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1.
Edumecentro ; 13(1): 75-86, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149233

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: las guías didácticas en la educación superior son un recurso del aprendizaje que optimiza el desarrollo del proceso enseñanza aprendizaje por su pertinencia al permitir la autonomía e independencia cognoscitiva del estudiante. Objetivo: valorar la efectividad de la implementación de guías didácticas para dos temas de Farmacología General, desde la perspectiva de los actores del proceso docente. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva con enfoque cualitativo en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara, desde septiembre 2018 hasta febrero 2019. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis e inducción-deducción; y empíricos: revisión documental, encuesta en forma de cuestionario a docentes y criterios de especialistas para la valoración del producto diseñado. Resultados: la elaboración de las guías didácticas constituyó un reto para lograr concretar las tareas docentes apropiadas a las necesidades de la formación de los estudiantes. El diseño empleado fue aceptado por los especialistas y con su aplicación la mayoría de los estudiantes y docentes consideraron provechoso su empleo, la promoción aumentó significativamente con respecto a exámenes del curso anterior, y facilitó la autonomía en el aprendizaje de los alumnos. Conclusiones: el empleo de las guías didácticas en Farmacología General fue valorado como positivo por su efectividad demostrada; resultó una experiencia útil sujeta a perfeccionamiento por los actores del proceso docente.


ABSTRACT Background: didactic guides in higher education are a learning resource that optimizes the development of the teaching-learning process due to its relevance by allowing the autonomy and cognitive independence of the student. Objective: to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of didactic guides for two topics of General Pharmacology, from the perspective of the actors of the teaching process. Methods: a descriptive research with a qualitative approach was carried out at the Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences, from September 2018 to February 2019. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction; and empirical ones: documentary review, survey in the form of a questionnaire to teachers and criteria of specialists for the evaluation of the designed product. Results: the elaboration of the didactic guides constituted a challenge to achieve teaching tasks appropriate to the needs of the students' training. The design used was accepted by the specialists and with its implementation, most of the students and teachers considered its use beneficial, the marks significantly increased in respect to the exams of the previous year, and facilitated the autonomy of the students' learning. Conclusions: the use of the didactic guides in General Pharmacology was valued as positive due to its demonstrated effectiveness; It was a useful experience subject to improvement by the actors of the teaching process.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Aprendizaje
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 138, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648516

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The question to involve or restrict medical students' involvement in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic response remains contentious. As their state of preparation and perceptions in volunteering during this pandemic have yet to be investigated, this study aims to evaluate Indonesian medical students' willingness to volunteer and readiness to practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students throughout Indonesia. Socio-demographic and social interaction information, in addition to willingness to volunteer and readiness to practice, were obtained using a self-reported questionnaire. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Among 4870 participants, 2374 (48.7%) expressed their willingness to volunteer, while only 906 (18.6%) had adequate readiness to practice. Male students, students with prior volunteering experience in health or non-health sectors, and students from public universities or living in Central Indonesia (vs Java) had higher scores of willingness and readiness to volunteer. Students from Sumatra also had better preparedness (odds ratio [OR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-2.12, p = 0.004), while the opposite occurred for students from Eastern Indonesia (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.89, p = 0.002)-when compared to students from Java. In addition, compared to students with high family income, students from lower-middle income families were less willing to volunteer (OR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.98, p = 0.034), though those with low family income had better readiness (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.10-2.08, p = 0.011). Shortage of medical personnel, sense of duty, and solicitation by stakeholders were the main reasons increasing the students' willingness to volunteer; whereas contrarily fear for own's health, absence of a cure, and fear of harming patients were the primary factors diminishing their willingness to volunteer. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that many Indonesian medical students are willing to volunteer, yet only few of them were ready to practice, indicating that further preparations are required to maximize their potentials and minimize their exposure to hazards. We suggest that their potentials as a firm support system during the pandemic should not be overlooked, and that the integration of relevant courses to the medical curricula are imperative to prepare for future public health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Competencia Clínica , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Motivación , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Voluntarios , Curriculum , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Indonesia , Masculino , Pandemias , Características de la Residencia , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 141, 2021 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658015

