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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929280, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824264

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND In addition to sociodemographic and COVID-19- related factors, the needs of school support, including material, psychological and information support, have seldom been discussed as factors influencing anxiety and depression among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 3351 college students from China were surveyed through questionnaires about their sociodemographic and COVID-19 characteristics, the needs of school support, and their experiences with anxiety and depression. RESULTS Anxiety and depression were reported by 6.88% and 10.50% of students, respectively. Married, higher education, non-medical, and urban students had significantly higher risks of anxiety or depression. Additionally, symptoms such as cough and fever, especially when following a possible contact with suspected individuals, quarantine history of a personal contact, going out 1-3 times a week, not wearing a mask, and spending 2-3 hours browsing COVID-19-related information were significantly associated with the occurrence of anxiety or depression. Those who used methods to regulate their emotional state, used a psychological hotline, and who had visited a psychiatrist showed higher anxiety or depression. Those who used online curricula and books, used preventive methods for COVID-19, and who had real-time information about the epidemic situation of the school showed lower anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS In addition to sociodemographic and COVID-19-related aspects, students' needs for psychological assistance and information from schools were also associated with anxiety and depression among college students.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/prevención & control , Ansiedad/psicología , /prevención & control , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/prevención & control , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Apoyo Financiero , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Líneas Directas/organización & administración , Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Masculino , Salud Mental , Pandemias/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Instituciones Académicas/economía , Instituciones Académicas/normas , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
2.
J Med Syst ; 45(4): 50, 2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675427

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic changed expectations for information dissemination and use around the globe, challenging accepted models of communications, leadership, and social systems. We explore how social media discourse about COVID-19 in Italy was affected by the rapid spread of the virus, and how themes in postings changed with the adoption of social distancing measures and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI). We used topic modeling and social network analysis to highlight critical dimensions of conversations around COVID-19: 1) topics in social media postings about the Coronavirus; 2) the scope and reach of social networks; and 3) changes in social media content as the nation moved from partial to full social distancing. Twitter messages sent in Italy between February 11th and March 10th, 2020. 74,306 Tweets sent by institutions, news sources, elected officials, scientists and social media influencers. Messages were retweeted more than 1.2 million times globally. Non-parametric chi-square statistic with residual analysis to identify categories, chi-square test for linear trend, and Social Network Graphing. The first phase of the pandemic was dominated by social media influencers, followed by a focus on the economic consequences of the virus and placing blame on immigrants. As the crisis deepened, science-based themes began to predominate, with a focus on reducing the spread of the virus through physical distancing and business closures Our findings highlight the importance of messaging in social media in gaining the public's trust and engagement during a pandemic. This requires credible scientific voices to garner public support for effective mitigation. Fighting the spread of an infectious disease goes hand in hand with stemming the dissemination of lies, bad science, and misdirection.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , /prevención & control , Humanos , Italia , Salud Pública , Opinión Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Red Social
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e26331, 2021 04 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667176

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the current era of widespread access to the internet, we can monitor public interest in a topic via information-targeted web browsing. We sought to provide direct proof of the global population's altered use of Wikipedia medical knowledge resulting from the new COVID-19 pandemic and related global restrictions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify temporal search trends and quantify changes in access to Wikipedia Medicine Project articles that were related to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical articles across nine language versions of Wikipedia and country-specific statistics for registered COVID-19 deaths. The observed patterns were compared to a forecast model of Wikipedia use, which was trained on data from 2015 to 2019. The model comprehensively analyzed specific articles and similarities between access count data from before (ie, several years prior) and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Wikipedia articles that were linked to those directly associated with the pandemic were evaluated in terms of degrees of separation and analyzed to identify similarities in access counts. We assessed the correlation between article access counts and the number of diagnosed COVID-19 cases and deaths to identify factors that drove interest in these articles and shifts in public interest during the subsequent phases of the pandemic. RESULTS: We observed a significant (P<.001) increase in the number of entries on Wikipedia medical articles during the pandemic period. The increased interest in COVID-19-related articles temporally correlated with the number of global COVID-19 deaths and consistently correlated with the number of region-specific COVID-19 deaths. Articles with low degrees of separation were significantly similar (P<.001) in terms of access patterns that were indicative of information-seeking patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of Wikipedia medical article popularity could be a viable method for epidemiologic surveillance, as it provides important information about the reasons behind public attention and factors that sustain public interest in the long term. Moreover, Wikipedia users can potentially be directed to credible and valuable information sources that are linked with the most prominent articles.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Lenguaje , Medicina , /mortalidad , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Pandemias , Opinión Pública , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26302, 2021 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529155

