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2.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 286, 2019 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357986

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent years have witnessed the wide application of team-based learning(TBL) pedagogy in Chinese pharmacy education. However, the relevant systematic review evaluating the effects of such new pedagogical approach has not been established. The present study was designed to examine systematically the effect of using TBL approach in pharmacy education in China. METHODS: Six databases were searched from the inception to January 2019. The studies reporting the performance of pharmacy students in Chinese university or college receiving TBL pedagogy compared to those receiving traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) were enrolled to be analyzed. Scores of the objective theoretical test were considered as the primary outcome, and the results from questionnaires about the number of students who approved the effects of TBL pedagogy on improving their learning enthusiasm, self-study ability, thinking ability, and communication skills were considered as the secondary outcome. A meta-analysis was conducted following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement. RESULTS: A total of 1271 students in 12 studies published from 2013 to 2018 were enrolled in present analysis. Compared with traditional LBL pedagogy, TBL pedagogy exhibited more effectiveness in developing the objective tests scores of pharmacy students from both universities (SMD = 1.69, 95% CI [1.10, 2.28], p < 0.00001) and colleges (SMD = 4.37, 95% CI [1.33, 7.40], p < 0.00001), and such pedagogy applied well in experiments-oriented courses (SMD = 2.14, 95% CI [0.86, 3.43], p < 0.00001) and theory-oriented courses (SMD = 2.77, 95% CI [1.41, 4.14], p < 0.00001). In addition, it developed students' learning enthusiasm, students' self-study ability, thinking ability, and enhanced students' communication skills. CONCLUSIONS: TBL pedagogy has developed rapidly and applied widely in Chinese pharmacy education during the last decade. The results indicated that such novel pedagogy is compatible with the present situation of Chinese pharmacy education. And it could be considered as an effective method to enhance both the theoretical test scores and various abilities of Chinese pharmacy students.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Aprendizaje , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , China , Curriculum , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos
3.
Farm. hosp ; 43(2): 66-73, mar.-abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-182589

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Sistematizar la información disponible sobre la enseñanza de la atención farmacéutica, a nivel de pregrado y posgrado, en Latinoamérica, incluyendo situación actual, perspectivas/desafíos y recomendaciones. Método: Revisión estructurada de trabajos relacionados con la enseñanza de la atención farmacéutica en Latinoamérica, en PubMed, Scopus, Scielo y Google Scholar; sin límites de tiempo. Adicionalmente, se realizó una búsqueda en internet de los planes de estudio de los diferentes programas de farmacia en esta región y el estado de acreditación de los mismos. Resultados: Se identificaron 36 publicaciones sobre la enseñanza de la atención farmacéutica. Además, se obtuvo información de 146 planes de estudio de farmacia, con predominio de metodologías de enseñanza activas, al igual que 25 posgrados en el área asistencial. El porcentaje de acreditación fue del 31,8% y del 37,7% para programas de pregrado y posgrado, respectivamente. Brasil se destacó por el uso de la simulación, las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, al igual que por la educación semipresencial; mientras que Colombia se resaltó por la incorporación de prácticas tempranas a nivel asistencial. Conclusiones: La información disponible en publicaciones y planes de estudio muestra un interés creciente en la enseñanza de la atención farmacéutica en Latinoamérica. Sin embargo, se requiere que las universidades realicen un trabajo integrado con las instituciones de salud, orientado a acreditar sus servicios para la docencia. Asimismo, es necesario armonizar conceptos y prácticas tempranas que ayuden a optimizar la enseñanza y propiciar la divulgación de los resultados obtenidos


