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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47131

RESUMEN

Já discutimos em programas anteriores algumas preocupações em relação ao coronavírus em comunidades indígenas. À medida que o novo vírus se alastra pelo Brasil, crescem os temores de que comunidades indígenas sejam dramaticamente afetadas pela covid-19. Por isso, nesse Policast, Ana Lúcia Pontes, médica sanitarista, pesquisadora da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca (Ensp/Fiocruz) e coordenadora do Grupo de Trabalho de Saúde Indígena da Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (Abrasco), fala sobre o importante papel do Agente Indígena de Saúde (AIS) na prevenção e combate da Covid-19. Ana Lúcia destaca o papel de educação em saúde, busca ativa dos casos suspeitos e identificação e acompanhamento das pessoas com agravos.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Acceso a la Información , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Desinfectantes para las Manos , Coronavirus
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5101, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130327

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the academic and professional background of school personnel; to assess the impact of the Diabetes + Support given by School Personnel to Children with Type 1 Diabetes Program on the school personnel's knowledge and confidence to support students with type 1 diabetes; to compare their level of knowledge with the academic and professional variables of the school personnel. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test study design without a Control Group. Study with a sample of 129 (before intervention - T0) and 113 (after intervention - T1) pre-school to secondary school personnel from participating schools, with at least one student with type 1 diabetes. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Portuguese Ministry of Education. RESULTS: Most school personnel included in the study were teachers (51.2%). After training, they were more confident than before to support children with type 1 diabetes (p<0.05). Regarding knowledge levels, the differences between T0 (10.8±2.8; P 50 =11) and T1 (13.7±2.1; P 50 =11) were statistically significant (p<0.001). Of the 113 school personnel who participated in the final assessment, 89 (78.85%) increased their level of knowledge. CONCLUSION: The program was effective to enhance knowledge and boost confidence to support students with diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Personal Docente/educación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Autoimagen , Formación del Profesorado/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Escolaridad , Femenino , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados no Aleatorios como Asunto , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Maestros/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 26, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187313

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Clear Communication Index instrument from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-CCI) from English to Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: This study comprised initial discussion about the conceptual equivalence of the instrument by a committee formed by experts on health education. We performed translations, synthesis of translations, back-translations, revision by the committee, and linguistic revision. Semantic equivalence was obtained by analyzing the referential and general meaning of each item by the committee, resulting in a pre-final version of the instrument. Subsequently, thirty professionals with health sciences degrees performed a pre-test. These professionals used the pre-final version of the instrument to assess a health education material. A questionnaire was applied to evaluate the acceptability of the instrument, the understanding of each of the 20 items, as well as the individual and professional variables. We analyzed the scores attributed to the health education material, the variables related to healthcare professionals, the proportions of the acceptability of the instrument, and the comprehension of each item. RESULTS: After we obtained the conceptual equivalence of the instrument, the committee of experts, the instrument's main author, and the linguist produced the pre-final version using two translations, a synthesis of the translations, and two back-translations. A general equivalence was maintained in 15 of the 20 items (75%), four of the items were slightly altered (20%), and one item was very altered (5%). Nineteen items presented referential equivalence or near equivalence (95%). We then carried out with the pre-test, in which the professionals used the pre-final version. Two items in the domains of "risks" and "main message" were unclear and needed to be revised. CONCLUSION: The process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Clear Communication Index provided an adapted version to the Brazilian Portuguese language.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Comunicación en Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Brasil , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Lenguaje , Diferencial Semántico , Materiales de Enseñanza , Traducciones
4.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(3): 845-851, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212816

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In the near future, the health system of Iran will face serious public health challenges means increase in the elderly population and the rate of chronic diseases. Therefore, it is anticipated that providing palliative care for chronic diseases will be one of the priorities of the country's health system. The purpose of the present study was to explain the present status and the future challenges of providing palliative care in the health system of Iran and help policy-makers to create a future roadmap by presenting a picture of the present status.  Methods: In this qualitative study, 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy-makers, researchers, and managers of the centers providing palliative care in 2018-2019. Interviews were analyzed using directed content analysis based on the Public Health Strategy and framework analysis. RESULTS: According to the WHO Public Health Strategy, palliative care challenges categorized in 13 subcategory and four main category include policy-making, program implementation, comprehensive education and drug availability. CONCLUSION: Providing palliative care that is currently dispersed in some centers does not meet the needs of chronic diseases. Establishing the palliative care system as one of the major goals of the health system of Iran is possible through reforming the fourfold structure of policy-making, implementation, education and drug availability. Therefore, it is suggested that authorities perform comprehensive and systematic management of challenges using foresight methods.
.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Paliativos , Adulto , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Fragilidad , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
5.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(3): 853-859, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212817

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We examined the effectiveness of a health education program to improve; knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer and Pap smear, and uptake of Pap smear test among female entrepreneurs in Kedah, a northern state of Malaysia. METHODS: This controlled community trial involved 210 women from the districts of Alor Setar and Sungai Petani. Simple random sampling was applied to select 105 women from each district. Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information about the variables of interest. Health education intervention program included educational talk, demo video, experience sharing, pamphlet distribution, and text message reminders. Evaluation of outcomes was performed twice. The text message reminders acted as the cues to action that were sent between the two evaluation times at one-month interval. Women in the control group received educational talk alone. In the control group, evaluation of outcomes was done only once, which was one month after the educational talk. RESULTS: Knowledge on cervical cancer and Pap smear, and attitude towards Pap smear among women in both intervention and control group improved significantly at Evaluation stage 1. However, no further improvements were observed in the intervention group at Evaluation stage 2. The uptake of Pap smear in the intervention group increased significantly from 48.0% at Baseline to 68.0% at Evaluation stage 1 (P<0.001), and from 68.0% to 79.0% at Evaluation stage 2 (P<0.001). A significant increase in Pap smear uptake was also seen in the control group from 63.0% at Baseline to 76.0% at Evaluation stage 1 (P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Educational talk alone was effective in improving knowledge on cervical cancer and Pap smear, attitude towards the test, and the actual uptake of the test. However, text reminders were more effective than having an educational talk alone in increasing uptake of Pap smear test among participants.
.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Prueba de Papanicolaou , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Malasia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
7.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 170-175, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141594

RESUMEN

Background: Nutrition education in school may positively affect students' eating behaviour. Teachers need to be empowered to teach nutrition, but no studies have investigated teachers' views on this topic in Saudi Arabia. Aims: This study investigated the perspective of teachers on nutrition education and their confidence in teaching it in boys' public high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In 2015, 80 boys' public high schools were randomly selected from four areas of Riyadh, and 80 teachers (biological sciences, physical education and health education teachers) were interviewed using a validated questionnaire. A Fisher exact test was run to test the relationship between teachers' perspective and confidence level, and their subject taught. Results: Almost all the teachers (98%) agreed that the health education curriculum should be taught as a core subject for high-school students. Most of the teachers (89%) were interested in teaching nutrition. However, 64% indicated that they did not have adequate nutrition curricular materials and 70% considered that they had not received adequate training on nutrition education. However, 89% were confident that their students would be interested in nutrition and that such education would change their dietary behaviour. Science and health education teachers were more interested in teaching nutrition and were more confident in their ability to do so than physical education teachers (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the teachers were interested in teaching nutrition but barriers existed, such as lack of training and teaching materials, which affected teachers' confidence in delivering nutrition education in their curricula.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación en Salud/métodos , Ciencias Nutricionales/educación , Maestros/psicología , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Arabia Saudita , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Formación del Profesorado/organización & administración
8.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 198-205, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141598

RESUMEN

Background: Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Aims: To determine the effectiveness of infection control intervention to improve compliance with hand hygiene in the Emergency Department, Al-Leith General Hospital, Saudi Arabia, and evaluate bacterial load on hands as a possible indicator of improvement. Methods: The study consisted of 3 phases: Phase I, measurement of basal hand hygiene compliance level; Phase II, multimodal hand hygiene educational programme was initiated; and Phase III, hand hygiene compliance level was measured again. Data were collected by direct observation of healthcare workers in the emergency department between October 2016 and March 2017, using the standardized World Health Organization method for direct observation, "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene". The intervention comprised health education sessions using direct personal contact. Hands of healthcare workers were sampled during Phases I and III by sterile bag method, and bacterial load was determined. Results: A total of 1374 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during the triphase study. Implementation of the interventional hand hygiene educational programme significantly improved compliance with hand hygiene guidelines from 30.7% to 45.5% (P < 0.01). Log10 bacterial load per hand dropped from 4.97 (standard deviation = 0.32) to 4.57 (0.47) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Hand hygiene educational programmes were effective in improving compliance in the emergency department, and bacterial load on hands of healthcare workers could be used as an indicator of improvement in hand hygiene compliance.


