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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 101, 2019 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953493

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The success of interprofessional collaboration in healthcare services requires a paradigm shift in the training of future health profession practitioners. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to measure Student Acceptance of Interprofessional Learning (SAIL) in Malaysia, and to assess this attribute among medical and pharmacy students using a prescribing skills training workshop. METHODS: The study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, a 10-item instrument (SAIL-10) was developed and tested on a cohort of medical and pharmacy students who attended the workshop. In Phase 2, different cohorts of medical and pharmacy students completed SAIL-10 before and after participating in the workshop. RESULTS: Factor analysis showed that SAIL-10 has two domains: "facilitators of interprofessional learning" and "acceptance to learning in groups". The overall SAIL-10 and the two domains have adequate internal consistency and stable reliability. The total score and scores for the two domains were significantly higher after students attended the prescribing skills workshop. CONCLUSIONS: This study produced a valid and reliable instrument, SAIL-10 which was used to demonstrate that the prescribing skills workshop, where medical and pharmacy students were placed in an authentic context, was a promising activity to promote interprofessional learning among future healthcare professionals.


Asunto(s)
Prescripciones de Medicamentos/normas , Educación en Farmacia , Errores de Medicación/prevención & control , Competencia Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Educación , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Proyectos Piloto , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
2.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(1): 55-62, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732640

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practice of final-year student pharmacists about public health. METHODS: Knowledge, attitudes and practice of all final-year student pharmacists (N = 158) in Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe were assessed through a quantitative 12-item survey. The survey assessed personal interest and attitude towards public health activities, self-assessed ability to perform basic public health activities, perspectives towards current pharmacist practices within public health activities in their country, and student involvement in public health activities during pharmacy school. KEY FINDINGS: Eighty-two per cent of students responded to the survey (n = 129). The majority (95%) of all final-year student pharmacists are interested in contributing to public health activities in both health promotion and disease prevention and feel, as pharmacists, they have the responsibility to do so. Additionally, the majority of students would like more education during pharmacy school on health promotion (93%) and disease prevention (89%). Despite their interest, low numbers of student pharmacists feel that pharmacists are currently utilised in disease prevention (35%) and health promotion (42%). CONCLUSION: Final-year student pharmacists in Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe express strong interest in public health education and involvement in public health activities. This interest and enthusiasm can serve as evidence for advancing public health education in the pharmacy curricula and for developing pharmacist opportunities in public health efforts that match the needs of the country.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Curriculum , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Namibia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Zambia , Zimbabwe
3.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(1): 71-79, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949210

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The Healthy Living Pharmacy framework, introduced in England in 2008, provides a tailored approach to the implementation of pharmacy services locally, facilitated by qualified 'Health Champions' (HCs). The study aimed to evaluate the perceived value of the 1-day level 2 HC training by assessing knowledge and confidence of HC pre- and post-training, and changes in practice. The views of additional stakeholders on factors that either obstructed or facilitated pharmacy engagement are also explored. METHODS: This study used a mixed method approach. Pre- and post-training surveys evaluating HC pre-existing knowledge and understanding of their role were used. Additionally, qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken with four key groups: participating pharmacists, non-participating pharmacists, Local Pharmaceutical Committee leads and Public Health Leads from Public Health England. KEY FINDINGS: A total of 354 pre-training evaluation surveys were completed on the training day (100%), compared to 54 post-evaluation postal surveys with a 19% (n = 54/282) response rate. The post-evaluation of the training indicated that 83% (n = 45) of qualified HC were actively implementing their new role, with observed increased confidence and service provision. From the 22 interviews conducted two major themes emerged including: Training and Impact. Training had a positive impact on staff knowledge and confidence plus service delivery. CONCLUSION: An immediate impact was observed in increasing HC knowledge and confidence, service delivery and awareness of facilities for patient sign-posting. There was no statistical evidence to support a positive effect stemming from training on services. However, it was identified that time and further training were needed to both provide and assess value within local public health.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/organización & administración , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Rol Profesional , Competencia Clínica/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Londres , Farmacias/organización & administración , Farmacias/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
East Mediterr Health J ; 24(9): 899-904, 2018 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570122

