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3.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(3): 7700, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313281

RESUMEN

The quality of educational programs, including Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs, has largely escaped the societal trend towards public reporting. Recent criticisms of pharmacy academia by practitioners should prompt us to reexamine how the quality of pharmacy education is measured and reported to the public. In supporting greater transparency related to quality, important questions that should be addressed include: Is the current public reporting of quality indicators for pharmacy schools sufficient for determining the quality of education provided by a school? Can a quality rating system be developed that will not only provide a valid assessment of quality, but also be easy to interpret by potential applicants and employers? The intent of this commentary is to initiate a discussion centered around this issue and to encourage the development of a new measure of pharmacy school quality.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Servicios Farmacéuticos , Farmacias , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Humanos , Facultades de Farmacia
4.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(3): 136-144, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070462

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe and gather further details about the clinical and educational activities that were documented by the geriatric pharmacist resident during both weekly interprofessional Acute Care for the Elderly (ACE) rounds as well as bedside patient counseling. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review (quality improvement project). SETTING: Inpatient geriatric service at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC). PATIENTS: Medical learners selected one complex patient from the geriatric service for ACE rounds each week. ACTIVITIES: The geriatric pharmacist resident provided clinical information and medication education to the interprofessional team and to the patient and/or family at their bedside. Activities were documented in a newly developed template. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographics, medication categories, discrepancies and dosing changes, time-in-rounds, and team members. RESULTS: De-identified data from 18 patients (72.2% female, average age 82.5 ± 9.18 years) over a 6-month period were collected and analyzed. The geriatric pharmacist resident provided most education to the team on antibiotics, antidepressants, over-thecounters (OTCs), and prescription pain medications during ACE rounds. They provided most education to the patient/family on prescription pain medications, antidepressants, OTCs, and anticoagulants. The pharmacist resident identified 38 medication discrepancies (72.2% of patients had ≥ 1 discrepancy, range 0-7) and clinically significant drug-drug interactions in 15 patients. The pharmacist resident recommended dosing changes in 12 patients and therapeutic alternatives in 11 patients. The ACE rounds lasted on average 26.6 [± 6.42] minutes and included medicine, pharmacy, social work, nurse case management, nursing, and nutrition and rehabilitative services when necessary. CONCLUSION: The results provide insight into both the clinical and educational activities of the geriatric pharmacist resident in support of interprofessional rounds.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Servicios Farmacéuticos , Farmacias , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacéuticos , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(1): 107-111, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902878

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to examine how students prepare for the pharmaceutical technical English course "Yakugaku-Eigo Nyumon" by qualitative analysis. A sub-text, supplemental material was used to assist students with class preparation. Qualitative questionnaires on understanding and approaches for class preparation as well as review of class were analyzed in comparison with different academic performance levels on the final exam. The results of qualitative analysis of class preparation based on coding revealed that high-academic-performing students understood and adopted deep-processing approaches for the preparation of "English words" and "understanding of content" more often than low-academic-performing students. High-performing students attempted to not literally translate English sentences into Japanese while checking the English words with thinking and ingenuity, and to understand English sentences by drawing figures and thinking of relationships using previously learned knowledge. These approaches were not adopted by low-performing students. Furthermore, sub-text was one of the means for understanding by high-performing students, whereas it was essential for low-performing students to understand the content. Coding results on the review of class also showed that low-performing students were dependent mainly on sub-text for understanding. These results suggest that deep-processing approaches to both English and content of materials are necessary for deep understanding in "Yakugaku-Eigo Nyumon".


Asunto(s)
Comprensión , Curriculum , Educación en Farmacia , Conocimiento , Lenguaje , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Éxito Académico , Pruebas de Aptitud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 151, 2019 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604434