Asunto(s)
Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Higiene de las Manos , Mano/microbiología , Personal de Salud , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Educación en Salud , Hospitales , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/normas , Arabia Saudita
9.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 51(2): 219-225, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138859

RESUMEN

Global health delivery is a complex initiative requiring dedicated personnel to achieve a successful program. To be most beneficial, global health delivery should focus on cultural competence, bidirectional education, and capacity building through direct and purposeful means. The authors present the expansion of their global health delivery program in Ecuador focusing on the evolution of the program from a medical mission trip to a multilayered program that helps foster engagement, education, and learning while helping children who might not otherwise have access to care, along with future directions and potential methods to decrease the need for such initiatives in Ecuador.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Comunidad-Institución/tendencias , Ortopedia/organización & administración , Ortopedia/tendencias , Desarrollo de Programa , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Prestación de Atención de Salud/tendencias , Ecuador , Predicción , Salud Global , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Internacionalidad
10.
Bull Cancer ; 107(3): 322-327, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061377

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer screening is considered one of the most significant public health interventions that can reduce not only the incidence, but also the mortality of the disease. One of the most important factors for screening effectiveness is coverage defined as the number of women tested within a recommended interval. In the first years of the cervical screening, the participation rate in National Screening Program in Romania was 14.2% with slight difference in different region of the country. In the northeastern part of the country, in the first four years of the program, the rate was 16.9% with an alarmingly continuous decrease. Thus, increasing the rate of uptake of cervical screening is essential. The policy-makers should take new measures to increase women's participation in this screening program. The objective of this paper was to review situation of the screening program and to identify gaps and needs in the system and to bring or suggest solution.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Participación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/tendencias , Femenino , Educación en Salud/métodos , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Tamizaje Masivo/tendencias , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Participación del Paciente/tendencias , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Rumanía/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología
12.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 24: e-1273, fev.2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1051249

RESUMEN

Introdução: a adolescência é uma fase da vida caracterizada por situações de vulnerabilidade que predispõem os adolescentes às situações de risco. Inovações tecnológicas podem promover à saúde dos adolescentes por meio de oficinas educativas para empoderá-los acerca do cuidado com sua saúde. Objetivo: conhecer a percepção de facilitadores sobre as tecnologias em saúde utilizadas em oficinas educativas com adolescentes. Método: estudo qualitativo realizado com 14 facilitadores do projeto de extensão Adolescer com Saúde. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, submetidos à análise de conteúdo em modalidade temática. Resultados: emergiram três categorias temáticas. Os facilitadores percebem as oficinas educativas como tecnologias em saúde adequadas e que potencializam a promoção da saúde. Apreendeuse que a utilização das oficinas educativas pode contribuir para o êxito das ações, especialmente quando direcionadas aos adolescentes. Conclusão: os facilitadores percebem que as oficinas educativas, como tecnologias em saúde, são importantes. Evidenciou-se o uso recorrente de tecnologias leves e representam um recurso que fortalece ações de educação em saúde.(AU)


Introduction: adolescence is a phase of life characterized by situations of vulnerability that predispose adolescents to risky situations. Technological innovations can promote the health of adolescents through educational workshops to empower them about caring for their health. Objective: to know the facilitators' perception of health technologies used in educational workshops with adolescents. Method: qualitative study carried out with 14 facilitators of the extension project Adolescer com Saúde (Adolescent with Health). Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, submitted to content analysis in thematic modality. Results: three thematic categories emerged. Facilitators perceive educational workshops as appropriate health technologies that enhance health promotion. It was apprehended that the use of educational workshops can contribute to the success of actions, especially when directed at adolescents. Conclusion: the facilitators realize that educational workshops, as health technologies, are important. The recurrent use of soft technologies was evidenced and represents a resource that strengthens health education actions.(AU)


Introducción: la adolescencia es una etapa de la vida caracterizada por situaciones de vulnerabilidad que predisponen a los adolescentes a situaciones de riesgo. Las innovaciones tecnológicas pueden promover la salud de estos jóvenes a través de talleres educativos con miras a capacitarlos en el cuidado de su salud. Objetivo: conocer la percepción de los facilitadores de las tecnologías de salud utilizadas en los talleres educativos con adolescentes. Método: estudio cualitativo realizado con 14 facilitadores del proyecto de extensión Adolescer com Saúde. Los datos, recogidos a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, fueron sometidos al análisis de contenido en la modalidad temática. Resultados: surgieron tres categorías temáticas. Los facilitadores perciben los talleres educativos como tecnologías sanitarias apropiadas que potencian la promoción de la salud. Se comprobó que el uso de talleres educativos puede contribuir al éxito de las acciones, especialmente cuando se dirigen a adolescentes. Conclusión: los facilitadores reconocen que los talleres educativos son importantes como tecnologías sanitarias. También es evidente el uso recurrente de las tecnologías ligeras, un recurso que fortalece las acciones de educación en salud.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Educación en Salud , Tecnología Biomédica , Promoción de la Salud , Salud del Adolescente
13.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 38(1): [E02], febrero 15 2020. Tab 1, Tab 2, Tab 3, Diagram 1
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1051482