RESUMEN

Background: The pharmaceutical workforce in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region plays a key role in improving health outcomes through responsible use of drugs and optimizing effective choice and use. Investment in this workforce's development and planning is fundamental to achieving universal health coverage. Aims: To provide an overview of the pharmacy workforce capacity trends in the Region and emphasize the importance of workforce intelligence for strategic development. Methods: A review of the literature and global pharmacy workforce studies conducted by the International Pharmaceutical Federation to identify trends and issues in the Region. Results: The Region has high workforce production capacity compared to other WHO regions but challenges in workforce planning and intelligence strategies persist. Effective workforce planning relies not only on quality intelligence, but also on cross-sectoral coordination and stewardship, and the Pharmaceutical Workforce Development Goals provide countries within the Region with a framework for development. Conclusion: There is no workforce development without workforce intelligence.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Farmacéuticos/provisión & distribución , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Región Mediterránea , Farmacéuticos/normas
5.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1228-1236, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497626

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Amid the ever-changing landscape of teaching, there remains one unloved and immovable constant: student evaluations. What can be done to reframe this conversation so that the student evaluation becomes a useful and constructive tool for the growth and development of faculty? METHODS: This article describes an interactive session where participants shared their thoughts about the helpful and not so helpful aspects of formative student evaluations and feedback. An effective method of gathering constructive formative student feedback, Small Group Instructional Diagnosis (SGID) facilitated by a faculty colleague was introduced to a faculty group at the 2017 Belmont University Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) workshop as a supplement to the university sponsored student evaluation tool and an approved formal peer review template. RESULTS: The most frequently stated positive outcome (what is working well) was that the student evaluations sometimes provided constructive feedback. The most commonly stated problem (what was NOT working well) was the low response rates received from the students. The most commonly stated suggestion for improvement was to enable the professors to create a course-specific formative evaluation from an available template. CONCLUSION: The authors feel that this introduction to the SGID provides a lasting impression on a large number of faculty members in a short amount of time. This process can easily be repeated on any college campus, and should produce similar results.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Retroalimentación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Tennessee , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(10): 1363-1374, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527366

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Advocacy has been defined as "the essential competence". Literature describes and assesses the impact of elective, extracurricular, and co-curricular advocacy experiences, but there is a deficiency of literature that describes and assesses core curricular advocacy experiences. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: An electronic pre- and post-survey was administered to second-year student pharmacists who attended a didactic lecture on advocacy within a pharmacy law course. All responses were anonymous and matched via self-generated code. Wilcoxon signed rank tests analyzed matched data. FINDINGS: Pharmacy students were generally unaware of their legislative representation and did not know what to expect when meeting with legislators. A small percentage (24%) had previously contacted their legislator regarding pharmacy topics. All three knowledge items and seven of eight attitudes showed statistically significant improvement after the lecture. Following the lecture, 85% of students agreed/strongly agreed they were more prepared to be an advocate for pharmacy, with 76% reporting increased commitment. DISCUSSION: This study shows that a brief didactic educational intervention may improve student pharmacists' knowledge of and commitment to political advocacy, addressing previously noted limitations of models to prepare student pharmacists for advocacy efforts. The skill of advocating was not addressed by this intervention. SUMMARY: A brief didactic lecture at one institution showed a short-term positive influence on pharmacy students' knowledge and attitudes towards legislative advocacy. Introduction of advocacy within the core didactic curricula may provide a method to increase the prevalence of advocates within the profession of pharmacy, but this requires further assessment and identification of best practices.


