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2.
Trends Immunol ; 37(6): 347-349, 2016 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27156780

RESUMEN

In clinical practice, a successful patient-physician partnership can improve the outcome of treatment, especially in cases of chronic disease or cancer. To establish this partnership, physicians must explain treatment options and potential outcomes, but how to best do this when treatment is based on scientific principles and findings that the lay patient will not be familiar with? Here we present a paradigm for patient-physician communication using the immunotherapy of cancer as a model. In this context, we argue for the importance of incorporating techniques in communicating science with patients into the training of early career physicians.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación/historia , Inmunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Animales , Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neoplasias/inmunología , Neoplasias/terapia , Cooperación del Paciente , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 47(7): 446-455, ago.-sept. 2015. ilus, tab, mapas
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-143699

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de conocimientos, actitudes y opiniones respecto al uso de medicamentos (UM) en población general. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en usuarios de la sanidad pública ≥ 18 años asignada a centros de atención primaria de la ciudad de Barcelona. Muestreo bietápico, estratificación: barrio, sexo y edad. Administración presencial de un cuestionario propio validado. Análisis: SPSSv15. Período estudio: diciembre 2011. Resultados: Cuatrocientas ochenta y cuatro encuestas (IC 95%, α = 5%). 53% mujeres; 21,3% estudios universitarios. UM : 81% ha tomado medicamentos en los últimos 3 meses; media, 1,9. Conceptos técnicos: El 80% de los que se medican saben indicar qué medicamentos toman y para qué. En el 90% de los casos no saben indicar el nombre del principio activo (pa). El 55,6% no sabe definir el concepto pa. Sólo un 35% reconoce algún pa indicado en el envase de tres medicamentos diferentes y un 44,5% no reconoce ninguno. El 22,7% conoce el significado de contraindicación, efecto adverso e interacción medicamentosa. El 20% tiene total desconocimiento y este aumenta con la edad y disminuye con el nivel de estudios. Opinión y actitud: Valor del indicador global de uso racional (IGUR) de medicamentos, 5,03 puntos: 6,18 praxis, 5,02 información, 3,85 uso sostenible y 3,49 nuevos medicamentos/genéricos. El 70% de los encuestados cree que no se hace un uso racional de medicamentos y el 21,3% cree que es necesaria mayor concienciación social. Conclusiones: Los conocimientos, actitudes y opiniones de los ciudadanos sobre medicamentos son bajos. Es necesario implicar a los ciudadanos y mejorar sus conocimientos básicos para avanzar en el uso racional (AU)


Objective: Identify the level of knowledge, opinions and attitudes of medicines in general population. Methods: Descriptive transversal study realised in a sample of ≥ 18 years old public health users from primary health centres in the city of Barcelona. Sample has been chosen using a two phases sampling, stratified by district, gender and age. Questionnaire administered face-to-face. SPSSv15 used for the analysis. Study period: December 2011. Results: 484 surveys has been done (IC 95%, α = 5%). 53% were women and 21,3% had university studies. Medicine use: 81% had taken medicines in the last 3 months; average of 2,34. Technical concepts: 80% of medicated people know what they take and its indication. 55,6% don’t know active ingredient concept. Only 35% recognise the active ingredient showed in the box of the medicine (3 cases shown) and 44,5% not one. 22,7% know the meaning of security concepts contraindication, adverse effect and drug interaction. 20% ignore. This fact grows with age and reduces with high study levels. Opinion and attitude: Global rational use of medicines indicator obtains 5,03 from 10: 3,42 opinion and 6,51 attitude. 70% of people think there is no rational use of medicines in general and 21,3% would promote raising awareness. Conclusions: Low level of knowledge and poor attitude and opinion in rational use of medicines have been shown in this study. It is necessary involve citizens and improve their basic knowledge to promote rational use of medicines (AU)


Asunto(s)
Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas Gente Sana/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/etnología , Programas Gente Sana/tendencias , Atención Primaria de Salud , Estudios Transversales/métodos , España/etnología
5.
J Pain ; 16(9): 807-13, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26051220

