Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24.824
Filtrar
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18514, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study will assess the effects of the project-based learning (PBL) for participants undergoing clinical oncology teaching (COT). METHODS: A systematic and comprehensive literature records will be identified from the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Springer, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. All electronic databases will be searched from their inceptions up to the present. Any relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of PBL in participants receiving COT will be considered for inclusion. Study quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RevMan 5.3 software will be utilized for statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will assess the effects of PBL in participants receiving COT through assessing the primary outcomes of psychological disorders, student satisfaction, and student feedback, and secondary outcomes of examination scores, excellence rates, course examination pass rates, and clinical knowledge or skills. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will summarize the latest evidence on the effects of PBL in participants receiving in COT. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019150433.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Oncología Médica/educación , Estudiantes/psicología , China/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Satisfacción Personal , Investigación Cualitativa , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Enseñanza/normas
3.
Urology ; 135: 28-31, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628969

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To address information overload for trainees, a concise electronic case-based urology learning program (CBULP) was developed. Previous qualitative assessments suggested CBULP's potential efficacy/utility. Herein we assess CBULP more stringently by evaluating test performance before/after reviewing a CBULP curriculum covering core concepts in testicular cancer. METHODS: Eleven of 33 CBULP testicular cancer cases were strategically selected for this curriculum. A 26 question multiple-choice test was developed to assess fundamental knowledge about testis cancer tumor biology and evaluation/management. Pretest was administered to PGY4/PGY1 residents at 2 pilot urology-training programs, and medical students interested in Urology. Participants were given 4 weeks to review the curriculum and the test was then repeated. A control group (4 PGY1s) was administered the pretest and repeat test in an analogous manner without provision of the CBULP curriculum. RESULTS: Twenty individuals took the pretest (7 medical students, 8 PGY1s, and 5 PGY4s), and 17 (85%) took the post-test (5 medical students, 8 PGY1s, and 4 PGY4s,). As expected, PGY4s performed significantly better than the other 2 groups on the pre- and post-test. However, significant improvement in test performance was seen across all groups that utilized the CBULP curriculum (P <.02), with highest increase demonstrated by PGY1 residents (4.75 more questions correct, P = .002). The control arm did not demonstrate significant improvement (P = .20). CONCLUSION: Significant improvement in test performance was observed after completion of the CBULP testicular series. This study suggests that CBULP can be an efficacious and clinically useful educational resource for urologic residents and students interested in the field.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Internado y Residencia/métodos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Urología/educación , Adulto , Competencia Clínica , Instrucción por Computador/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/patología , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia
5.
Zentralbl Chir ; 144(6): 597-605, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826294

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Practical skills are very important for medical doctors, but, for many practical skills, the optimal teaching form is not yet known. Surgical education and training can be compared to high performance sports, since complex movements and differentiated coordination have to be united perfectly in both disciplines. Thus, it would be useful to integrate into medical training methods that have been established and analysed in detail in sports sciences. The aim of the present study was to perform an analysis of the comparative effectiveness of mental training and the traditional "see one, do one" approach - with respect to both the acquired expertise, as well as the personnel and material costs. METHODS: Third year undergraduate medical students were randomised into two groups while participating in a practical skills training session: The control group was taught using the "see one, do one" approach, but the intervention group used mental training. As an example of a complex surgical skill, wound care was selected, as it consists of applying a local anaesthetic, the sterile covering and preparation of a wound, as well as performing a simple interrupted suture. The learning success was recorded at 3 measuring times: Directly after the training in an introductory OSCE (time point 1), two weeks after training using a free recall test (time point 2) as well as 5 - 14 weeks after training in an overall OSCE (time point 3). RESULTS: 123 students participated in the study. At the first time point, the students of the "mental training" group showed significantly better results in performing the sterile covering and wound preparation ("see one, do one" group 67.4% + 11.1; mental training group 71.6 + 10.6, p = 0.035). At other stations and at other time points there were no significant differences between the two groups. The cost analysis shows a potential saving of 4067.68 € per semester due to the resource-saving handling of materials and personnel. CONCLUSION: Mental training represents a teaching method that can be used with good results in curricular teaching in the field of surgery, which goes hand in hand with a reduction in personnel and material costs.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Competencia Clínica , Humanos
6.
S D Med ; 72(10): 451-453, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816205