Asunto(s)
Defensa del Paciente/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Legislación como Asunto , Servicios Farmacéuticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Servicios Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enseñanza/normas
7.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(10): 1384-1390, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527368

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Online distance education has become popular in pharmacy education, but it can be challenging to provide engaging experiences such as team-based learning (TBL) in this format. This study explored the utility of virtual reality (VR) as a platform to provide the engaging elements of TBL, without students needing to be physically present in the same room. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Volunteers participated in a modified TBL exercise in VR, followed by a survey of the experience. The survey included Likert-type questions to evaluate the level of immersion and perceived engagement, comfort and desirability of VR-TBL experiences. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: The majority of the responses to the 14-question survey were 'agree' or 'strongly agree'. Ninety-four percent (94.4%) of participants strongly agreed that this was a fun experience, and 94.4% of participants strongly agreed that they would take a course in this format if it was offered. Although none of the questions received a majority of 'disagree' or 'strongly disagree' responses, areas for improvement included ease of use of the technology, comfort and improving the learning activity. SUMMARY: The response of participants to this study was positive and the overall conclusion was that VR has the potential to be a useful tool for online, distance TBL, and should be explored further.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia/normas , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/normas , Realidad Virtual , Adulto , Curriculum/normas , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación a Distancia/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Texas
8.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1543-1549, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527819

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is a tool that most pharmacy schools use to evaluate faculty. After multiple years of low response rates to SET, Roseman University began a process to identify motivators, barriers, and strategies to improve SET response rates. Multiple strategies were implemented and response rate was analyzed to determine if the changes were effective. METHODS: A modified Delphi process was used to identify motivators, barriers, and strategies to improve SET response rates. Faculty, students, and administration engaged in a year-long process involving four distinct phases to build consensus regarding SET implementation and processes. The process was implemented and then response rates were evaluated the following academic year. RESULTS: Barriers included frequency of surveys, length of surveys, length of rating scale, ambiguity of questions, misunderstanding on importance of SET, and lack of perceived benefit for completion of SET. For each pharmacy class, response rates increased two to three times baseline (p < 0.05). For all classes combined, response rates significantly increased from 24% to 66%. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Delphi process successfully identified barriers, motivators, and strategies for improving SET. Additionally, the process built consensus that led to successful implementation of the new SET with significantly improved response rates.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/normas , Docentes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Retroalimentación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Técnica Delfos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Motivación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Utah
9.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(11): 1443-1446, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514533

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A challenge for many pharmacy educators is early identification of students who may struggle with various aspects of the pharmacy curriculum. While grade point average, demographic factors, and personality traits may be helpful considerations, we felt there was a need to further explore methods for readily identifying at-risk students who may benefit from early intervention. The Grit Scale has recently been explored, presented, and published in academic pharmacy. The goal of this study was to determine if there was an association between students' grit scores and performance on a laboratory practical examination. However, it became apparent that there were substantial limitations leading to difficulties analyzing and interpreting our study data and results. IMPACT: The interpretation of data was confounded due to study design limitations, including use of the Grit-O scale (rather than Grit-S), low response rate, and lack of validation evidence for laboratory practical assessments. RECOMMENDATIONS: Thoughtful consideration during the design of the study may have produced better data for analysis. Psychometric considerations are paramount, both for the instrument (Grit-O) and the dependent/outcome variable (laboratory practical assessment). DISCUSSION: While this study did not yield meaningful results for interpretation, it highlighted important lessons for investigators at the college to use moving forward. We hope that the lessons learned from this investigation might support the academy in improving design and rigor of educational research.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Personalidad/clasificación , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 297, 2018 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To investigate the present status of Kampo education, which has still not been elucidated, after the introduction of the new core national curriculum of 2015 into nationwide pharmacy education, in all 74 pharmacy schools in Japan. METHODS: A postal questionnaire survey was conducted from August 2015 to January 2016. The completed questionnaires were returned by mail. Web-based syllabi were also investigated to ascertain the detailed lecture curricula in each school. Descriptive analyses were conducted without statistics. RESULTS: A total of 74 questionnaires were collected (response rate, 100%). In 2015, the numbers of clinical Kampo classes as required subjects during the 6 years of regular pharmacy school education ranged from 0 to 36 (median, 13; mean, 11.8 ± 7.6). Of the 74 schools, 49 schools (66%) provided Kampo education from a clinical standpoint. Pharmacists employed in pharmacies and physicians taught most of these classes. The major problems to be solved first are: selecting and retaining teachers to teach clinical Kampo medicine (43 of 74 schools, 58%), preparing standard textbooks (37 schools, 50%), and improving the environment for practical Kampo training (30 schools, 41%). CONCLUSIONS: Curricula for teaching Kampo medicine significantly differ at each of the 74 Japanese pharmacy schools. In addition to selecting teachers who can adequately teach clinical Kampo medicine, improving training environments, and nationwide standardization of the curricula and textbooks are critical.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina Kampo/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Humanos , Japón , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(8): 1004-1012, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314534

