive technology into tertiary education has enabled biomedical science and medical faculties to provide students with quality resources for off-campus study. This encompasses online self-directed learning, interactive blogs, quizzes, recordings of lectures and other resources. In addition, textbooks are now supplemented with interactive online learning tools, meaning that the student now has more accessibility than ever to engage with content. However, in biomedical sciences and medicine, technology has also enhanced the in-classroom experience. Anatomical and physiological visualisations in virtual, augmented and mixed reality provide students with an unprecedented ability to explore virtual content in-class, while learning remains structured by the facilitator and teaching team. This chapter will provide insights into the past use of technology to enhance off-campus learning, and then focus on the range of visualisations utilised within the laboratory or classroom in order to facilitate learning in biomedical sciences and medicine, including: augmented reality, virtual reality; mixed reality and Holograms; 3D printing; simulated dissections and anatomy simulation tables; and "Smart" tablets and touchscreen devices.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía/economía , Biología/educación , Educación a Distancia , Educación Médica , Fisiología/educación , Realidad Virtual , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación a Distancia/normas , Educación a Distancia/tendencias , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(6): 2221-2232, 2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269181

RESUMEN

The history of Primary Health Care (PHC) in the Federal District (DF) is as old as the history of the Federative Unit. The history of Family and Community Medicine (MFC), however, is relatively recent, both locally and nationally. This paper proposes to focus on the fundamental contribution of MFC to advances in Public Health in the Federal District, especially in the last 10 years, after the founding of the Family and Community Medicine Association of Brasília (ABMFC). In order to do so, the most relevant historical events and contexts related to Health Care, Management, Social Control and Medical Education - including Undergraduate course and Residency - were documented, which support this position, in parallel with the evolution of the specialty in the Federal District. Therefore, its organization was divided into four historical stages: until 2008, from 2008 to 2011, from 2011 to 2016, and from 2016 to 2018.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Salud Pública , Brasil , Medicina Comunitaria/organización & administración , Medicina Comunitaria/tendencias , Prestación de Atención de Salud/tendencias , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria/organización & administración , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria/tendencias , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias
11.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(3): Doc27, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211222

RESUMEN

Objective: In German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland), simulated patients (SPs) have been a fixture for years and are used in teaching and examinations. As part of ongoing methodological standardization efforts and to support current and future faculty and curriculum developments, this exploratory study systematically investigates how and under what framework and conditions SPs are currently used in German-speaking countries. Methodology: The online questionnaire developed in cooperation with the Committee for Simulated Patients of the Society for Medical Education comprises 58 questions covering the organization and administration, size and design of the SP pool, general conditions and minimum standards for the assignments of the SPs. All medical faculties from Germany, Austria and German-speaking Switzerland were invited to participate in the survey and a descriptive data analysis was performed. Results: 38 responses from 45 faculties were included in the evaluation of the survey (response rate: 84.4%). Most SP programs are affiliated with the Office of the Dean of Studies and skills labs or training centers and funded by faculty resources. Both the working hours in the SP programs and the qualifications of the employees vary extensively. The same applies to the number and average age of the employed SPs. On average each faculty uses 1,290 SP hours per year (min=45, max=6,500). The majority of SPs are used in a teaching environment, together with lecturers. At all sites, SPs provide feedback to students. This is always based on a uniform standard. All SPs receive training, which predominantly focuses on playing their role and giving feedback. Discussion: There are a variety of SP programs in German-speaking countries. While there are a few clear similarities (for example, feedback from SPs), many organizational and methodological aspects are handled differently. Although this allows innovation and flexibility, it also weakens the didactic SP method in its standardization and thus in the comparability of quality. A certain degree of standardization and high methodical quality is of great importance, especially in scientific and faculty internal discussions and with a view to the use of SPs in high-stakes examinations which must be improved in the future.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/normas , Simulación de Paciente , Austria , Curriculum/normas , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Alemania , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suiza
13.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(4): 713-724, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230618

RESUMEN

The article begins with an overview of evidence-based medicine (EBM), including its history and core principles. Next, the article discusses how the current clinical learning environment has shaped EBM, including the accessibility and portability of technology; the access to electronic search engines and libraries; and the movement toward applying the best evidence through order sets, clinical guidelines, and pathways to work toward standardizing care. The article ends with a focus on how educators can influence a trainee's knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors regarding EBM.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/tendencias , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/educación , Medicina Hospitalar/educación , Médicos Hospitalarios/educación , Pediatría/educación , Hospitales Pediátricos , Humanos
14.
Rev. esp. patol ; 52(2): 103-111, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-182696

RESUMEN

La trascendencia de la museología relacionada con la anatomía y la anatomía patológica radica tanto en la conservación de piezas anatómicas naturales o de sus reproducciones, como en la posibilidad de ofrecer un valioso material para fines didácticos e investigadores. Los primeros fundamentos para la enseñanza anatómica fueron los theatrum anatomicum y los «gabinetes anatómicos» de las cátedras de anatomía de la facultades de medicina europeas, a los que sucedieron en siglos posteriores los museos anatómicos y anatomopatológicos. Tras una época de auge durante el siglo xviii, la mayor parte de ellos sufrieron un proceso de decadencia progresiva que llevó a la pérdida de muchos de ellos. En la actualidad se observa un interés creciente en la recuperación y puesta en valor de estas colecciones. Este trabajo muestra una aproximación histórica de su desarrollo y una revisión de la situación actual de los principales museos de España y de Europa