RESUMEN

The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was introduced in the mid-1970s as a method of testing students' clinical skills with more objectivity. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) administered its first OSCE to third year students in 1996. At a national level, the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) incorporated clinical skills testing for all medical students in the form of Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) in 2004. The USMLE Step 2 CS exam has both proponents and opponents, but at this time will continue to be used. The USD SSOM OSCE has evolved over the years to include standardized patients, simulations, and note writing in an effort to better assess students and prepare them for Step 2 CS. Currently, the USD SSOM OSCE administered at the end of Pillar 2 is a requirement for graduation. The formal OSCE committee works diligently throughout the year to provide students with ample opportunity to prepare them for success. A significant ongoing part of student preparation is the clinical training that they receive in the offices of dedicated community preceptors.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Evaluación Educacional , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Examen Físico
8.
Zentralbl Chir ; 144(6): 573-579, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842239

RESUMEN

Competency-based medical education is needed in order to meet the requirements of medical care currently and in the future. The basis of this are activity-based learning objectives that are merged in competency-based catalogues. A basis for a core curriculum of undergraduate medical training is the National Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM). Already in 2013, for surgery, the competencies which medical students should have achieved after completing the practical year (PJ) in relation to surgical diseases were defined in the special part of the National Catalogue of Learning Objectives in Surgery (NKLC). In the now amended general part of the NKLC, interdisciplinary competencies were defined and consented from all surgical disciplines, that are relevant for all surgical disciplines and that all representatives from the different surgical disciplines should incorporate in their surgical training. The complete NKLC is now available for faculties, teachers and students for trial (available online: https://www.dgch.de/index.php?id=190&L=528). The guiding principle for the entire development process was to make sure that students gain all competencies they need when starting to work as a medical doctor and therefor to increase patient safety.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Facultades de Medicina , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Alemania , Humanos , Aprendizaje
9.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 790-798, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859833

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A portfolio is a compilation of academic work that demonstrates student's knowledge, reflection and critical thinking. AIM: To describe the development and implementation of an undergraduate portfolio in the School of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, its temporal evolution and its educational impact after 10 years of experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The development and implementation of a portfolio for 4th-year undergraduate medical student was analyzed. Its design, teaching and learning methodologies, results and perceptions of students and teachers were assessed. The educational impact was measured using Kirkpatrick's levels. RESULTS: A total of 1,320 students participated between 2007 and 2017, supported by six teachers and 190 assistant-students. The portfolio included clinical cases, narrative medicine, palliative care and evidence-based medicine (EBM). The overall student's perception was positive, highlighting the development of critical analysis, clinical reasoning and professionalism. The delivery of feedback and learning assessment, allowed students to obtain excellent grades. There were only two cases of plagiarism reported. Fifteen EBM articles and two books with 52 narrative medicine essays were published. The greatest organizational impact of this teaching innovation, was that it evolved to become an established and continuous assessment instrument in 10 consecutive years. CONCLUSIONS: This portfolio is a project with a high educational impact, with a favorable perception by students and tutors, excellent results related to grades, stimulating both scientific writing and reflective practice.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Chile , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes de Medicina , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
11.
Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir ; 51(6): 477-483, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698489

RESUMEN

Microsurgical training is organised almost exclusively in a post-graduate setting, usually for residents of various surgical specialities. The aim of this study was to present an undergraduate microsurgical training model directed toward medicine students of clinical years. Curriculum design and results. Two six-participant groups of students interested in training were recruited. The programme consisted of 15 three-hour classes (2 hours' work under the microscope) and divided into basic and advanced training parts. The simulation model used in this course was a chicken thigh. The basic training programme consisted of placing sutures on a latex glove followed by preparation of a chicken thigh neurovascular bundle and performing femoral nerve and artery anastomoses. The advanced part of the training consisted of practising the acquired skills and the introduction of new techniques such as end-to-side arterial anastomosis, artery and nerve repair with vein conduit. A "6-stitches test" was used as an outcome measure of the acquired microsurgical skills. After 15 weeks and 30 hours of training and performing 31 anastomoses the undergraduate microsurgical course was completed. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the undergraduate, facultative microsurgical training is effective in acquiring microsurgical skills, competence and confidence for participating students.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Microcirugia , Arterias , Humanos , Microcirugia/educación , Estudiantes
14.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 91, 2019 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Basic-Trauma Management (BTM) course has been taught to third-year medical students in small groups for many years without substantial changes. With the introduction of a new curriculum for Swiss medical students, it was necessary to revise the BTM content and re-align it. Our aim was to identify core competencies for the revised BTM course. METHODS: We applied a three-round step-wise Delphi consensus. First, we asked open-ended questions on what were the most important competencies to be taught for BTM; the second round used Likert scales to ensure agreement on the competencies; and the final round reached out for consensus on these BTM competencies. Stakeholders were selected based on their long-standing experience in teaching BTM and in managing trauma patients. RESULTS: Consensus was found on 29 competencies out of an initial 130 proposals. "Human Factors", which had not been taught previously, scored relatively high, at 22%. The sole specific trauma skill agreed upon was the use of tourniquets. CONCLUSIONS: This is an example of curricular revision of a clinical skills course after the introduction of a regulatory framework for undergraduate medical education. The revised course curriculum tailors the concepts and skills in trauma that fulfill stakeholder needs, and are in agreement with the new Swiss learning outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Educación Basada en Competencias , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Traumatología/educación , Competencia Clínica , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Estudiantes de Medicina , Suiza , Enseñanza
15.
Curr Urol Rep ; 20(11): 69, 2019 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606783