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: As a response to the shortage of prescriptionists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was introduced at Umeå University in 2003. This study explored who is likely to enrol and graduate from the web-based bachelor program and whether the program has addressed the shortage of prescriptionists in rural Northern Sweden. METHODS: Data from three different sources were included in this study; the initial cohort including students admitted to the program in 2003 (survey), the entire cohort including all people admitted to the program between 2003 and 2014 (university's admissions data) and the alumni cohort including graduates who participated in an alumni survey in 2015. RESULTS: A typical student of the web-based pharmacy program is female, over 30 years of age, married or in a de-facto relationship and has children. Furthermore, the students graduating before 2009 were more likely to live in Northern Sweden compared to those graduating later. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the introduction of a web-based bachelor of pharmacy program at Umeå University was to some extent able to address the shortage of prescriptionists in Northern Sweden. Web-based education may potentially help address the maldistribution of health professionals by providing flexible education opportunities.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Educación a Distancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suecia
12.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(8): 1124-1131, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use and misuse of drugs in sport is becoming increasingly important globally, and the role of pharmacists is evolving in this regard. This paper describes the design and implementation of an elective course "Drugs in Sport" in an undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The elective course was designed to introduce BSc pharmacy students to an evidence-based approach to safe, effective, and legal use of drugs in sport. The course covered why athletes take drugs, evolution of doping in sport, the international regulations regarding doping and anti-doping in sport including the World Anti-doping Agency Prohibited List, as well as testing and monitoring for drug use in sport. It also included the role of athlete support personnel (ASP) in preventing the use of prohibited substances by athletes. A web-based survey was conducted at the end of the course to assess the students' perspectives of the course. FINDINGS: Students provided an evaluation of the course in terms of its content, methods of delivery, and assessment. Overall, the students demonstrated competence. They gained insight into international and national regulations regarding doping and anti-doping in sport and the potential role of pharmacists as ASP in providing support and advice for athletes and the public. SUMMARY: Designing and implementing an evidence-based course on the use of drugs in sport customized for pharmacy students was achieved successfully. Such courses could provide an opportunity to advance the scope of pharmacy practice and possibly provide a new career path for future pharmacists.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/tendencias , Doping en los Deportes/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/tratamiento farmacológico , Doping en los Deportes/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Qatar , Deportes/educación , Deportes/tendencias , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enseñanza/psicología , Enseñanza/normas
13.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6312, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323384

RESUMEN

Objective. To determine whether a standalone pharmacy calculations course promotes student performance and retention when compared to pharmacy calculations taught within a pharmaceutics course. Methods. Data were compared between two groups of student pharmacists (those who took the combined pharmaceutics-calculations course and those who took the standalone calculations course). Data from both groups, such as course grades, objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) scores, and independent calculation self-assessment skills test scores were compared to students' pre-pharmacy math grade point average (GPA) to determine whether variance was more likely to have been caused by inter-student aptitude differences or course structure differences. Student confidence in their pharmacy calculations skills and course structure preferences was surveyed. Results. Students who took the standalone pharmaceutical calculations course performed better as indicated by an improvement in calculations course grades, OSCE performance, retention of calculation skills, and in self-confidence. Students also reported that the standalone course structure was more effective. Conclusion. The new, standalone calculations course is effective and improved student calculations performance and retention.