Objective: To systematize the information available on the teaching of pharmaceutical care, at the undergraduate and postgraduate level, in Latin America describing the current situation, perspectives, challenges, and recommendations. Method: A structured review of works related to the teaching of pharmaceutical care in Latin America was made in PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, and Google Scholar, without time limit. Additionally, an internet search of study plans of the different pharmacy programs in this region and the accreditation status was performed. Results: Thirty-six publications on the teaching of pharmaceutical care were identified. In addition, information from 146 pharmacy study plans with predominance of the active teaching methodology; so 25 postgraduate studies in the healthcare area was obtained. The percentage of accredited programs was 31.8% and 37.7% for graduate and postgraduate programs, respectively. Brazil was recognized by the use of simulation, information, and communication technologies, and addition by frequency of the blended education; while Colombia by the incorporation of early practices at the healthcare level. Conclusions: The information available in publications and study plans demonstrates a growing interest in the teaching of pharmaceutical care in Latin America. However, it is necessary that universities perform integrated work with health institutions, in pro to get the accreditation of their services for teaching. Likewise, harmonize concepts and early practices that help to optimize teaching and promote the results divulgation obtained


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Servicios Farmacéuticos , América Latina , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Facultades de Farmacia/normas
4.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(1): 6783, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894768

RESUMEN

Objective. To describe an evaluation of and improvements made to a process of systematic curriculum review. Methods. The systematic curriculum review process was developed with the goal of continuous curriculum assessment and improvement. Information on impact and feedback on the processes were collected from curriculum committee experience and an anonymous web-based survey sent to instructors of courses offered by the pharmacy school, and current and past curriculum committee members. Results. Thirty (88%) participants completed the survey with 72% reporting course changes due to systematic curriculum review, such as changes to programmatic outcomes covered (77%), assessment strategies/grading (46%), course outcomes (38%), and content (38%). Based on feedback received, revisions were made to the process: changing the frequency of course review (from every 3 years to 4 years), including experiential and elective courses (supported by 63% of faculty), and streamlining the logistics of course review and presentation to the curriculum committee. Conclusion. The development of the systematic curriculum review process resulted in course improvements and a system to keep curricular mapping current. It was valuable in the most recent preparation of the self-study and could be readily transferred to other institutions.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Revisión por Expertos/normas
5.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(1): 7210, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894776

RESUMEN

Recently, scientific publishing has experienced an expansion of journals and publishers whose primary goal is profit and whose peer review process is virtually non-existent. These "predatory" or "opportunistic" journals pose a threat to the credibility and integrity of legitimate scientific literature, and quality science. Unfortunately, many scientists choose to publish in these journals and/or serve on their editorial boards, either due to ease of rapid publication or naivety. Here, we highlight the extensive use of predatory publications or editorial board involvement by applicants applying for a faculty position in the Pharmaceutical Sciences department at the Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy at East Tennessee State University. We caution search committees at other pharmacy schools to thoroughly examine applicant curricula vitarum (CVs) for predatory publishing.


Asunto(s)
Docentes/normas , Revisión de la Investigación por Pares/normas , Publicaciones/normas , Edición/normas , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Humanos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Servicios Farmacéuticos/normas , Farmacia/normas , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Universidades/normas
6.
Clin Teach ; 16(1): 47-52, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484817

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The quality and variability of pre-registration pharmacist training has been questioned in recent years, with many trainees reporting dissatisfaction with their training experiences. A pilot training event aimed at pre-registration tutors from all sectors of practice was developed by Health Education England North East (HEENE) in 2016 to address some of these issues, with the overall aim of developing and preparing new tutors for the role of the tutor. CONTEXT: Quantitative data were collected via questionnaires given to the participants before and after training. The questions focused on participants' perceptions of their competence as a tutor across a range of domains, such as assessing trainee progress in the workplace, providing feedback and reflective practice. Interviews were subsequently held with a subset of participants to help understand the key themes and responses. INNOVATION: Results were overwhelmingly positive, with participants reporting an increased level of confidence in their role, having made positive changes to their practice as a tutor. The only domain that did not show a positive shift after training was 'undertaking of reflective practice'. Participants attributed this to the lack of protected time in the workplace to support reflective practice. The quality and variability of pre-registration pharmacist training has been questioned in recent years IMPLICATIONS: Results from this evaluation imply that this tutor training event was felt to be worthwhile, met the needs that it was developed to address and has the potential to have a positive impact on the standardisation of pharmacist pre-registration tutor training nationally. Areas for improvement centre on external factors relevant to pharmacists' daily practice, such as being allocated time in (or outside of) the workplace to support personal development.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Mentores/educación , Desarrollo de Personal/organización & administración , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Desarrollo de Personal/normas , Enseñanza/normas , Reino Unido
7.
East Mediterr Health J ; 24(9): 899-904, 2018 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570122