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urology is an essential topic in undergraduate medical education (UME). The objective of this article is to review the current state of exposure to urology in medical school, to discuss why it is critical to maintain a urology curriculum, and to review methods in establishing an effective curriculum for all students with limited resources. RECENT FINDINGS: UME curriculum in urology should be geared toward the widest group of students, namely those entering primary care or internal medicine, where patients with urologic complaints are most likely to first present. Hands-on teaching should focus on skills such as the genitourinary exam and Foley catheter placement, while ancillary modules should be utilized for complex concepts. Medical schools do not sufficiently incorporate didactics in urology as part of their core curriculum. As such, educators in urology must develop curricula that provide fundamental knowledge to all students, especially those pursuing non-urologic specialties who will undoubtedly treat patients with urologic complaints.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Urología/educación , Competencia Clínica , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/tendencias , Humanos , Facultades de Medicina/tendencias , Estados Unidos
18.
Zentralbl Chir ; 144(6): 614-615, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639854

RESUMEN

Offering a full-day program including practical courses and the possibility of direct exchange between medical students and university teachers, the "Göttinger Aufschneidertag" was launched to generate enthusiasm for surgery. Workshops comprising four surgical disciplines enable participants to gain insight into the craft of surgery. The program aims to create interest in surgery among medical students at an early point of their studies and to make them enjoy their profession.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Cirujanos , Humanos
19.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 29(10): 1252-1258, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509069

RESUMEN

Background and Aim: Training programs for developing laparoscopic suturing skills range from dry-box training to virtual simulator training. There are advantages and disadvantages to each training method; however, which training is best for medical students and young surgeons is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the proficiency of medical students in acquiring laparoscopic suturing skills after various routes of short-term training: via a video, an expert teacher, or a virtual simulator. Materials and Methods: Seventeen medical students were registered and divided randomly into three groups: group receiving personal training while watching a training video (video group), group receiving training under the guidance of an expert (teaching group), and group receiving personal training with a virtual simulator (virtual group). The students practiced laparoscopic suturing and tying skills for 1 hour. Following their training, they performed the evaluation task of three sutures and ties using a laparoscopic fundoplication simulator. We developed a 1-year-old infant body model (body weight 10 kg) based on computed tomography data and established a pneumoperitoneum body model based on a clinical situation. Results: The path length of the assistant forceps in the virtual group tended to be longer than in the other groups. The average acceleration of the assistant forceps in the virtual group was faster than in the other groups (P = .04). There were no significant differences in the other evaluation parameters. Conclusion: A long-term and combination training study should be performed to develop the best method for training medical students and inexperienced young surgeons.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Fundoplicación/educación , Laparoscopía/educación , Entrenamiento Simulado/métodos , Investigación sobre la Eficacia Comparativa , Fundoplicación/métodos , Humanos , Lactante , Japón , Laparoscopía/métodos
20.
Fam Med ; 51(8): 687-690, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509220

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many medical schools assess student clinical knowledge using the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject examinations. The Family Medicine Clinical Science Mastery Series (CSMS) self-assessments, which are made up of former Family Medicine NBME examination questions, became available in September 2017. They provide students with realistic practice questions and immediate performance feedback. To further assess the utility of various study tools available to our students, this study investigated the impact of the CSMS self-assessments for family medicine on the NBME family medicine subject examination performance. METHODS: Data analysis was conducted to compare student performance on the end-of-rotation NBME Family Medicine Clinical Subject Examination before and after the introduction of the CSMS family medicine self-assessments. The effect size was measured using a Cohen d analysis. We conducted an independent t-test analysis to determine the effect the NBME Family Medicine CSMS self-assessments had on end-of-rotation clinical subject examination scores. RESULTS: The analysis revealed statistically significant improvement in students' clinical subject examination scores after the release of the CSMS in September 2017 (n=90) compared to the students' scores prior to the availability of the CSMS (n=95). CONCLUSIONS: Student scores improved with the introduction of the NBME CSMS family medicine self-assessment. These results support recommending student use of the CSMS as a study tool for their end-of-clerkship NBME subject examinations.


Asunto(s)
Prácticas Clínicas , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria , Autoevaluación , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Competencia Clínica , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Humanos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA