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1.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 151, 2019 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604434

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients belonging to marginalised (medically under-served) groups experience problems with medicines (i.e. non-adherence, side effects) and poorer health outcomes largely due to inequitable access to healthcare (arising from poor governance, cultural exclusion etc.). In order to promote service equity and outcomes for patients, the focus of this paper is to explore the implementation and impact of a new co-produced digital educational intervention on one National Health Service (NHS) funded community pharmacy medicines management service. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with a total of 32 participants. This included a purposive sample of 22 community pharmacy professionals, (16 pharmacists and 6 pharmacy support staff) all who offered the medicine management service. In order to obtain a fuller picture of the barriers to learning, five professionals who were unable to complete the learning were also included. Ten patients (from a marginalised group) who had received the service (as a result of the digital educational intervention) were also interviewed. Drawing on an interpretative analysis, Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a theoretical framework. RESULTS: Three themes are explored. The first is how the digital learning intervention was implemented and applied. Despite being well received, pharmacists found it challenging completing and cascading the learning due to organisational constraints (e.g. lack of time, workload). Using the four NPT constructs (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring) the second theme exposes the impact of the learning and the organisational process of 'normalisation'. Professional reflective accounts revealed instances where inequitable access to health services were evident. Those completing the intervention felt more aware, capable and better equipped to engage with the needs of patients who were from a marginalised group. Operationally there was minimal structural change in service delivery constraining translation of learning to practice. The impact on patients, explored in our final theme, revealed that they experience significant disadvantage and problems with their medicines. The medication review was welcomed and the discussion with the pharmacist was helpful in addressing their medicine-related concerns. CONCLUSIONS: The co-produced digital educational intervention increases pharmacy professionals' awareness and motivation to engage with marginalised groups. However structural barriers often hindered translation into practice. Patients reported significant health and medicine challenges that were going unnoticed. They welcomed the additional support the medication review offered. Policy makers and employers should better enable and facilitate ways for pharmacy professionals to better engage with marginalised groups. The impact of the educational intervention on patients' health and medicines management could be substantial if supported and promoted effectively.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Equidad en Salud/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Adulto , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Cualitativa , Medicina Estatal
3.
Aust J Rural Health ; 27(2): 132-138, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006952

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This two-phase study aimed to explore the influence of a university rural curriculum and clinical placements on pharmacists' choice to practise in a rural or remote area. DESIGN: A sequential mixed-methods approach involved the design of both a questionnaire and semistructured in-depth interviews to collect quantitative and qualitative data. SETTING: Regional, rural and remote practice areas according to the Pharmacy Access/Remoteness Index of Australia classifications. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-two pharmacists from varied areas of practice, working in rural and remote locations across Australia, participated in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: University curriculum and clinical placements during the degree and their influence on the current rural workforce. RESULTS: In the survey sample, two-thirds of the current rural pharmacy workforce's choice of practice location was significantly influenced by positive rural placement experiences. Rural practice was, however, not included in the curriculum for 50% of the rural workforce in the sample, although graduates from regional universities experienced up to 80% more exposure to rural curricula. In this sample, rural origin was also not found to be a significant determinant of rural practice, while rural lifestyle, family commitments, remuneration, career opportunities and other contractual agreements have had a greater influence than university education. CONCLUSION: Although the positive influence of rural placements has been identified, there is still a way to go in terms of the development of a meaningful rural curriculum. This highlights that universities have a role to play in addressing this issue to produce graduates who are better prepared for the opportunities and challenges of rural pharmacy practice.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Servicios Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Ubicación de la Práctica Profesional , Servicios de Salud Rural/organización & administración , Recursos Humanos/organización & administración , Adulto , Australia , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
5.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(1): 6500, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894765