Asunto(s)
Biofarmacia/educación , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Matemática/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Curriculum/estadística & datos numéricos , Cálculo de Dosificación de Drogas , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6317, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323385

RESUMEN

Objective. To describe a novel design on teaching dyslipidemia management that would help students compare and apply past and current clinical recommendations using a variety of new mechanisms. Methods. Didactic time consisted of three sections: lecture; faculty-led panel discussion; and interactive, progressive, student-driven patient case. The accompanying case studies course involved varying interactive student activities, including literature review, adverse event reporting, and immediate feedback assessment tools. Results. Students performed well on audience response questions, dyslipidemia examination questions, and in-class case studies activities. Subjective student and faculty feedback were positive for the entire innovation. Conclusion. The redesigned dyslipidemia module gives students exposure to overall management of this disease state through several innovative approaches that can be repeated in other courses to enhance learning.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/estadística & datos numéricos , Dislipidemias/terapia , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Enseñanza/educación , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Retroalimentación , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Farmacias/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6321, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323386

RESUMEN

Objective. To investigate factors (prior or current knowledge, metacognitive accuracy, and personality) that might impact the time it takes students to complete an examination. Methods. On the final examination, the time to complete the examination was recorded. Prior to the course, students completed the five-factor personality assessment. During the semester, students completed four cumulative assessments that included prospective judgments of performance to improve their metacognitive accuracy. Measures of metacognitive accuracy were calculated from the difference between the students' prospective judgments of performance and their actual assessment performance for the final examination. Two weeks prior to the final examination, students completed a cumulative assessment, which served as prior knowledge; this was similar in content to the final examination. Results. The time to complete the final examination was significantly negatively correlated with examination score and positively correlated with Agreeableness, and degree of metacognitive bias. However, only current knowledge (ß=-.35) and Agreeableness (ß=.12) predicted the time to complete the final examination. These two factors explained about 14% of the variability in completion times. Examining the scale for the time to complete the examination, there were some regional differences between the slowest, intermediate and fastest completers. Conclusion. Current knowledge and to a lesser extent, pro-social behavior (agreeableness) influenced examination completion time. Metacognitive accuracy had limited predictability in time to complete the examination.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Metacognición , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personalidad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6324, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323387

RESUMEN

Objective. To describe the use of an online spaced-education (SE) game to study top 200 drug information in a first-year skills laboratory course. Methods. There were 236 students enrolled in a voluntary online SE game across two semesters. Fifteen multiple-choice questions (MCQs) were sent via email in the fall and spring semesters focusing on cardiovascular and neurological agents, respectively. The online SE game delivered two questions every 2 days and re-sent questions answered incorrectly after 7 days. Two correct answers were required to retire a question. Top 200 drug knowledge was evaluated with an examination at the conclusion of each semester. Levels of engagement with the game, differences in performance on game MCQs, impact on top 200 drug examination performance, and student perceptions were evaluated. Results. There was a high level of engagement in the online SE game in both the fall (83% participation) and spring (73% participation) semesters. Participants improved the percentage of MCQs answered correctly by an average of 12% in the fall and 5% in the spring. Use of the online SE game did not significantly affect top 200 drug examination performance or retention of top 200 drug information. Students' self-efficacy to recognize brand/generic names and common indications significantly improved after use of the online SE game. Student perceptions of the game were positive. Conclusions. Use of an online SE game did not significantly affect top 200 drug examination scores despite high levels of student engagement and positive student perceptions.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Curriculum/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6326, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323388

RESUMEN

Objective. To determine factors associated with advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) performance in the pre-pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum and establish whether performance on the multiple mini interview (MMI) independently predicts APPE evaluation scores. Methods. A multi-case MMI has been used in the admissions process since 2008. Students are scored anywhere from 1 to 7 (unsatisfactory to outstanding) on each interview. Traditional factors (GPA, PCAT, etc.) are also used in the admissions determination. Pearson product-moment correlation and ordinary least squares regression were used to explore the relationships between admissions data, pharmacy GPA, and APPE evaluation scores for the graduating classes of 2011-2014. These analyses identified which factors (pharmacy GPA, PCAT, MMI score, age, gender, rurality, resident status, degree, and underrepresented minority status) related to APPE performance. Results. Students (n=432) had a mean APPE score of 4.6; a mean MMI score of 5.5; mean pharmacy GPA, PCAT and age of 3.14, 73.2, 22.6 years, respectively. Pre-pharmacy GPA and pharmacy GPA positively correlated with mean APPE scores. MMI score demonstrated positive correlations with overall APPE score; including subcategories patient care, documentation, drug information/EBM, public health, and communication. MMI scores were positively related to overall APPE scores in the multivariable regression. Variables showing negative associations with APPE scores included a pre-pharmacy GPA of <3.0 (ref= GPA >3.5) and pharmacy school GPA of >3.0 - 3.5 and GPA 2.6 - 3.0 when compared to GPAs >3.5. Conclusion. GPA (pre-pharmacy and pharmacy) and MMI positively correlate with preceptor-rated performances in the APPE year.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Curriculum/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
18.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6332, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323389