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients belonging to marginalised (medically under-served) groups experience problems with medicines (i.e. non-adherence, side effects) and poorer health outcomes largely due to inequitable access to healthcare (arising from poor governance, cultural exclusion etc.). In order to promote service equity and outcomes for patients, the focus of this paper is to explore the implementation and impact of a new co-produced digital educational intervention on one National Health Service (NHS) funded community pharmacy medicines management service. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with a total of 32 participants. This included a purposive sample of 22 community pharmacy professionals, (16 pharmacists and 6 pharmacy support staff) all who offered the medicine management service. In order to obtain a fuller picture of the barriers to learning, five professionals who were unable to complete the learning were also included. Ten patients (from a marginalised group) who had received the service (as a result of the digital educational intervention) were also interviewed. Drawing on an interpretative analysis, Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a theoretical framework. RESULTS: Three themes are explored. The first is how the digital learning intervention was implemented and applied. Despite being well received, pharmacists found it challenging completing and cascading the learning due to organisational constraints (e.g. lack of time, workload). Using the four NPT constructs (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring) the second theme exposes the impact of the learning and the organisational process of 'normalisation'. Professional reflective accounts revealed instances where inequitable access to health services were evident. Those completing the intervention felt more aware, capable and better equipped to engage with the needs of patients who were from a marginalised group. Operationally there was minimal structural change in service delivery constraining translation of learning to practice. The impact on patients, explored in our final theme, revealed that they experience significant disadvantage and problems with their medicines. The medication review was welcomed and the discussion with the pharmacist was helpful in addressing their medicine-related concerns. CONCLUSIONS: The co-produced digital educational intervention increases pharmacy professionals' awareness and motivation to engage with marginalised groups. However structural barriers often hindered translation into practice. Patients reported significant health and medicine challenges that were going unnoticed. They welcomed the additional support the medication review offered. Policy makers and employers should better enable and facilitate ways for pharmacy professionals to better engage with marginalised groups. The impact of the educational intervention on patients' health and medicines management could be substantial if supported and promoted effectively.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Equidad en Salud/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Adulto , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Cualitativa , Medicina Estatal
10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(19): 1481-1491, 2019 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532506

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Risks and vulnerabilities of the medication-use process in nonpediatric institutions that also serve pediatric patients are reviewed, and guidance on risk mitigation strategies is provided. SUMMARY: There are many risks and vulnerabilities in the medication-use process as it relates to pharmacotherapy for pediatric patients admitted to adult institutions. Mitigation of these risks is critical and should encompass various available resources and strategies. Special emphasis should be placed on use of technology to improve overall safety. Available literature recommends optimization of technology and resource use, institutional support for pediatric pharmacists' involvement in managing pediatric medication use, and provision of early exposure to pediatric patients in pharmacist training programs as additional methods of mitigating risks associated with pediatric medication use in adult institutions. Adult hospitals that provide care for pediatric patients should assess their processes in order to identify hospital-specific interventions to promote pediatric medication safety. CONCLUSION: Pediatric medication safety frameworks in U.S. adult institutions vary widely. Treating pediatric patients involves risks in all areas of the medication-use process. Optimizing technology, utilizing external resources, supporting a pediatric pharmacist, and providing early-career exposure to pediatric patients are methods to mitigate risks in institutions that primarily serve adult patients.


Asunto(s)
Errores de Medicación/prevención & control , Administración del Tratamiento Farmacológico/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración , Administración de la Seguridad/normas , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Sistemas de Información en Farmacia Clínica/organización & administración , Sistemas de Información en Farmacia Clínica/normas , Composición de Medicamentos/normas , Cálculo de Dosificación de Drogas , Educación en Farmacia , Educación Continua en Farmacia , Humanos , Sistemas de Entrada de Órdenes Médicas/organización & administración , Sistemas de Entrada de Órdenes Médicas/normas , Administración del Tratamiento Farmacológico/normas , Farmacéuticos/normas , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Rol Profesional
11.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(9): 1201-1209, 2019.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474636

RESUMEN

Long-term practical training in the 6-year course of pharmaceutical education is a program for students after acquiring basic knowledge on pharmaceutical sciences and preclinical training. However, it remains unproved whether practical training affects students' robust acquisition and reconstruction of pharmaceutical expertise which they had learned before starting practical training. To address this issue, we administered survey questionnaires to 5th-year students (n=149) of Keio University in 2016 both before and after practical training. From the viewpoint of self-efficacy, psychological approach was applied to evaluate respondents' psychological state "to do well" on a 7-point Likert scale (1=disagree, 4=neither, 7=agree) for specific subjects C1-C18 (18 core units of pharmaceutical expertise in the current Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education), mainly including basic pharmaceutical sciences, public health, clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy. C1-C18 total score values, which reflect the strength of certainty to acquire expertise, were significantly higher after the first term of practical training compared to before training, regardless of the pharmacy and the hospital (p<0.001), but not after the second term. Specific factors associated with increased score values for "to do well" were not extracted from other questionnaire answers concerning students' mentors or their self-learning during practical training. These results demonstrated that practical training at least partly reinforced students' feeling of "to do well", contributing to their robust acquisition and reconstruction of pharmaceutical expertise. Giving students recognition individually of their learning process themselves encourages more effective practical training toward their development of resources as a pharmacist.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Competencia Profesional , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Ars pharm ; 60(3): 153-160, jul.-sept. 2019. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-186760

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Determinar el perfil estadístico de la población de egresados de la carrera Química Farmacéutico Biológica para las promociones 2005 al 2016. Método: Fueron evaluados los egresados de las promociones 2005-2009 al 2012-2016. El total de cuestionarios analizados fue de 289. El instrumento utilizado, cuenta con 93 preguntas de las cuales el 40 porciento son abiertas y 60 por ciento son preguntas cerradas fue validado con un grado de confiabilidad de alfa de Cronbach de 0.7058. Se utilizó estadística no paramétrica y una descripción gráfica de los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: Se determinó el perfil estadístico de los egresados y la trazabilidad de las promociones, en el mercado laboral, se pudo apreciar también que aproximadamente el 53% de los egresados es laboralmente activo, y el restante 47% se encuentra realizando tesis profesional, servicio social, estudios de posgrado, etc... Se pudo determinar salarios de los egresados de esas generaciones, influencia de género tipo de empresa u organización donde se encuentran realizando actividades profesionales, así como el grado de concordancia del perfil de egreso de los estudiantes con respecto al perfil requerido por el mercado de trabajo. Conclusiones: La metodología permitió obtener información sobre el desempeño de los egresados además, conocer elementos que favorecen la toma de decisiones respecto a la actualización o modificación del plan de estudios de la carrera Química Farmacéutico Biológica y sus programas, se sabe ahora que el perfil profesional del egresado está acorde a las necesidades de los diversos campos, en donde puede desempeñar sus actividades profesionales


Objective: To determine the statistical profile of the population of graduates of the Biological Pharmaceutical Chemistry career for promotions 2005 to 2016. Method: Graduates of the promotions 2005-2009 to 2012-2016 were evaluated. The total number of questionnaires analyzed was 289. The instrument used, has 93 questions of which 40 percent are open and 60 percent are closed questions was validated with a reliability level of Cronbach’s alpha of 0.7058. Non-parametric statistics and a graphic description of the results obtained were used. Results: The statistical profile of the graduates and the traceability of the promotions were determined, in the labor market, it was also seen that approximately 53% of the graduates are working, and the remaining 47% are doing professional thesis, service social, postgraduate studies, etc ... It was possible to determine the salaries of the graduates of these generations, gender influence type of company or organization where they are doing professional activities, as well as the degree of concordance of the profile of students’ exit with respect to the profile required by the labor market. Conclusions: The methodology allowed to obtain information about the performance of the graduates as well as to know elements that favor the decision making regarding the update or modification of the curriculum of the Biological Pharmaceutical Biology career and its programs, it is now known that the professional profile of the graduate is according to the needs of the various fields, where you can play your professional activities


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Selección de Profesión , Universidades , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores Socioeconómicos , España
13.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 17(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-4331

RESUMEN

This review focuses on the studies and opinions around issues of transition from the BPharm to the PharmD degree in the U.S., Japan, South Korea, Pakistan and Thailand. The transition to the clinically orientated PharmD degree in many countries was seen to be a means of developing the profession. However, some countries have both clinically-oriented and pharmaceutical sciences-oriented PharmD programme that are designed to meet the needs of their countries. Each country created a different process to handle the transition to an all-PharmD programme, but mostly had the process of school accreditation mandated by the regulatory bodies. The main barrier to the transition in most of the countries was the issue of educational quality. A set of indicators is needed to measure and monitor the impact/outcome of the PharmD degree. Each country has different needs due to the different contexts of health care systems and the scope of pharmacy practice. In order to increase their chances of benefiting from the new programme, academic leaders should critically assess their countries' needs before deciding to adopt a PharmD programme


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Asunto(s)
Humanos , Administración Farmacéutica/clasificación , Servicios Farmacéuticos/clasificación , Centros Farmacéuticos , Farmacia/clasificación , Competencia Profesional , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Curriculum/tendencias , Estados Unidos , Japón , Corea (Geográfico) , Pakistán , Tailandia
15.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(11): 836-845, 2019 05 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415690