RESUMEN

Objective. To determine how the standards for teaching pharmacy history were met by U.S. pharmacy schools, whether schools wanted to expand their commitment to pharmacy history, what pedagogical assistance, if any, was desired, and whether elective courses were offered. Methods. There were 133 school deans who were asked to identify the responsible faculty for teaching pharmacy history. A 10-question online survey instrument was designed and emailed to these faculty or the dean if no faculty were identified. Follow-up emails were sent at 2-week intervals. If they were non-responsive after three attempts, then telephone solicitation was attempted. Results. There were 100 schools (75%) that responded. Fifty-three percent were public and 47% were private; with 50% having class sizes of 100 or less, 41% with 101-250, and 9% having over 250. Eighty-six percent of respondents meet the ACPE requirement within a required course. Seventy-two percent devote only one to five hours of instruction to meet the requirement. Sixty-eight percent use no supporting literature, and among those who do, there was no common textbook. Interestingly, 21% wanted more teaching time, and 91% desired pedagogical assistance, varying from a packaged course (26%) to a syllabus with assignments and assessment banks (23%). Conclusion. Since no time or material guidelines were established to fulfill the ACPE pharmacy history educational requirements, these results provide a starting point to judge what is adequate and/or preferred. With the development of teaching guidelines and adoptable teaching materials, the pedagogical solution to this ACPE standard may become more complete and consistent.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Historia de la Farmacia , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Enseñanza/organización & administración , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(1): 6508, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894766

RESUMEN

Objective. To design an integrated dyspepsia module for first year pharmacy students that combines clinical and professional practice with fundamental sciences in five different science subject areas. Methods. The approaches used in designing this module are described with emphasis on strategies adopted to integrate science and practice, and the new ways of working adopted by the design team. Students' views and experiences of the module and its integration were explored using questionnaires. Results. A high proportion of students reported positive views and experiences of the module, the integration and its impact (as self-reported) on their learning and practice. The assessment of student performance indicated learning and attainment was at an appropriate level for a first-year module. Both the student grades and research results indicate a positive student learning experience. Conclusion. The dyspepsia module provides a flexible and effective template for the integration of science and practice in theme-based modules, with students reporting positively about the integration, including their perception of its contribution to improving their learning and understanding. New and more collaborative ways of working are required when designing integrated modules.


Asunto(s)
Dispepsia , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/organización & administración , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(4): 393-395, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828900

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To measure the effectiveness of pharmacy-led ward-based education sessions for pharmaceutical waste. METHODS: A pharmacy technician delivery pharmaceutical waste education in 2017. To measure the impact, results from pharmaceutical wastage audits from 2016 and 2018 were compared. KEY FINDINGS: Pharmacy-led ward-based education reduces pharmaceutical waste and saves money. It was calculated that the cost of medication wastage was reduced by $1715.67 in the audit period, extrapolating to an annual saving of $44 607.45. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlighted the importance of pharmacy technicians and provided evidence for an advanced scope pharmacy technician ward role to reduce pharmaceutical wastage.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración , Técnicos de Farmacia , Administración de Residuos , Australia , Ahorro de Costo , Educación en Farmacia/economía , Humanos , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/economía , Rol Profesional
9.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(4): 370-379, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734384

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The education of future pharmacists is the responsibility of a relatively small sector of the pharmacy workforce, and pharmacy academics (faculty) are essential for the continued viability of our profession; many also contribute to research within the profession. However, little is known about the 'work' of employees in this sector of pharmacy. The aim of this study was to investigate expectations associated with the working environment of academic pharmacists. METHODS: The inductive approach of qualitative research was selected and interviews were conducted among purposive samples in pharmacy programmes at two universities in the Southern Hemisphere, in Australia and in South Africa. Thematic analysis of raw data identified codes; those with mutual properties were grouped into categories which were assimilated under overarching themes. KEY FINDINGS: Three themes emerged around perceived expectations in academia: level of motivation, degree of satisfaction and adversity. Challenges in the workplace promoted hardship and adversity and impacted perceived performance. Degree of satisfaction was affected by workplace attributes (e.g. leadership, curriculum) which are modifiable or potentially modifiable, while individual intrinsic (personal) qualities could drive the level of motivation and impact positively on performance. Despite adversity, academic pharmacists demonstrated commitment to their roles as educators. CONCLUSIONS: Level of motivation, degree of satisfaction and adversity impacted perceived performance of academic pharmacists. Addressing factors that contribute to adversity, and modifying workplace factors to improve satisfaction, may lead to enhanced motivation and perceived performance among academic pharmacists; ultimately, this may have a positive influence on this sector of the pharmacy workforce.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Docentes/psicología , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Investigación en Farmacia , Lugar de Trabajo/organización & administración , Adulto , Australia , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Satisfacción Personal , Rol Profesional , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica , Universidades/organización & administración , Adulto Joven
10.
Teach Learn Med ; 31(3): 298-306, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755046

RESUMEN

Construct: Authors examined the use of narrative comments for evaluation of student communications skills in a standardized, summative assessment (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations [OSCE]). Background: The use of narrative evaluations in workplace settings is gaining credibility as an assessment tool, but it is unknown how assessors convey judgments using narratives in high-stakes standardized assessments. The aim of this study was to explore constructs (i.e., performance dimensions), as well as linguistic strategies that assessors use to distinguish between poor and good students when writing narrative assessment comments of communication skills during an OSCE. Approach: Eighteen assessors from Qatar University were recruited to write narrative assessment comments of communication skills for 14 students completing a summative OSCE. Assessors scored overall communication performance on a 5-point scale. Narrative evaluations for the top and bottom 2 performing students for each station (based on communication scores) were analyzed for linguistic strategies and constructs that informed assessment decisions. Results: Seventy-two narrative evaluations with 662 comments were analyzed. Most comments (77%) were written without the use of politeness strategies. A further 22% of comments were hedged. Hedging was used more commonly in poor performers, compared to good performers (30% vs. 15%, respectively). Overarching constructs of confidence, adaptability, patient safety, and professionalism were key dimensions that characterized the narrative evaluations of students' performance. Conclusions: Results contribute to our understanding regarding the utility of narrative comments for summative assessment of communication skills. Assessors' comments could be characterized by the constructs of confidence, adaptability, patient safety, and professionalism when distinguishing between levels of student performance. Findings support the notion that judgments are arrived at by clustering sets of behaviors into overarching and meaningful constructs rather than by solely focusing on discrete behaviors. These results call for the development of better-anchored evaluation tools for communication assessment during OSCEs, constructively aligned with assessors' map of the reality of professional practice.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Comunicación , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Narración , Humanos , Qatar
11.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(1): 98-102, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598654

RESUMEN

Librarians have ever-expanding teaching responsibilities in many academic disciplines. Assessment of learning outcomes requires longitudinal evaluation to measure true retention of skills and knowledge. This is especially important in the health sciences, including pharmacy, where librarians take an active role in teaching students to help prepare them for a profession in which solid information literacy skills are required to safely and effectively provide evidence-based care to patients. In this commentary, I reflect on a year of teaching in a pharmacy program and consider the outcomes of my instruction, areas for improvement, student retention of learning, assessment challenges, faculty-librarian collaboration, and continued support for library instruction in the pharmacy curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Docentes/psicología , Alfabetización Informacional , Bibliotecólogos/psicología , Bibliotecas Especiales/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Enseñanza/psicología , Adulto , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pennsylvania , Adulto Joven
12.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(7): 1699-1704, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616470

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Ethiopia is home to a growing population of more than 100 million people. Healthcare in the region functions with a shortage of oncologists. Pharmacists as well as other healthcare providers can assist with expanding patient access to cancer care. A pilot project was proposed to provide education, determine areas to expand pharmacy services in oncology, and recommend interventions at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital and Addis Ababa University. METHODS: A layered learning practice model comprising of a clinical pharmacist, a post-graduate year two oncology pharmacy resident, and two fourth-year student pharmacists was constructed for the experience. Through collaboration with the College of Pharmacy at Addis Ababa University, an international experience was developed to provide education and advance pharmacy practice at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. RESULTS: Based on findings from a needs assessment, the participants collaborated with key stakeholders to develop practices and procedures for the implementation of high-dose methotrexate and for comprehensive chemotherapy order review. In addition, 17 didactic lectures were provided to nine students enrolled in the Master of Pharmacy in Pharmacy Practice at the College of Pharmacy at Addis Ababa University. CONCLUSION: This experience provided educational and clinical impact using a layered learning practice model, consisting of a clinical pharmacist, pharmacy resident, and pharmacy students in an international setting. There is significant potential for clinical pharmacy to positively impact patient care in the oncology setting in Ethiopia. Future initiatives for advancement include the safe handling of hazardous agents, additional therapeutic drug monitoring, and outpatient oncology pharmacist practice.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Servicios Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Etiopía , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto
13.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(2): 207-213, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088295

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: (i) To provide a preliminary indication of the performance of pharmacy undergraduate students and pre-registration pharmacy trainees in the Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA). (ii) To determine the feasibility of administering and delivering the PSA in schools of pharmacy. (iii) To examine the potential relevance of the PSA and associated training materials to pharmacy education. (iv) To assess the attitudes of the cohort towards the PSA and their readiness to prescribe. METHODS: Four schools of pharmacy in England recruited final year undergraduate pharmacy students and pre-registration pharmacy trainees undertaking training with both hospital and community pharmacy employers in their locality to undertake the PSA. Performance data and feedback from candidates were obtained. KEY FINDINGS: Pre-registration pharmacy trainees in community (n = 27) and hospital (n = 209) settings mean average scores were 86.3% and 85.3%, respectively. There was a significant performance differential between undergraduate pharmacy students (n = 397) and those in pre-registration training, with the mean average score for undergraduate students being 73.0% (t test P < 0.05). Candidates felt their current course did prepare them for the PSA, some highlighted that additional curriculum content would be needed should this become a compulsory high-stakes assessment for pharmacy trainees. The majority of candidates felt that this assessment was useful and applicable to their training. CONCLUSIONS: The PSA process and associated learning tools could be introduced to pre-registration pharmacy education to support trainees in their development towards future prescribing roles.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Prescripciones de Medicamentos , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/organización & administración , Curriculum , Evaluación Educacional , Inglaterra , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración , Proyectos Piloto , Facultades de Farmacia
14.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 40(6): 374-375, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407985

RESUMEN

Enhanced patient outcomes have led the health sciences to seek ways in which to incorporate interprofessional education in their curricula. This article presents a unique and innovative strategy for interprofessional education among nursing, medicine, and pharmacy in a nonacademic health science center setting. Nurse practitioner students from the University of Alabama in Huntsville College of Nursing, medical interns from the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, and pharmacy students from Auburn University School of Pharmacy and their respective faculty participated in collaboratively designed simulations and skills experiences.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Educación en Enfermería/organización & administración , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Docentes/psicología , Humanos , Investigación en Educación de Enfermería , Investigación en Evaluación de Enfermería , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología
15.
Clin Teach ; 16(1): 47-52, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484817

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The quality and variability of pre-registration pharmacist training has been questioned in recent years, with many trainees reporting dissatisfaction with their training experiences. A pilot training event aimed at pre-registration tutors from all sectors of practice was developed by Health Education England North East (HEENE) in 2016 to address some of these issues, with the overall aim of developing and preparing new tutors for the role of the tutor. CONTEXT: Quantitative data were collected via questionnaires given to the participants before and after training. The questions focused on participants' perceptions of their competence as a tutor across a range of domains, such as assessing trainee progress in the workplace, providing feedback and reflective practice. Interviews were subsequently held with a subset of participants to help understand the key themes and responses. INNOVATION: Results were overwhelmingly positive, with participants reporting an increased level of confidence in their role, having made positive changes to their practice as a tutor. The only domain that did not show a positive shift after training was 'undertaking of reflective practice'. Participants attributed this to the lack of protected time in the workplace to support reflective practice. The quality and variability of pre-registration pharmacist training has been questioned in recent years IMPLICATIONS: Results from this evaluation imply that this tutor training event was felt to be worthwhile, met the needs that it was developed to address and has the potential to have a positive impact on the standardisation of pharmacist pre-registration tutor training nationally. Areas for improvement centre on external factors relevant to pharmacists' daily practice, such as being allocated time in (or outside of) the workplace to support personal development.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Mentores/educación , Desarrollo de Personal/organización & administración , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Desarrollo de Personal/normas , Enseñanza/normas , Reino Unido
16.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 303, 2018 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537998

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Competency frameworks that prompt personal and professional development have become an important component of lifelong learning; they are driven by healthcare professionals' need for development and professional recognition. This study aimed to evaluate the self-assessed competencies of community pharmacist-preceptors by using Croatian Competency Framework (CCF) and to identify competencies to be improved. The secondary aim was to explore the association between community pharmacists' characteristics (i.e. age, education etc.) and self-assessed competency performance. METHODS: The study subjects were community pharmacist-preceptors who provide support to and mentor student trainees enrolled in pre-registration training for pharmacy students. At the beginning of their mentorship, the pharmacist-preceptors assessed their competencies on a four-point Likert scale by using the Croatian Competency Framework (CCF), a validated tool for assessment and self-assessment of community and hospital pharmacists. Data were collected via e-mail in the period from October 2015 to April 2016. RESULTS: Of the 260 community pharmacists approached, final analysis included 223 respondents. The response rate was 85.8%. Community pharmacist-preceptors assessed themselves as the most competent in competencies pertaining to the cluster "Organization and management competencies" (M = 3.64, SD = 0.34), while they considered themselves as the least competent in the competencies pertaining to the cluster "Pharmaceutical public health competencies" (M = 2.75, SD = 0.77). Younger pharmacists with a postgraduate qualification who worked for large pharmacy chains in the capital city area and who had been in their current posts for a shorter period perceived themselves to be more competent. CONCLUSION: This research represents the first analysis of the CCF in practice and identifies community pharmacist-preceptor competencies that require improvement. Consequently, areas for additional professional education were defined. Implementing modalities to measure and support development of preceptors' competences is essential for improvement of student training programmes.