RESUMEN

Objective. To characterize informatics education opportunities in US colleges and schools of pharmacy curricula. Methods. Informatics curricular information online was catalogued via publicly available websites. Website content was searched via domain-specific keywords. Online course descriptions were reviewed. Website searches were also conducted for informatics-related opportunities. Results. Of 132 pharmacy curricula found online, 47 (36%) included an informatics course. Of those, 64% (n=30) were required while 47% (n=22) were elective courses. Additionally, 20% (n=26) provided informatics advanced and/or introductory pharmacy practice experiences, 20% (n=27) offered an informatics residency, and 17% (n=22) listed certificate and/or graduate degree programs in informatics. Conclusion. Over the past 10 years, little observable progress has been made in pharmacy school curricula in response to the increasing importance of informatics to the profession. Pharmacy programs can address this educational gap by internal (eg, course development) and external (eg, open source curriculum) solutions.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Informática/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Curriculum/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Servicios Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Informe de Investigación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
19.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6560, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323391

RESUMEN

Objective. To determine future pharmacists' opinions on mental health conditions and investigate the influence of gender. Methods. Final-year Master of Pharmacy students at Queen's University Belfast completed a paper-based questionnaire. Section A of the questionnaire was adapted from a United Kingdom public opinion questionnaire on mental health. Section B gathered non-identifiable demographic data. Descriptive statistics were undertaken. Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests were used for gender comparisons. Results. An 89% (97/109) response rate was obtained. Most survey respondents considered that pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures were beneficial in the management of mental health conditions (89% and 96%, respectively) and that people with mental illness had the same rights to jobs as anyone else (82%). However, only 57% of the respondents felt confident discussing mental health issues with patients and 36% deemed university training to be satisfactory. Males were more likely than females to "agree strongly" or "agree slightly" that they would not want to live next door to someone who has been mentally ill. Conclusion. While some positive opinions were evident, more work is needed to prepare future pharmacists for roles within mental health care teams.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Rol Profesional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
20.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6636, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323393

RESUMEN

Objective. To determine whether using standardized patients dressed in moulage improves pharmacy students' ability to assess skin disorders compared to using picture-based paper cases. To determine pharmacy student preferences when learning assessment of skin disorders through these two educational methods. Methods. Faculty members investigated student assessments of drug-induced skin disorders and contact dermatitis by using picture-based paper cases compared with using standardized patients dressed in moulage in a patient assessment course. Faculty members measured student knowledge via multiple-choice questions before laboratory, immediately after laboratory, and during a final examination 3 weeks later. Student preferences were measured immediately after laboratory via survey instrument in this randomized, non-blinded, crossover design educational study. Results. No significant differences in knowledge scores related to skin disorders were found after laboratory or 3 weeks later when comparing the two educational methods. However, survey results suggested student preferences for using standardized patients dressed in moulage for drug-induced skin disorders. No significant differences were found for contact dermatitis cases. Conclusion. Using standardized patients dressed in moulage did not improve pharmacy students' ability to assess skin disorders compared to using picture-based paper cases. Pharmacy students preferred standardized patients dressed in moulage only when learning assessment of drug-induced skin disorders.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/estadística & datos numéricos , Dermatología/educación , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Enseñanza/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Cruzados , Dermatología/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Docentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Retroalimentación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Anatómicos , Enfermedades de la Piel/fisiopatología
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