RESUMEN

Background: The pharmaceutical workforce in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region plays a key role in improving health outcomes through responsible use of drugs and optimizing effective choice and use. Investment in this workforce's development and planning is fundamental to achieving universal health coverage. Aims: To provide an overview of the pharmacy workforce capacity trends in the Region and emphasize the importance of workforce intelligence for strategic development. Methods: A review of the literature and global pharmacy workforce studies conducted by the International Pharmaceutical Federation to identify trends and issues in the Region. Results: The Region has high workforce production capacity compared to other WHO regions but challenges in workforce planning and intelligence strategies persist. Effective workforce planning relies not only on quality intelligence, but also on cross-sectoral coordination and stewardship, and the Pharmaceutical Workforce Development Goals provide countries within the Region with a framework for development. Conclusion: There is no workforce development without workforce intelligence.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Farmacéuticos/provisión & distribución , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Región Mediterránea , Farmacéuticos/normas
8.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(10): 1384-1390, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527368

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Online distance education has become popular in pharmacy education, but it can be challenging to provide engaging experiences such as team-based learning (TBL) in this format. This study explored the utility of virtual reality (VR) as a platform to provide the engaging elements of TBL, without students needing to be physically present in the same room. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Volunteers participated in a modified TBL exercise in VR, followed by a survey of the experience. The survey included Likert-type questions to evaluate the level of immersion and perceived engagement, comfort and desirability of VR-TBL experiences. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: The majority of the responses to the 14-question survey were 'agree' or 'strongly agree'. Ninety-four percent (94.4%) of participants strongly agreed that this was a fun experience, and 94.4% of participants strongly agreed that they would take a course in this format if it was offered. Although none of the questions received a majority of 'disagree' or 'strongly disagree' responses, areas for improvement included ease of use of the technology, comfort and improving the learning activity. SUMMARY: The response of participants to this study was positive and the overall conclusion was that VR has the potential to be a useful tool for online, distance TBL, and should be explored further.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia/normas , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/normas , Realidad Virtual , Adulto , Curriculum/normas , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación a Distancia/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Texas
9.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(10): 1406-1413, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coagulation is a complex physiological process that includes numerous feedback and feedforward reactions. Learning about coagulation and the use of anticoagulants is complicated by the dynamic and non-linear nature of the processes involved. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate the effects of a computer simulation-enabled workshop on students' understanding of the time course of warfarin effect. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A computer simulation of coagulation (CoaguSim) was developed to support an undergraduate pharmacy therapeutics workshop. Workshop activities were designed to allow students to generate and test their own hypotheses via CoaguSim based on a case scenario involving treatment with the anti-clotting drug warfarin. FINDINGS: One hundred and fifteen final year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students participated in the case study. Their mean scores for five multiple choice questions (MCQs) on warfarin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability increased significantly from 45% (pre-workshop) to 81% (post-workshop), p < 0.05. A focus group interview also provided support that students learned by generating and testing their hypotheses via CoaguSim during the workshop. DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY: The new workshop improved pharmacy students' understanding of the dose-response relationship of warfarin. Further development of the simulation to include other drugs is underway.


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Entrenamiento Simulado/métodos , Coagulación Sanguínea/fisiología , Competencia Clínica/normas , Simulación por Computador/normas , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Grupos Focales/métodos , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Entrenamiento Simulado/tendencias , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/organización & administración , Warfarina/farmacocinética , Warfarina/uso terapéutico
10.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1543-1549, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527819

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is a tool that most pharmacy schools use to evaluate faculty. After multiple years of low response rates to SET, Roseman University began a process to identify motivators, barriers, and strategies to improve SET response rates. Multiple strategies were implemented and response rate was analyzed to determine if the changes were effective. METHODS: A modified Delphi process was used to identify motivators, barriers, and strategies to improve SET response rates. Faculty, students, and administration engaged in a year-long process involving four distinct phases to build consensus regarding SET implementation and processes. The process was implemented and then response rates were evaluated the following academic year. RESULTS: Barriers included frequency of surveys, length of surveys, length of rating scale, ambiguity of questions, misunderstanding on importance of SET, and lack of perceived benefit for completion of SET. For each pharmacy class, response rates increased two to three times baseline (p < 0.05). For all classes combined, response rates significantly increased from 24% to 66%. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Delphi process successfully identified barriers, motivators, and strategies for improving SET. Additionally, the process built consensus that led to successful implementation of the new SET with significantly improved response rates.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/normas , Docentes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Retroalimentación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Técnica Delfos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Motivación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Utah
11.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1550-1564, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527820

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The goal of preparing competent pharmacy practitioners starts with the admissions process, whereby skills and abilities can be screened to identify those individuals with a strong potential for success. This study sought to describe the admissions processes of top pharmacy schools in North America and identify the extent to which characteristics associated with professional success are measured. METHODS: An observational survey design was used to collect information to help characterize the admissions processes of 60 pharmacy schools. Online and centralized Pharmacy College Application Service data of admissions requirements were confirmed and further details were collected through a telephone or email cross-sectional survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Online data indicate that every school (n = 60) requires prerequisite courses; 53 (88%) consider grade point average (GPA) and 45 (75%) consider the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT). Most schools utilize interviews during admissions (94%), with 67% using a personal interview, 20% the Multiple Mini Interview (MMI), and 7% a combination of both. Of 60 schools contacted, 42% completed the survey. Most schools (92%) assess critical thinking and professional motivation; the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were considered by 83%. Personal interview was the most frequently cited method for assessing applicant characteristics. CONCLUSION: Current admissions practices in the top North American pharmacy schools are varied and continue to rely on traditional components including GPA, PCAT, and interviews. However, there is also a movement toward using standardized and validated measures of non-cognitive aspects potentially more predictive of success in pharmacy school and subsequent practice.


Asunto(s)
Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Estudios Transversales , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Entrevistas como Asunto/normas , América del Norte , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1565-1573, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527821

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we introduced a student self-directed interactive animation tool created to enhance student understanding of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) mediated drug metabolism. METHODS: The online learning tool was constructed in HTML5 computer code. It was implemented over four years in a second year pharmacy degree course where CYP450 metabolism was taught. Assessment was by comparing test scores of students using the learning tool with a previous class that did not and through survey data from the student users. RESULTS: Use of the Cyber-CYP learning tool enhanced test performance on CYP450 metabolism-related questions in all years tested. Survey responses indicated that the learning tool was easy to use and facilitated student learning of CYP450-mediated drug metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that complex and dynamic processes, such as CYP450 metabolism, can be more effectively communicated using student-centered, self-paced and interactive animations.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Aprendizaje , Metabolismo/efectos de los fármacos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación a Distancia/normas , Educación a Distancia/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/normas , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1574-1578, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527822

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Descriptions of SOAP note requirements and assessment methods used during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) are limited in the literature. This study aimed to gather information from preceptors regarding SOAP note writing and assessment methods utilized during ambulatory care APPEs. METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to ambulatory care preceptors with data collected via Qualtrics and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test to assess the significance for associations between dependent and independent variables, and the Gamma test to assess dependent variables in grading habits and feedback types. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 62% with 75% of preceptors having students write SOAP notes during APPEs. A majority of preceptors (84%) do not formally grade SOAP notes with full-time faculty being more likely to grade and provide written feedback. Half of the preceptors perceived students as either prepared or very prepared to write SOAP notes but the majority felt that students struggle with the assessment portion of the note. There were significant differences between schools in the percentage of preceptors that formally grade SOAP notes, ranging from 2 to 45%. CONCLUSIONS: Preceptors' perception of student preparedness to write SOAP notes on ambulatory APPEs was similar, despite assessment methods varying widely.


Asunto(s)
Documentación/normas , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Percepción , Preceptoría/métodos , Atención Ambulatoria/métodos , Documentación/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Retroalimentación , Humanos , Servicios Farmacéuticos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1609-1615, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527827

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Repeated testing has been shown to improve knowledge retention in students. However, there is limited literature on the effect of repeated testing in pharmacy students. Our objective was to determine if repeated testing improved retention of pharmacy calculations and drug knowledge. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Second, third, and fourth year pharmacy students were invited to participate in this voluntary study. Participants were divided into GPA categories and randomly assigned to a control or study group. Seven quizzes were given to the study group over one academic year. No quizzes were given to the control group. Both groups had access to the question bank from which the quizzes were constructed. A final exam and survey were given to both groups at the end of the study. FINDINGS: We did not find an effect of repeated testing on knowledge retention for the study group compared to the control group in the study. However, when fourth year students were excluded from the analysis, we observed a benefit of repeated testing for lower-performing students. Over 90% of survey respondents agreed that repeated testing promoted long term knowledge and that students should test themselves repeatedly. However, approximately 60% of students admitted to not testing themselves repeatedly. Nearly 85% of survey respondents agreed that the school should implement a repeated testing program. SUMMARY: Overall, students believe repeated testing is beneficial, but few do it on their own. Repeated testing showed a benefit in at-risk students. Implementing a program of repeated testing can help low-performing students succeed academically.


Asunto(s)
Cálculo de Dosificación de Drogas , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Conocimiento , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1631-1635, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527830

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This article describes the implementation of pyramid tests, an assessment strategy that utilizes individual and cooperative testing for formal examinations in an elective course for third year pharmacy students. This strategy provides individual accountability and uses group collaboration to extend students depth of thinking through essay responses. Pyramid tests have been suggested as a way to improve grading efficiency compared to traditional tests that use essay questions. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A two-credit hour pharmacy elective taught by synchronous video conferencing on two campuses of a large public university utilized pyramid tests for both the midterm and final examinations. Each examination had individual and group components and utilized a simple metacognitive question. FINDINGS: The averages from the individual portions of the pyramid tests were similar to the prior year, while the combined group (2/3 weight) and individual (1/3 weight) pyramid test scores averages were slightly higher than the previous year's average (87% compared to 86%, respectively). Student feedback on this assessment technique was generally positive. SUMMARY: This assessment strategy was an efficient way to test students' knowledge. Although it had a collaborative component, it also provided individual accountability. Time spent on course administration and grading was similar to previous years that employed fixed choice assessments without collaborative work.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/normas , Retroalimentación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Curriculum/normas , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Habilidades para Tomar Exámenes/métodos , Habilidades para Tomar Exámenes/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1636-1640, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pharmacy schools would benefit from new models of experiential education. The University of Saskatchewan (Canada) recently opened a patient care clinic called the Medication Assessment Centre (MAC) as new experiential education model. The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure and function of the MAC and to report program evaluation data. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The MAC is a unique application of an existing experiential education model in that it is an pharmacist-run ambulatory clinic (which is common) that is physically located on campus amongst the classrooms and supervised by pharmacy faculty (which is unique). Students are all required to participate in the clinic on a regular basis, in between lectures, throughout the four years of the pharmacy program. FINDINGS: Students were invited to participate in one of five focus groups to assess the value of the experience. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, and the results identified strong satisfaction amongst students. The overall themes fell into three categories: (1) aspects that students liked, (2) aspects that students found challenging, and (3) positive impact on student learning. Previously published studies have found strong support for the MAC amongst patients and physicians. SUMMARY: Students felt that a faculty supervised experiential education clinic that is physically located within their pharmacy school was a valuable learning experience. This paper provides a description of how the MAC has been integrated into an existing pharmacy curriculum, which may be valuable to schools contemplating a similar addition to existing experiential learning.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/normas , Percepción , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/normas , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/organización & administración , Curriculum , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Saskatchewan , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1160-1164, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497616

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Accreditation Standards suggest integration and inclusion of interprofessional education in doctor of pharmacy programs. Although not directly mentioned by these Standards, intraprofessional education between student pharmacists and student pharmacy technicians may provide valuable preparation for comradery in practice. COMMENTARY: Given the prevalence of collaboration between pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in pharmacy practice, lack of intraprofessional education could be a vital gap in current programs. There have been previous calls within academic pharmacy and from key stakeholder groups for greater involvement of the profession in the training and education of pharmacy technicians, yet literature is sparse on successful models. This commentary includes a discussion of why intraprofessional training is vital, a brief commentary on example intraprofessional activities, as well as strategies for collaboration. IMPLICATIONS: A series of questions with the intention of evoking further conversations and awareness within academic pharmacy completes the commentary.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/normas , Técnicos de Farmacia/educación , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Acreditación/métodos , Acreditación/tendencias , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales
18.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1184-1196, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497621