RESUMEN

Objective. This work sought to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the stages of change in promoting physical activity in employees in the Mashhad airport in Iran. Methods. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted with the participation of 60 volunteers (30 in the intervention group and 30 in the control group) who were in the stages of contemplating or preparing for change in physical activity. The intervention consisted in educational activities provided during home visits, telephone calls, group training sessions, and delivery of printed material. To gather the information, the study used five questions on the stage in which they were for behavioral change in physical activity, according to the Theoretical Model by Marcus et al., (1. pre-contemplation, 2. contemplation, 3. preparation, 4. action, and 5. maintenance), and the International Questionnaire on Physical Activity. Changes in the stages were evaluated during three moments: upon entering the study, at the end of the intervention (8th month), and two months after the second evaluation (10th month). Results. During the 10th month evaluation, it was noted that 26.7% of the subjects from the intervention group versus 3.3% from the control group improved their physical activity and were in the action stage (p<0.01). Conclusion. The educational intervention based on stages of change is effective in promoting physical activity in the participants and may be used in educational programs that seek to improve physical activity in the employees studied.


Objetivo. Determinar o efeito de uma intervenção educacional baseada nos estágios de mudança na promoção da atividade física nos funcionários do aeroporto de Mashhad, no Irã. Métodos Estudo quase experimental realizado com a participação de 60 voluntários (30 no grupo intervenção e 30 no grupo controle) que estavam nos estágios de contemplação ou preparação para a mudança na atividade física. A intervenção consistiu em atividades educativas realizadas durante visitas domiciliares, telefonemas, sessões de treinamento em grupo e entrega de material impresso. Para a coleta de informações, foram utilizadas 5 questões no estágio em que se destinava à mudança de comportamento na atividade física, conforme o Modelo Transteórico de Marcus et al. (1. pré-contemplação, 2. Contemplação, 3. Preparação, 4. Ação e 5. Manutenção) e o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física. As alterações nas etapas foram avaliadas em três momentos: na admissão ao estudo, ao final da intervenção (mês 8) e dois meses após a segunda avaliação (mês 10). Resultados. Na avaliação de 10 meses, observou-se que 26.7% dos indivíduos no grupo intervenção versus 3.3% no grupo controle melhoraram a atividade física e estavam no estágio de ação (p<0.01). Conclusão A intervenção educacional baseada nos estágios de mudança é eficaz na promoção da atividade física dos participantes e pode ser usada em programas educacionais que visam melhorar a atividade física dos funcionários.


Objetivo. Determinar el efecto de una intervención educativa basada en las etapas de cambio en la promoción de la actividad física en los empleados del aeropuerto de Mashhad en Irán. Métodos. Estudio cuasiexperimental realizado con la participación de 60 voluntarios (30 en el grupo de intervención y 30 en el grupo control) quienes se encontraban en las etapas de contemplación o preparación para el cambio en la actividad física. La intervención consistió en actividades educativas proporcionadas durante visitas domiciliarias, llamadas telefónicas, sesiones de capacitación en grupo y entrega de material impreso. Para la recolección de información se utilizaron 5 preguntas sobre la etapa en la que se encontraba para el cambio de comportamiento en la actividad física, según el Modelo Transteórico de Marcus et al. (1. pre-contemplación, 2. contemplación, 3. preparación, 4. acción y 5. mantenimiento), y el Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física. Los cambios en las etapas se evaluaron en 3 momentos: al ingreso al estudio, al finalizar la intervención (mes 8) y dos meses después de la segunda evaluación (mes 10). Resultados. En la evaluación de los 10 meses se apreció que el 26.7% de los sujetos del grupo de intervención versus el 3.3% del grupo control mejoraron su actividad física y se encontraban en la etapa de acción (p<0.01). Conclusión. La intervención educativa basada en las etapas de cambio es efectiva en la promoción de la actividad física en los participantes por lo que puede ser empleada en programas educativos que tengan como objetivo mejorar la actividad física de los empleados