RESUMEN

The pain field has been advocating for some time for the importance of teaching people how to live well with pain. Perhaps some, and maybe even for many, we might again consider the possibility that we can help people live well without pain. Explaining Pain (EP) refers to a range of educational interventions that aim to change one's understanding of the biological processes that are thought to underpin pain as a mechanism to reduce pain itself. It draws on educational psychology, in particular conceptual change strategies, to help patients understand current thought in pain biology. The core objective of the EP approach to treatment is to shift one's conceptualization of pain from that of a marker of tissue damage or disease to that of a marker of the perceived need to protect body tissue. Here, we describe the historical context and beginnings of EP, suggesting that it is a pragmatic application of the biopsychosocial model of pain, but differentiating it from cognitive behavioral therapy and educational components of early multidisciplinary pain management programs. We attempt to address common misconceptions of EP that have emerged over the last 15 years, highlighting that EP is not behavioral or cognitive advice, nor does it deny the potential contribution of peripheral nociceptive signals to pain. We contend that EP is grounded in strong theoretical frameworks, that its targeted effects are biologically plausible, and that available behavioral evidence is supportive. We update available meta-analyses with results of a systematic review of recent contributions to the field and propose future directions by which we might enhance the effects of EP as part of multimodal pain rehabilitation. Perspective: EP is a range of educational interventions. EP is grounded in conceptual change and instructional design theory. It increases knowledge of pain-related biology, decreases catastrophizing, and imparts short-term reductions in pain and disability. It presents the biological information that justifies a biopsychosocial approach to rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Dolor/rehabilitación , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Psicoterapia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Dolor/psicología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/tendencias , Psicoterapia/historia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/tendencias
7.
Curr Drug Saf ; 10(1): 5-8, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25859668

RESUMEN

It has been a long journey starting from the beginnings of variolation [3] leading up to the greatest success in the history of immunization: the eradication of smallpox [39]. Today, vaccines are an acknowledged important medical advance [40]. Nevertheless, immunization has been the subject of public controversy on several occasions [15, 24, 31]. This article shall provide a short overview of some aspects of the early stages of immunization in Western countries, including some examples of vaccine safety controversies in the past.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información/historia , Comunicación en Salud/historia , Difusión de la Información/historia , Opinión Pública/historia , Vacunación/historia , Vacunas/historia , Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos/historia , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/etiología , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/historia , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Seguridad del Paciente , Factores Protectores , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Vacunas/efectos adversos , Vacunas/uso terapéutico
9.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 102(4): 271-80, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25349545

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Recently, government agencies in several countries have promoted information prescription programs to increase patients' understanding of their conditions. The practice has a long history and many publications, but no comprehensive literature reviews such as this. METHODS: Using a variety of high-precision and high-recall strategies, the researcher searched two dozen online bibliographic databases, citation databases, and repositories, as well as many print sources, to identify and retrieve documents for review. Of these documents, ninety relevant English-language case reports, research reports, and reviews published from 1930-2013 met the study criteria. RESULTS: Early to mid-twentieth century reports covered long-standing practices and used no rigorous research methods. The literature since the mid-1990s reports on short-term trial projects, especially of government-sponsored programs in the United States and United Kingdom. Although the concept of information prescription has been in the literature and practiced for decades, no long-term research studies were found. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the literature is anecdotal concerning small pilot projects. The reports investigate physician, patient, and librarian satisfaction but not changes in patient knowledge or behavior. Many twenty-first century projects emphasize materials and projects from specific government agencies and commercial enterprises. IMPLICATIONS: While the practice is commonly believed to be a good idea and there are many publications on the subject, few studies provide any evidence of the efficacy of information prescriptions for increased patient knowledge. Well-designed and executed large or long-term studies might produce needed evidence for professional practice.


Asunto(s)
Información de Salud al Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Difusión de la Información , Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información , Bibliotecas Médicas/organización & administración , Servicios de Biblioteca/estadística & datos numéricos , Información de Salud al Consumidor/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/historia , Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información/historia , Bibliotecas Médicas/historia , Bibliotecología/historia , Servicios de Biblioteca/historia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
Addiction ; 109(4): 538-46, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24354855

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. METHODS: The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. RESULTS: After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. CONCLUSIONS: Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/terapia , Consejo/historia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Psicoterapia Breve/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Salud Pública/historia , Investigación/historia
13.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 31(2): 25-47, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155343

RESUMEN

This paper explores how the ideal birth was constructed after World War Two, noting in particular the abstract enthusiasm on the part of physicians and government advocates for technological innovation accompanied by simultaneous silence regarding the specificities of labour and delivery in advice literature. The relationship of prescriptive mothering to the nascent medical ideology of prevention-oriented surveillance had a direct impact on the disembodying of women in the birthing process. Both vaginal and surgical childbirth were kept firmly within the realm of medical expertise, painting parturition as something that happened to women, rather than something they did themselves.


Asunto(s)
Parto Obstétrico , Trabajo de Parto , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Canadá , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Madres , Parto , Embarazo
14.
Am J Nurs ; 112(6): 68-9, 2012 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22627356

RESUMEN

Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over the last century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month's article, from the September 1910 issue, is "Dangers of the Menopause." The author, Anne E. Perkins, MD, states that its purpose is to correct "popular fallacies," so nurses can "disseminate knowledge of the real dangers" of menopause. It's interesting how much information in the article is still valid 100 years later, such as the need to investigate any postmenopausal bleeding. It's also noteworthy that the three symptoms causing women the most distress-hot flashes, insomnia, and mood problems-haven't changed, although a comparison of Dr. Perkins's article with "Managing Menopausal Symptoms" in this issue reveals that menopause management certainly has: from a "trip abroad" and avoiding "fancy work" in 1910 to physical exercise and acupuncture in 2012. To read the complete article from our archives, go to http://bit.ly/IZkCiD.


Asunto(s)
Historia de la Enfermería , Menopausia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Salud de la Mujer/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
15.
Neuroimage ; 62(2): 1201-7, 2012 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22374479

RESUMEN

The report of any new and successful method for studying the world triggers the need to train people in the use of that method. In the case of functional magnetic resonance imaging and its use for examining human brain function in vivo, expertise is required in a greater collection of domains than usual. Development of fMRI training programs started shortly after the announcement of BOLD-based fMRI in humans. These programs had a variety of durations and primary content areas. All programs had to deal with the challenge of bringing interested researchers from a wide variety of areas-many of whom had little or no understanding of MR physics, and/or experimental psychology, and/or the nuances of data analysis and modeling-to a sufficiently detailed level of knowledge that both the funding agencies, and the existing proprietors of the technology (often radiologists or MR physicists at hospitals) would take the research proposals of new investigators seriously. Now that fMRI-based research is well established, there are new educational challenges. Some have to do with the growing list of technologies used to study human brain function in vivo. But perhaps more daunting is the challenge of training consumers of the reports and claims based on fMRI and other brain imaging modalities. As fMRI becomes influential in contexts beyond the research environment-from the clinic to the courtroom to the legislature-training consumers of fMRI-based claims will take on increasing importance, and represents its own unique challenges for education.


Asunto(s)
Mapeo Encefálico/historia , Educación Médica/historia , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/historia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Mapeo Encefálico/métodos , Educación Médica/métodos , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 7(309): 1826-31, 2011 Sep 21.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22016938

RESUMEN

At the beginning of the twentieth century, tuberculosis was really a plague. Many people had been mobilised to successfully fight against this infectious disease. Valais, a Swiss alpine canton developped then an original concept of health promotion by involving all the health partners including a specialised hospital under the auspices of the local Health Departement. Such a model named then Ligue pulmonaire contre la tuberculose, celebrates his 60th anniversary. Its present name is Valais Health Promotion, i.e., a proactive health network very unique in Switzerland. It assumes many tasks of public health in clinical as well as in preventive medicine. These two components strongly facilitate the insertion of this organisation into the reality of this population to fulfil many challenging tasks with efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/historia , Promoción de la Salud/tendencias , Enfermedades Pulmonares/prevención & control , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Hospitales de Enfermedades Crónicas/historia , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Factores de Riesgo , Escultura/historia , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/historia , Sociedades Médicas/historia , Suiza , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/prevención & control
17.
Rev Enferm ; 34(6): 32-8, 2011 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21830365

RESUMEN

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who receive no education cannot make informed decisions to maintain acceptable metabolic control, increasing the likelihood of complications [1]. Education and prevention of diabetes mellitus (DM) are the central theme of World Diabetes Day during the period 2009/2073. The key messages of this campaign advocating: 1) Know the risks of DM and its warning signs, 2) Know what to do and who to call and 3) Learn how to manage and control. Education is the primary theme of this campaign promoted by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) [1].


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia
18.
Laeknabladid ; 97(5): 311-3, 2011 May.
Artículo en Islandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21586803

RESUMEN

Jón Pétursson (1733-1801) was an apprentice af the first Chief Medical Officer of Iceland. In 1765 Pétursson enrolled in the Medical Faculty at the University of Copenhagen. In 1769 with the Faculties approval he published a monograph on the so called Icelandic Scurvy. In 1770-71 Pétursson served as ship's surgeon in the Royal Danish Navy on an expedition to the Mediterranean. In 1772-1775 he served as an assistant to the Chief Medical Officer and the newly appointed apothecary, who shared premises at Nes, Reykjavík. In 1775 he was appointed surgeon (chirurgeon) to the Northern District. Pétursson wrote two medical book while serving his district, both being prepared now for republication. A. The Lækningabók fyrir almúga (Leechbook for common people) published posthumously 1834, edited by Sveinn Pálsson surgeon. It was undoubtedly inspired by the Swiss physician Tissot and his book Avis au peuple sur sa santé ou traité des maladies plus fréquentes 1761. B. A treatise on rheumatism or dirorder of the joints (Stutt ágrip um iktsýki edur lidaveiki, 1782). In Scand J Rheumatol 1996: 25; 134-7 the authors point out that Péturssons description of what he calls arthritis vaga encompasses these essential features: It is common, chronic, destructive, inflammatory polyarthritis, sometimes with systemic manifestations. It affects peope of all ages and has a female preponderance. They state that only rheumatoid arthritis fulfills these specifications. They conclude that medical history should give Pétursson credit for the first definite description of rheumatoid arthritis.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide/historia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Difusión de la Información/historia , Aplicación de Sanguijuelas/historia , Personal Militar/historia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Islandia
19.
Women Birth ; 24(3): 97-104, 2011 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20869935

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Low breastfeeding duration rates reflect the pain and distress experienced by many women who discontinue breastfeeding in the early weeks and months of life. This paper explores modern key historical events that have significantly influenced Australian breastfeeding education and practice. METHOD: Relevant literature reviewed from 1970 to 2010 identified key events that appear to have contributed to the decrease in Australian breastfeeding rates and the increase in women experiencing breastfeeding complications, particularly nipple pain and trauma. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: The rise in institutionalisation and medical intervention in labour and birth has also medicalised midwifery practice. Technocratic intrusion and institutionalised care is contributing to the separation of the mother and newborn at birth. Delayed mother-baby initiation of breastfeeding and interruption of the duration of the first, and subsequent breastfeeds, negatively affects the innate ability of the mother and newborn to establish and sustain breastfeeding. The 'pathologising' of breastfeeding that involve midwives teaching women complicated and unnatural breastfeeding techniques interfere with instinctive sensory and mammalian behaviours and further contributes to the high complication rates. CONCLUSION: Midwives are encouraged to reflect on their role as 'experts' in the breastfeeding process and give confidence to women so that they utilise their instinctive ability to breastfeed by self-determined techniques that encourage mammalian skills for newborn sustenance and survival.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Servicios de Salud Materna/tendencias , Partería/tendencias , Obstetricia/tendencias , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/tendencias , Adulto , Australia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Servicios de Salud Materna/historia , Partería/historia , Obstetricia/historia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia
20.
Med Ges Gesch ; 30: 207-28, 2011.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22701956

RESUMEN

In the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth century sex and gender became crucial categories not only in the medical discourse of German speaking countries. At the very centre of this discourse was the idea of women as the weaker sex. Because of the paradigm shift in the history of medicine (due to the discovery of the cytopathology) the principle of a weaker sex seemed to be corroborated by scientific research, a fact which impacted on medical practice in many ways. "Nervous" disease evolved as the major threat "of our times," with urban girls, young women and "weak" young men being most at risk. At the same time homoeopaths and naturopaths challenged modern medicine, offering alternative health practices, cures and drugs for people who could not afford the help of physicians or distrusted them. An analysis of several alternative medical guidebooks printed between c. 1870 and 1930 showed that homoeopaths and naturopaths shared the "sexualization" of medical discourse and practice only to an extent. On the one hand they believed that disorders such as hysteria, masturbation, chorea Sydenham and anaemia were nervous in nature and that the chances of curing them were poor. With the exception of masturbation these "deadly" threats were considered to be typically female. The general approach of alternative physicians, on the other hand, was unisex. The cures they offered to the public used unisex scales of constitutional characters. They even ignored the gender specificity of sick headaches. Gender-specific problems such as difficult deliveries and childbed fever were treated as "natural" and mild cures were favoured. The conclusion is that the influences of upper and middle class discourse on common health practices should not be overestimated.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias/historia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/historia , Identidad de Género , Homeopatía/historia , Manuscritos Médicos como Asunto/historia , Naturopatía/historia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/historia , Medicina de Precisión/historia , Autocuidado/historia , Trastornos Somatomorfos/historia , Austria , Femenino , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Suiza
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