The relevance of museums of anatomy and pathology lies both in the conservation of anatomical specimens and their excellent reproductions and their use in education and research. The teaching of anatomy dates from ancient times, originating in the Theatrum Anatomicum and anatomical cabinets, located in the anatomy lecture rooms of European medical schools. These were followed by museums of anatomy and pathology in successive centuries. However, after a golden period in the XVIII century, there was a progressive decline which eventually led to a dramatic loss of many museums. Currently, there is a growing interest in the recovery and importance of these collections. We present an historical approach to their development and a review of the current situation in the principal anatomical museums of anatomy in Spain and the rest of Europe


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Patología/educación , Anatomía Regional/educación , Modelos Anatómicos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Exposiciones Científicas
17.
Fam Med ; 51(5): 399-404, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081911

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of longitudinal data documenting the temporal development of distress and burnout during medical school. The aim of this study was to examine trends and identify stressors associated with medical student distress over 4 years of medical education. METHODS: Medical students from the class of 2016 at a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical school completed surveys nine times from orientation through after the residency match. Surveys included demographic variables and measured distress domains using the Medical Student Well-Being Index. The authors used Microsoft Excel to calculate the proportion of students screening positive for individual distress domains at each of the nine acquisition periods for descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Students completed 886 total surveys for an 85% response rate, which was relatively consistent across collection periods. Medical student distress and burnout increased from two (2%) to 12 (12%) respondents and from 19 (17%) to 37 (38%) respondents, respectively, from matriculation through after the residency match (P<0.01). Depersonalization increased from 15 (13%) to 34 (35%) respondents and emotional exhaustion increased from six (5%) to 22 (22%) respondents across 4 years of medical education (P<0.01). Emotional exhaustion peaked after medical school year 1, at 37 (45%), and year 3, at 45 (44%) respondents, with improvement after summer break and residency match. CONCLUSIONS: The results supported the literature demonstrating the development of burnout during medical school. Depersonalization increased early in the education process with minimal regression after development. Emotional exhaustion demonstrated a surprising increase after exposure to clinical clerkships. Further studies could support or refute the universality of these trends and evaluate prevention and intervention efforts targeting these key inflection points.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Psicológico/psicología , Educación Médica/tendencias , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(3): 527-536, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123556

RESUMEN

Introduction: The objective of this study was to review and critically appraise the medical education literature pertaining to a flipped-classroom (FC) education model, and to highlight influential papers that inform our current understanding of the role of the FC in medical education. Methods: A search of the English-language literature querying Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PsychINFO, PubMed, and Scopus identified 296 papers related to the FC using either quantitative, qualitative, or review methods. Two reviewers independently screened each category of publications using previously established exclusion criteria. Eight reviewers then independently scored the remaining 54 publications using either a qualitative, quantitative, or review-paper scoring system. Each scoring system consisted of nine criteria and used parallel metrics that have been previously used in critical appraisals of education research. Results: A total of 54 papers (33 quantitative, four qualitative, and 17 review) on FC met a priori criteria for inclusion and were critically appraised and reviewed. The top 10 highest scoring articles (five quantitative studies, two qualitative studies, and three review papers) are summarized in this article. Conclusion: This installment of the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) Academy Critical Appraisal series highlights 10 papers that describe the current state of literature on the flipped classroom, including an analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of an FC approach, practical implications for emergency medicine educators, and next steps for future research.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Medicina de Emergencia/educación , Publicaciones/normas , Materiales de Enseñanza/normas , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Humanos , Modelos Educacionales
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 96, 2019 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940152

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Students use mobile devices extensively in their everyday life, and the new technology is adopted in study usage. Since 2013, the University of Helsinki has given new medical and dental students iPads for study use. Simultaneously, an action research project on mobile learning started focusing on these students' mobile device usage throughout their study years. Note taking is crucial in academic studies, but the research evidence in this area is scarce. The aims of this study were to explore medical and dental students' self-reported study uses of mobile devices and their best practices of mobile note taking. METHOD: An action research project began in 2013 and followed the first student cohort (124 medical and 52 dental students) with iPads from the first until the fifth study year. We explored students' descriptions of their most important study uses of mobile devices and their perceptions of note taking with iPads. The longitudinal data were collected with online questionnaires over the years. The answers to open-ended questions were examined using qualitative content analysis. The findings were triangulated with another question on note taking and focus-group interviews. RESULTS: The response rates varied between 73 and 95%. Note taking was the most frequently and consistently reported study use of iPads during the study years. While taking notes, students processed the new information in an accomplished way and personalised the digital learning materials by making comments, underlining, marking images and drawing. The visual nature of their learning materials stimulated learning. Students organised the notes for retention in their personalised digital library. In the clinical studies, medical students faced the teachers' resistance and ambivalence to mobile device usage. This hindered the full-scale benefit of the novel technology in the clinical context. CONCLUSIONS: Efficient digital note taking practices were pivotal to students in becoming mobile learners. Having all their notes and learning materials organised in their personal digital libraries enabled the students to retrieve them anywhere, anytime, both when studying for examinations and treating patients in the clinical practice. The challenges the medical students met using mobile devices in the clinical setting require further studies.


Asunto(s)
Computadores de Bolsillo/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica , Aprendizaje , Aplicaciones Móviles/estadística & datos numéricos , Teléfono Inteligente/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Recolección de Datos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
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