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Educational pedagogies were modified during the COVID-19 pandemic to minimise interruption to teaching. One approach has been the distance learning problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial utilising the online peer-to-peer platform. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of students using distance learning PBL tutorials using with that of students utilising the conventional face-to-face approach. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in a single academic institution. We compared two groups of fourth-year medical students from the same class: one group used distance learning (DL); the other, the face-to-face (FF) method. We used students' baseline performance at the preceding block for one-to-one propensity score matching. Students utilising the PBL tutorial were given grades by their tutors according to a standardised scoring system encompassing five key areas (score range: 0-10). The main outcome was a student's total score (i.e., the sum of the scores from the five key areas, ranging from 0 to 50). RESULT: We matched 62 students in each group. With four tutorials, there were 490 observations, with 245 in each group. The mean total score for the DL group was 37.5 ± 4.6, which was significantly lower than that of the FF group (39.0 ± 4.4, p < 0.001). We noted that students in the DL group had a significantly lower scores for all five areas of proficiency: participation, communication, preparation, critical thinking and group skills. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study revealed that the performance of students utilising the DL PBL tutorials was lower than that of students participating in the conventional FF approach. Further studies are needed to ascertain the underlying cause.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación a Distancia , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Pandemias , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Éxito Académico , Femenino , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
9.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(1): S16-S18, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650417

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has not only challenged global health systems but also social, economic, and educational systems. In this short communication, our focus is on its impact on medical education in Pakistan. We discuss the structure of undergraduate medical education in Pakistan; and how it has evolved in the wake of COVID-19. We describe our role as teaching associates (TAs) at the Aga Khan University (AKU); and how it has enabled us to be a part of the transition to online medical education, with a specific focus on online examinations in medical schools.  Key Words: Medical education, Online examinations, COVID-19, Pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Curriculum , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Pandemias , Facultades de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Pakistán/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(1): Doc1, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659606

RESUMEN

Introduction: In summer term 2020, the clinical phase of the undergraduate medical curriculum at University Medical Center Göttingen was restructured since distance teaching had to be used predominantly due to contact restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper investigates the impact of restructuring the clinical curriculum on medical students' satisfaction and learning outcomes. Methods: In each cohort, the 13-week curriculum was divided into two parts: During the first 9 weeks, factual knowledge was imparted using distance teaching by means of a modified inverted classroom approach. This was followed by a 4-week period of adapted classroom teaching involving both real and virtual patients in order to train students' practical skills. The evaluation of the 21 clinical modules comprised students' satisfaction with distance teaching as well as students' learning outcome. The latter was assessed by means of comparative self-assessment (CSA) gain and the results of the module exams, respectively. Data of summer term 2020 (= distance teaching, DT) were compared with respective data of winter term 2019/20 (= classroom teaching, CT) and analysed for differences and correlations. Results: Response rates of evaluations were 51.3% in CT and 19.3% in DT. There was no significant difference between mean scores in module exams in CT and DT, respectively. However, CSA gain was significantly lower in DT (p=0.047) compared with CT. Further analyses revealed that CSA gain depended on the time point of data collection: CSA gain was lower the more time had passed since the end of a specific module. Moreover, we found positive correlations between CSA gain and students' satisfaction with various aspects of distance teaching, particularly with "communication between teachers and students" (rho=0.674; p=0.002). Discussion and conclusions: Although some limitations and confounding factors have to be taken into account (such as evaluation response rates, assessment time points, and proportion of familiar items in module exams), the following recommendations can be derived from our findings: A valid assessment of students' learning outcome by means of exam results requires that as few exam items as possible are familiar to the students. CSA gain seems to be valid if assessment time points are standardised and not contaminated by students' learning activities for other modules. Good communication between teachers and students may contribute to increase students' satisfaction with distance teaching.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos/organización & administración , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Satisfacción Personal , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Competencia Clínica , Comunicación , Curriculum , Educación a Distancia , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/organización & administración , Realidad Virtual
11.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(1): Doc4, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659609

RESUMEN

Background: Due to the ban on classroom teaching during the pandemic, the Munich "Anamnesegruppen" had to be switched to e-learning at short notice. There were no established concepts for this, which is why digitalization was piloted and evaluated for feasibility. Student "Anamnesegruppen": "Anamnesegruppen" have existed for over 50 years and are organized as independent student peer teaching. In small groups of medical and psychology students, interviews with patients are conducted once a week during the semester. This is followed by a feedback and discussion round, in which ethical and professional questions are discussed in addition to the patient's medical history. The goal is to train the participants' ability to communicate and reflect. Adaptation to digital methods: The anamnesis seminars have been moved to a virtual group room using video conference. Patients were mainly recruited from the participants' circle of acquaintances. The group size was set at eight people each in four groups and supervised by a pair of student tutors. Confidentiality and data protection declarations were obtained in writing. Results: By switching to digital anamnesis groups, all four groups were successfully completed. Both the final supervision of the tutors and the electronic evaluation of the participants yielded positive feedback. Compared to the two previous evaluations of the semesters in classroom sessions, there were no significant differences in the evaluation. Discussion: The continuously good evaluation results, which did not differ between the digital format and the classroom course of the previous semesters, show that an ad hoc conversion to digital teaching is possible. We want to stress the fact that elements reflecting the doctor-patient relationship were successfully preserved. For the similarly structured Balint groups, virtual sessions may also be considered. Further research, especially prospective, is desirable in order to better understand the possibilities of digital teaching in this area.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Grupo Paritario , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Enseñanza/organización & administración , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/organización & administración , Comunicación , Procesos de Grupo , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos
12.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(1): Doc5, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659610