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Older adults constitute the largest population admitted to hospitals due to chronic diseases, which requires appropriate prescribing of medications and comprehensive pharmaceutical care. The views and perspectives of students and educators can inform curriculum review in geriatric education in pharmacy schools. METHODS: A cross sectional online survey containing 34 questions covering the areas of curriculum content and perceived needs for geriatric education was administered to students, faculty members, and preceptors. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The majority of participants indicated that their pharmacy school offered geriatric education. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Considerations in the Elderly was the topic most frequently reported to be covered in the geriatric curricula. Significantly more use of small groups discussions for delivering the geriatric curriculum was reported by respondents in Qatar than in Canada. Experiential geriatric education was available in both countries, although duration of rotations were reported to be longer in Canada than in Qatar. The majority of respondents perceived that students were moderately prepared for providing geriatric care. DISCUSSION: This is the first study conducted to explore the current state of geriatric education in a pharmacy school in the Middle East in comparison with a well-established Canadian pharmacy curricula. CONCLUSION: Both pharmacy schools studied offer a compulsory course on special populations that includes a similar geriatric curriculum. Future surveys should investigate how geriatric content in the pharmacy curricula is being evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Docentes de Farmacia/psicología , Geriatría/educación , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adulto , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Curriculum/normas , Curriculum/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Docentes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Qatar , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1211-1218, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497624

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study assessed student perception in treating chronic disease states before and after taking an ambulatory care didactic elective and the impact on performance within a fourth-year ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). METHODS: Assessment of student perceptions was evaluated in students taking the Fall 2016 and Spring 2017 elective offering by completing an 11-item electronic survey prior to the first lecture of the course and after the last lecture of the course. A retrospective assessment of student performance in the APPE compared students that had taken the elective to those that had not over a two-and-one-half year period. Data collected included the students' final APPE experiential and required examination grade. RESULTS: In all but one survey question, student perceptions significantly improved upon completion of the elective. Student ambulatory care APPE final experiential grades were higher in students who had taken the elective compared to those that had not (90.3% vs. 88.9%, respectively, p = 0.04) as were APPE examination scores (78.0% vs. 74.0%, respectively, p = 0.01). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Student perception in key ambulatory care concepts, disease states, and drug knowledge improved after taking the ambulatory care elective. Student ambulatory care APPE performance was also mildly improved as a result of taking the elective compared to those who did not take the course. This is the first study to evaluate subsequent performance in an APPE as a result of taking an elective ambulatory care course and can serve as a template for other research in elective assessment.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Curriculum/normas , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Curriculum/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1228-1236, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497626

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Amid the ever-changing landscape of teaching, there remains one unloved and immovable constant: student evaluations. What can be done to reframe this conversation so that the student evaluation becomes a useful and constructive tool for the growth and development of faculty? METHODS: This article describes an interactive session where participants shared their thoughts about the helpful and not so helpful aspects of formative student evaluations and feedback. An effective method of gathering constructive formative student feedback, Small Group Instructional Diagnosis (SGID) facilitated by a faculty colleague was introduced to a faculty group at the 2017 Belmont University Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) workshop as a supplement to the university sponsored student evaluation tool and an approved formal peer review template. RESULTS: The most frequently stated positive outcome (what is working well) was that the student evaluations sometimes provided constructive feedback. The most commonly stated problem (what was NOT working well) was the low response rates received from the students. The most commonly stated suggestion for improvement was to enable the professors to create a course-specific formative evaluation from an available template. CONCLUSION: The authors feel that this introduction to the SGID provides a lasting impression on a large number of faculty members in a short amount of time. This process can easily be repeated on any college campus, and should produce similar results.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Retroalimentación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Tennessee , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
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