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación en Salud , Ejercicio , Grupos Control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Aeropuertos , Modelos Teóricos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19167, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080095

RESUMEN

To verify the validity of functional health literacy scale and analyze what influences functional health literacy.Using convenience sampling method based on cross-sectional data to select 589 left-behind senior high-school students in an ethnic minority area, using the functional health literacy scale.The scale results were relatively strong, and the absolute fitness index, value-added fitness index, and simple fitness index reached the fitness standards. The overall functional health literacy score was (0.65 ±â€Š0.12), which falls within the upper middle class. Gender(t = 2.40, P < .05), ethnicity (t = 4.28, P < .001), place of residence (t =  = 4.51, P < .001), mother's education level (F = 3.608, P < .05), self-assessment of grades for 1 year (F = 25.781, P < .001), and whether the participant liked the health education content (F = 9.416, P < .001) had impacts on overall functional health literacy.The study results show that relatively satisfactory reliability and validity and can be applied further analysis for improving students functional health literacy levels.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Éxito Académico , Adolescente , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , República de Corea/etnología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18447, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895773

RESUMEN

Prenatal examination is a pivotal measure to prevent high-risk pregnancy and to ensure the safety of both mother and infant. However, pregnant women in Linzhi Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) often cannot obtain regular prenatal examinations due to limited accessibility of healthcare facilities, shortage of medical staff, and lack of medical equipment. Health education is an important approach to solve this ever-growing issue of pregnant women in rural Tibet.To evaluate the efficacy of flexible methods of health education programs on improving compliance among pregnant women from Tibet, China.In May to November of 2018, a total of 168 pregnant women receiving prenatal examination in a tertiary referral hospital in Linzhi Prefecture were recruited and randomly assigned to a control (n = 85) and intervention group (n = 83). All pregnant women were followed up until delivery. The pregnant women in the control group received regular prenatal examination and health education programs. Other than receiving routine prenatal care, participants of the interventional group also voluntarily joined the WeChat Social Messaging platform. Online resources posted by the maternity schools provided convenience and flexibility for the pregnant woman. The number of prenatal examinations was statistically significant between the 2 groups. The effect of flexible patterns of health education programs on improving the compliance of pregnant women in Tibet was assessed.The number of prenatal examinations in the intervention group was 2.646 times, which was higher than that in the control group (P < .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that interventional measures and ethnicity were the influencing factors of the number of prenatal examinations for pregnant women in Linzhi after the adjustment of age, history of adverse pregnancy, education level, ethnicity, multiparity, gestational complications, and medical history. The number of prenatal examinations for the pregnant Tibetan women was 0.535 times lower compared with that of the pregnant Han women (95% CI: -0.089, 1.157, P = .091).Flexible forms of health education during the antenatal period can effectively increase the compliance of pregnant women in Tibet.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/métodos , Cooperación del Paciente , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Red Social , Tibet
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 295-303, jan./feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049251

RESUMEN

This study aimed to develop a guideline concerning the care directed toward an individual with an intestinal and/or urinary ostomy attending the Assistance Service for Ostomized Patients implemented at the Clinical Hospital of Uberlândia UFU, in order that such individuals be provided the means of self-care and thus improve their life quality. A bibliographical survey was performed on the theme, which focused on Guidelines Based on Evidence. The development of these guidelines was based on a bibliographical survey and took as its foundation the principles of Orem's self-care theory and the educational practices applied to pedagogy in health according to Paulo Freire's philosophy concerning liberating education, qualification and dialogue between the subject and the professional, which grants the possibility of aiding the family and patient to modify their lifestyles and be the agents of transformation, thus favoring the development of their autonomy. The printed educational material brings new information and knowledge to the ostomized patient.


Trata-se da elaboração de um guia de orientação sobre os cuidados com a pessoa com estoma intestinal e/ou urinária acolhida em um Serviço de Atenção à Pessoa Estomizada, para instrumentalizá-la para o autocuidado e favorecer melhorias em sua qualidade de vida. Realizado por meio de levantamento bibliográfico sobre a temática com foco nas Diretrizes Baseadas em Evidências. A elaboração ocorreu por meio da associação do levantamento bibliográfico e teve por base referencial os princípios da teoria de Orem sobre o autocuidado e das práticas educativas aplicadas à pedagogia da saúde com base nos ensinamentos freirianos sobre a educação libertadora, a qualificação e o diálogo entre o sujeito e o profissional, como subsídio à possibilidade de auxiliar família e paciente a modificarem seu estilo de vida e serem agentes de transformação, privilegiando o desenvolvimento da sua autonomia. O material educativo impresso possibilita novos conhecimentos e informações aos pacientes estomizados.