RESUMEN

Background: Facing the global COVID-19 pandemic University teaching has been digitalized and German medical faculties took great effort to offer curricular contents online as they agreed that semesters during pandemic should not be suspended. Skill training is an essential part of medical education and cannot be fully digitalized nor should it be omitted. The pandemic demonstrates that skills like ultrasound are essential when treating critical ill patients. Medical faculties use peer assisted learning (PAL) concepts to teach skills, like ultrasound through specially trained student tutors. Aim: Here, we would like to share our experiences and elaborate how ultrasound teaching can be safely performed during the pandemic with an emphasis on adjustment of an existing PAL teaching concept. Method: At the hospital of Saarland University, we implemented a PAL teaching concept for abdominal, including emergency, ultrasound, and echocardiography, called "sonoBYstudents" to teach sonography to undergraduate medical students. Students are generally taught in small groups of 5 people in 90min sessions over a time of 8 weeks with an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) at the end of the course program. Each semester nearly 50 students are taught in abdominal and emergency ultrasound and 30 students in echocardiography. Over five years, more than 600 students have been taught with at least 30 students being trained as student tutors. Given the pandemic, course size, course interval and total course time and total course time were adapted to the hygienic precautions. Results: 45 and 30 students were taught in abdominal ultrasound and echocardiography respectively achieving their learning goals measured via OSCE at the end of the courses. OSCE results were the same when compared to previous semesters. Conclusion: PAL as a teaching concept lives out of sustained educational strategies like practical and didactical trainings and an ongoing recruitment of new student tutors. Suspending PAL and its skill teaching would require starting from the beginning which is a time and cost consuming process. With sonoBYstudents we were able to demonstrate that an existing PAL concept can, with some effort, be adjusted to changing teaching circumstances. Apart from this ultrasound is a non-omittable part of medical skill training with easily appliable hygienic precautions during teaching sessions.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Grupo Paritario , Enseñanza/organización & administración , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Ecocardiografía/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología
13.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(1): Doc6, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659611

RESUMEN

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic also called for the teaching of practical skills to develop teaching formats outside of classroom teaching. Methods: Selected physical examination techniques (musculoskeletal system, neurological system) were taught via video conference using a modified Peyton method. The core element was the mutual, real demonstration of the respective skill by student tutor and student with immediate possible correction. Results: The IT requirements turned out to be sufficient, direct feedback from tutors and students was positive. Conclusion: Whether this method can be a substitute for classroom courses must be evaluated in more extensive studies.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Examen Físico/métodos , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/organización & administración , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Satisfacción Personal
14.
Neurology ; 96(10): e1482-e1486, 2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686009

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased patient interaction, exposure to the neurologic examination, and access to positive neurology mentors increase interest in neurology for first-year medical students. METHODS: Neuro Day was a 2-part experience for first-year medical students. The first part consisted of a flipped classroom to teach the standard neurologic examination. The second part involved patient encounters modeled off of the traditional patient rounds. Students rotated from room to room, listening to patients' experiences with different neurologic diseases and eliciting pathologic neurologic examinations. Students were surveyed before and after Neuro Day. RESULTS: The result of the binomial test indicated that the proportion of medical students interested in neurology significantly increased from 78% to 85% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.92; p = 0.034) after participating in Neuro Day. The proportion of students' knowledge of clinical neurology increased from 45% to 63.1% (95% CI 0.54-0.72; p < 0.0001), comfort with performing a neurologic examination increased from 30% to 78.4% (95% CI 0.70-0.86; p < 0.0001), and fear of studying neurology decreased from 46% to 26% (95% CI 0.17-0.34; p < 0.0001) following Neuro Day. One hundred percent of students indicated that they would recommend Neuro Day to their peers. CONCLUSION: Neuro Day is a feasible and effective model to incorporate into medical education. There was increased interest in and decreased fear of neurology. We anticipate that this paradigm can be used in the future to encourage students to consider a career in neurology.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Internado y Residencia , Neurología/educación , Estudiantes de Medicina , Selección de Profesión , Prácticas Clínicas , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Humanos , Mentores , Pacientes , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 150, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685439