Asunto(s)
Educación Continua , Educación en Farmacia , Preceptoría , Competencia Profesional/normas , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/organización & administración , Autoevaluación , Adulto , Educación Continua/organización & administración , Educación Continua/normas , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Femenino , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacéuticos , Preceptoría/organización & administración , Preceptoría/normas , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Estudiantes de Farmacia
17.
Aust J Rural Health ; 26(6): 384-393, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431209

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to scope the impact of university rural curriculum and rural clinical placements on students' intentions to practise rurally and rural pharmacists' choice of rural practice. DESIGN: The scoping review used Arskey and O'Malley's methodological framework, searching the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Informit and Scopus. This scoping review followed PRISMA for article reporting. SETTING: Studies were selected from those conducted in Australia, USA, Canada and Africa. PARTICIPANTS: Pharmacy undergraduate students, interns, registered and academic pharmacists were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The pharmacy curriculum at universities and placements undertaken, specifically in rural and remote settings, were evaluated to determine their influence on intention to practise as a rural pharmacist. RESULTS: The search strategy generated 294 records, 31 of which were included in the scoping review. Key findings were mapped to two domains, which broadly included the impact of rural placements and curriculum on intention to practise rurally. Some universities have attempted to introduce a rural curriculum, but reported resources as a barrier and the lack of resulting evidence of students' intention to practise rurally. Although results indicate rural placements have had a positive influence on students' intention to work rurally, this intention has been measured immediately after exposure to rural practice and might not reflect future intentions. CONCLUSION: This review highlights significant gaps in the impact particularly of a rural curriculum and rural clinical placements in relation to the current rural pharmacist workforce. A greater understanding of this topic may guide recommendations for future strategies to address rural pharmacy workforce maldistribution.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Ubicación de la Práctica Profesional , Servicios de Salud Rural/normas , Salud Rural/educación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Recursos Humanos/normas , Adulto , África , Australia , Canadá , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(6): 6694, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181676

RESUMEN

Academic pharmacy spans several generations including traditionalists, baby boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y, commonly referred to as millennials. It has been suggested that leadership styles must change to accommodate these generational differences in academic pharmacy, yet there are no data of which we are aware, that support this assertion. We contend that leadership styles are derived from one's authentic self and are based on core beliefs and values; therefore, leadership styles must not change to accommodate a specific generation or other subset of academic pharmacy. Instead, effective leaders must change tactics (ie, methods or processes) to reach and influence a specific cohort. This article develops and supports the argument that leadership styles should not change to accommodate generational differences in academic pharmacy.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Liderazgo , Metas , Humanos , Farmacia , Responsabilidad Social
19.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 75(19): 1478-1485, 2018 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131324

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The evolution and expansion of a school of pharmacy-sponsored resident teaching and learning program (RTLP) are described. SUMMARY: Since its establishment in 2012, Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy's RTLP has grown to include up to 12 residency programs in Alabama and on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and Florida. Program requirements include seminar attendance, teaching experiences and observations, and development of an electronic teaching portfolio. Residents are provided support and guidance from an assigned faculty mentor and from chosen teaching mentors in each teaching activity. A program satisfaction survey was developed to assess residents' reasons for RTLP participation and their views on the manageability of program requirements, the level of residency program support received, the usefulness of seminar content, and other aspects of the program. Resident feedback has been used by RTLP coordinators to modify and refine program requirements. Major changes have included a switch to alternative information delivery mechanisms, clarification of mentor roles and responsibilities, and a transition from longitudinal seminars to intensive workshop days. At the end of the 2016-17 residency year, the RTLP had hosted a total of 66 residents from 12 different residency programs, with a 93.9% retention rate and a more than 3-fold increase in total resident enrollment. CONCLUSION: Evolution of a school of pharmacy-sponsored RTLP was essential to meet the growing needs of affiliated residency programs while optimizing faculty resources.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Residencias en Farmacia/organización & administración , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Certificación , Comunicación , Curriculum , Evaluación Educacional , Retroalimentación , Humanos , Gestión de la Información , Aprendizaje , Mentores , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Enseñanza
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