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate final-year pharmacy students' perceptions toward pharmacogenomics education, their attitudes on its clinical relevance, and their readiness to use such knowledge in practice. METHODS: A 19-question survey was developed and modified from prior studies and was pretested on a small group of pharmacogenomics faculty and pharmacy students. The final survey was administered to 978 final-year pharmacy students in 8 school/colleges of pharmacy in New York and New Jersey between January and May 2017. The survey targeted 3 main themes: perceptions toward pharmacogenomics education, attitudes toward the clinical relevance of this education, and the students' readiness to use knowledge of pharmacogenomics in practice. RESULTS: With a 35% response rate, the majority (81%) of the 339 student participants believed that pharmacogenomics was a useful clinical tool for pharmacists, yet only 40% felt that it had been a relevant part of their training. Almost half (46%) received only 1-3 lectures on pharmacogenomics and the majority were not ready to use it in practice. Survey results pointed toward practice-based trainings such as pharmacogenomics rotations as the most helpful in preparing students for practice. CONCLUSIONS: Final-year student pharmacists reported varying exposure to pharmacogenomics content in their pharmacy training and had positive attitudes toward the clinical relevance of the discipline, yet they expressed low confidence in their readiness to use this information in practice.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Farmacogenética/educación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adulto , Curriculum , Docentes/psicología , Docentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 278, 2019 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of faculty members and academic administrators, at Qatar University College of Pharmacy, towards interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice by identifying enablers, barriers and resources needed to implement IPE within the pharmacy curriculum. METHODS: A qualitative methodology was employed using focus groups discussions. Two focus groups were conducted, one focus group with faculty members (n = 5) and another focus group with academic administrators (n = 5) at Qatar University College of Pharmacy. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim by an independent experienced transcriber and validated by the study principal researcher. Thematic analysis was undertaken to generate key themes and subthemes. RESULTS: The study participants highlighted a number of enablers and challenges encountered as a result of the initial IPE events, for integrating IPE into the pharmacy curriculum. Many provided recommendations and suggestions for effective implementation of IPE. Analysis of the results focused on three main categories: enablers, barriers and recommendations. Overall, seven major themes were identified: 1) intrinsic enabling factors (initial IPE experiences, cross-appointed faculty, accreditation); 2) extrinsic enabling factors (national policy & legislation and advances in pharmacists' role); 3) student related benefits (roles & responsibilities and agents for change); 4) student hindering factors (student engagement, perceptions & attitudes and gender issues); 5) partnering academic institutions (logistical issues, familiarity with other curricula and commitment); 6) practice environment (hierarchy, healthcare professionals' attitude and lack of collaborative practice) and 7) IPE delivery (dedicated structure, IPE curriculum and extrinsic support). CONCLUSION: Pharmacy academics had positive perceptions towards IPE suggesting a high level of support and readiness to pursue IPE and an opportunity for pharmacy academics to drive the IPE agenda forward in Qatar. However, a number of challenges were reported. These are important to consider to ensure the development of effective strategies for the integration and enhancement of IPE and collaborative practice.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Desarrollo de Programa , Curriculum , Grupos Focales , Farmacéuticos , Qatar , Investigación Cualitativa
19.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(13): 944-951, 2019 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361889

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In this article, the pharmacy preceptor is introduced to the core components of the clinical reasoning process. Teaching strategies based on script theory and experiential educational theory are described to aid the pharmacy preceptor in facilitating the development of clinical reasoning in novice practitioners. SUMMARY: The development of clinical reasoning skills is essential for all healthcare providers. Clinical reasoning involves the integration of analytic and nonanalytic reasoning while minimizing the occurrence of cognitive error or bias. Such skills are needed to make diagnoses, formulate treatment plans, and solve clinical problems relating to all facets of healthcare. Teaching strategies by which to facilitate the development of clinical reasoning in physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers have been described. To date, the topic of clinical reasoning has not been adequately addressed in the pharmacy education or practice literature. CONCLUSION: Clinical reasoning is fundamental to clinical pharmacy practice. Instruction and modeling of this process by preceptors facilitate the development of advanced practitioners.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Preceptoría/métodos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Enseñanza , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Humanos , Farmacéuticos
20.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 75(10): 1451-1458, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317216

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine medical students' perspectives on the provision for the teaching and learning of processes that lead to and include the writing of a clear, safe and legal prescription (practical prescribing) in UK medical schools. METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional survey of UK medical students in years three, four and five. Students were asked about their experiences and views of practical prescribing teaching and learning they had encountered on their medical course. RESULTS: A total of 1023 medical students responded (7% response rate), from 25 UK medical schools: 22%, 37% and 41% in the third, fourth and final years, respectively. Teaching of practical prescribing was widespread, with 94.3% of final year (n = 396, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 92-97%), 86.8% of fourth year (n = 328, CI = 83-90%) and 73.8% of third year (n = 166, CI = 67-80%) students reporting they had received it. Availability of this teaching appeared to vary by medical school. Self-directed learning was the most frequently reported mode of delivery (90.9%, n = 809). Validated pre-prescribing and simulation were perceived by students in each year group as the most effective methods. Clinical pharmacologists, clinical pharmacists and junior doctors were perceived by the students as being the most effective professional groups at teaching practical prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: UK medical students reported a variety of methods utilised in the teaching and learning of practical prescribing. However, methods they perceived to be very effective (simulation and pre-prescribing) do not appear to be widely available or are only reserved for the final year of study. Combining such methods with involvement of professional groups perceived to be most effective should be explored.


Asunto(s)
Prescripciones de Medicamentos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Educación en Farmacia , Estudiantes de Medicina , Competencia Clínica , Humanos , Farmacología Clínica , Médicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido
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