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, despite many widespread calls for social distancing, recommendations have not been followed by some people and the high rate of non-compliance has significantly affected lives all around the world. It seems that the rate of non-compliance with the recommendations among medical students has been as high as the rest of the other youth. In the time that students are removed from clinical environments and most physician teachers are strained in providing services to patients, medical students can be trained in interdisciplinary behavior change counseling programs and they can be employed in delivering virtual consultations to the patients referred to medical centers.In this quick review, we provide an argument regarding the importance of integrating the topic of patients' social history into the undergraduate medical curriculum and the necessity of teaching theories of behavior change to medical students. Hypotheses are proposed that focus on the importance of integrating behavioral and social sciences into the medical curriculum and to teach theories or models of behavior change to students. Health professions educators can design and implement interventions to teach hypothesized models of behavioral change to medical students and evaluate the effectiveness of those interventions. The impacts of such educational interventions on increasing people's compliance with recommendations to improve public health can be evaluated as well.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/educación , Consejo/educación , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Pacientes/psicología , Conducta Social , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Humanos , Pandemias , Enseñanza
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 174, 2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, medical schools suspended clinical rotations. This displacement of medical students from wards has limited experiential learning. Concurrently, outpatient practices are experiencing reduced volumes of in-person visits and are shifting towards virtual healthcare, a transition that comes with its own logistical challenges. This article describes a workflow that enabled medical students to engage in meaningful clinical education while helping an institution's outpatient practices implement remote telemedicine visits. METHODS: A 4-week virtual elective was designed to allow clinical learners to participate in virtual telemedicine patient encounters. Students were prepared with EMR training and introduced to a novel workflow that supported healthcare providers in the outpatient setting. Patients were consented to telehealth services before encounters with medical students. All collected clinical information was documented in the EMR, after which students transitioned patients to a virtual Doxy.me video appointment. Surveys were used to evaluate clinical and educational outcomes of students' participation. Elective evaluations and student reflections were also collected. RESULTS: Survey results showed students felt well-prepared to initiate patient encounters. They expressed comfort while engaging with patients virtually during telemedicine appointments. Students identified clinical educational value, citing opportunities to develop patient management plans consistent with in-person experiences. A significant healthcare burden was also alleviated by student involvement. Over 1000 total scheduled appointments were serviced by students who transitioned more than 80 % of patients into virtual attending provider waiting rooms. CONCLUSIONS: After piloting this elective with fourth-year students, pre-clerkship students were also recruited to act in a role normally associated with clinical learners (e.g., elicit patient histories, conduct a review of systems, etc.). Furthermore, additional telemedicine electives are being designed so medical students can contribute to patient care without risk of exposure to COVID-19. These efforts will allow students to continue with their clinical education during the pandemic. Medical educators can adopt a similar workflow to suit evolving remote learning needs.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria/métodos , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Pandemias , Telemedicina , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Flujo de Trabajo
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 175, 2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743680

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound is becoming a ubiquitous diagnostic tool, and there has been increasing interest to teach novice practitioners. One of the challenges is the scarcity of qualified instructors, and with COVID-19, another challenge is the difficulty with social distancing between learners and educators. The purpose of our study was to determine if ultrasound-naïve operators can learn ultrasound techniques and develop the psychomotor skills to acquire ultrasound images after reviewing SonoSim® online modules. METHODS: This was a prospective study evaluating first-year medical students. Medical students were asked to complete four SonoSim® online modules (aorta/IVC, cardiac, renal, and superficial). They were subsequently asked to perform ultrasound examinations on standardized patients utilizing the learned techniques/skills in the online modules. Emergency Ultrasound-trained physicians evaluated medical students' sonographic skills in image acquisition quality, image acquisition difficulty, and overall performance. Data are presented as means and percentages with standard deviation. All P values are based on 2-tailed tests of significance. RESULTS: Total of 44 medical students participated in the study. All (100%) students completed the hands-on skills evaluation with a median score of 83.7% (IQR 76.7-88.4%). Thirty-three medical students completed all the online modules and quizzes with median score of 87.5% (IQR 83.8-91.3%). There was a positive association between module quiz performance and the hands-on skills performance (R-squared = 0.45; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant association between module performance and hands-on performance for any of the four categories individually. In all four categories, the evaluators' observation of the medical students' difficulty obtaining views correlated with hands-on performance scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our study findings suggest that ultrasound-naïve medical students can develop basic hands-on skills in image acquisition after reviewing online modules.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Ultrasonografía , /epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
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