Asunto(s)
Autocuidado , Educación en Salud , Enfermería , Guía de Recursos
17.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(1): 33-43, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960395

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Surgery, the primary treatment for oral cancer, results in oral and facial structural defects that may cause difficulties in swallowing or mastication and thereby affect nutrition status and quality of life. PURPOSE: This study was designed to understand nutritional status and quality of life in oral cancer patients who had undergone surgery and to examine the effects of a dietary education program on nutritional status and quality of life in these patients. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was conducted. Eligible patients were enrolled immediately after they could sip water after surgery. The participants were randomized into the experimental group (n = 42) and the control group (n = 42). Both groups were provided guidance for swallowing exercise and performed a pre-test (T0) and three post-tests (T1-T3) for a total of three months. The experimental group additionally received a diet assessment and dietary education program intervention. The outcome measures included the nursing nutritional risk screening tool (NNRST) and oral health impact profile (OHIP-14T). RESULTS: The level of malnutrition risk (T0 vs. T3) was 47.6% vs. 4.8% in the experimental group and 35.7% vs. 42.9 in the control group. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) statistics were used to assess the effects of the dietary education program on nutritional status. Quality of life was found to be significantly better in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: A dietary education program may be used to effectively improve the nutritional status and quality of life of patients after oral cancer surgery. We suggest that specialized nutritional support be provided during cancer treatment in order to achieve good nutritional status and improve quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Educación en Salud , Neoplasias de la Boca/cirugía , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Calidad de Vida
18.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 51-57, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Athletic training rooms have a high prevalence of bacteria, including multidrug-resistant organisms, increasing the risk for both local and systematic infections in athletes. There are limited data outlining formal protocols or standardized programs to reduce bacterial and viral burden in training rooms as a means of decreasing infection rate at the collegiate and high school levels. HYPOTHESIS: Adaptation of a hygiene protocol would lead to a reduction in bacterial and viral pathogen counts in athletic training rooms. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Two high school and 2 collegiate athletic training rooms were studied over the course of the 2017-2018 academic year. A 3-phase protocol, including introduction of disinfectant products followed by student-athlete and athletic trainer education, was implemented at the 4 schools. Multiple surfaces in the athletic training rooms were swabbed at 4 time points throughout the investigation. Bacterial and viral burden from swabs were analyzed for overall bacterial aerobic plate count (APC), bacterial adenosine triphosphate activity, influenza viral load, and multidrug-resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). RESULTS: Overall bacterial load, as measured by APC, was reduced by 94.7% (95% CI, 72.6-99.0; P = 0.003) over the course of the investigation after protocol implementation. MRSA and VRE were found on 24% of surfaces prior to intervention and were reduced to 0% by the end of the study. Influenza was initially detected on 25% of surfaces, with no detection after intervention. No cases of athletic training room-acquired infections were reported during the study period. CONCLUSION: A uniform infection control protocol was effective in reducing bacterial and viral burden, including multidrug-resistant organisms, when implemented in the athletic training rooms of 2 high schools and 2 colleges. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A standardized infection control protocol can be utilized in athletic training rooms to reduce bacterial and viral burden.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/prevención & control , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Instituciones Académicas , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/transmisión , Desinfectantes/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/prevención & control , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/transmisión , Desinfección de las Manos , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/aislamiento & purificación , Orthomyxoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/prevención & control , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/transmisión , Enterococos Resistentes a la Vancomicina/aislamiento & purificación
19.
Disasters ; 44(1): 205-228, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524986

RESUMEN

While the public can play a vital role in saving lives during emergencies, intervention is only effective if people have the skills, confidence, and willingness to help. This review employs a five-stage framework to systematically analyse first aid and emergency helping literature from 22 countries (predominately in Asia, Australia, Europe, and the United States). The review covers 54 articles that investigate public first-aid knowledge and uptake of first-aid training (40); public confidence in first-aid skills and willingness to help during an emergency (21); and barriers to or enablers of learning first aid and delivering first aid in an emergency (25). The findings identify high levels of perceived knowledge, confidence, and willingness to help, supporting the contention that the public can play a vital role during an emergency. However, the findings also point to low uptake levels, low tested skill-specific knowledge, and barriers to learning first aid and helping, indicating that the first-aid training landscape is in need of improvement.


Asunto(s)
Primeros Auxilios , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
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