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (ie, COVID-19) has given rise to a global pandemic affecting 215 countries and over 40 million people as of October 2020. Meanwhile, we are also experiencing an infodemic induced by the overabundance of information, some accurate and some inaccurate, spreading rapidly across social media platforms. Social media has arguably shifted the information acquisition and dissemination of a considerably large population of internet users toward higher interactivities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate COVID-19-related health beliefs on one of the mainstream social media platforms, Twitter, as well as potential impacting factors associated with fluctuations in health beliefs on social media. METHODS: We used COVID-19-related posts from the mainstream social media platform Twitter to monitor health beliefs. A total of 92,687,660 tweets corresponding to 8,967,986 unique users from January 6 to June 21, 2020, were retrieved. To quantify health beliefs, we employed the health belief model (HBM) with four core constructs: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. We utilized natural language processing and machine learning techniques to automate the process of judging the conformity of each tweet with each of the four HBM constructs. A total of 5000 tweets were manually annotated for training the machine learning architectures. RESULTS: The machine learning classifiers yielded areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves over 0.86 for the classification of all four HBM constructs. Our analyses revealed a basic reproduction number R0 of 7.62 for trends in the number of Twitter users posting health belief-related content over the study period. The fluctuations in the number of health belief-related tweets could reflect dynamics in case and death statistics, systematic interventions, and public events. Specifically, we observed that scientific events, such as scientific publications, and nonscientific events, such as politicians' speeches, were comparable in their ability to influence health belief trends on social media through a Kruskal-Wallis test (P=.78 and P=.92 for perceived benefits and perceived barriers, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: As an analogy of the classic epidemiology model where an infection is considered to be spreading in a population with an R0 greater than 1, we found that the number of users tweeting about COVID-19 health beliefs was amplifying in an epidemic manner and could partially intensify the infodemic. It is "unhealthy" that both scientific and nonscientific events constitute no disparity in impacting the health belief trends on Twitter, since nonscientific events, such as politicians' speeches, might not be endorsed by substantial evidence and could sometimes be misleading.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Análisis de Datos , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprendizaje Automático , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Opinión Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , /epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25363, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on both the physical and mental health of individuals worldwide. Evidence regarding the association between mental health problems and information exposure among Thai citizens during the COVID-19 outbreak is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the relationship between information exposure and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. METHODS: Between April 21 and May 4, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide online survey of the general population in Thailand. We categorized the duration of exposure to COVID-19-related information as follows: <1 h/day (reference group), 1-2 h/day, and ≥3 h/day. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, the Perceived Stress Scale-10, and the Insomnia Severity Index for symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and insomnia, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between information exposure and the risk of developing the aforementioned symptoms. An ancillary analysis using multivariable multinomial logistic regression models was also conducted to assess the possible dose-response relationship across the severity strata of mental health problems. RESULTS: Of the 4322 eligible participants, 4004 (92.6%) completed the online survey. Of them, 1481 (37.0%), 1644 (41.1%), and 879 (22.0%) participants were exposed to COVID-19-related information for less than 1 hour per day, 1 to 2 hours per day, or 3 or more hours per day, respectively. The major source of information related to the COVID-19 pandemic was social media (95.3%), followed by traditional media (68.7%) and family members (34.9%). Those exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day had a higher risk of developing symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.76; P=.03), anxiety (adjusted OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.43-2.46; P<.001), and insomnia (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.97; P=.001) than people exposed to information for less than 1 hour per day. Meanwhile, people exposed to information for 1 to 2 hours per day were only at risk of developing symptoms of anxiety (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.69; P=.008). However, no association was found between information exposure and the risk of perceived stress. In the ancillary analysis, a dose-response relationship was observed between information exposure of 3 or more hours per day and the severity of mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that social media is the main source of COVID-19-related information. Moreover, people who are exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day are more likely to develop psychological problems, including depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effects of COVID-19-related information exposure on mental health are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/provisión & distribución , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tailandia/epidemiología
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 79, 2021 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality can be prevented in low-income settings through early health care seeking during maternity complications. While health system reforms in India prioritised institutional deliveries, inadequate antenatal and postnatal services limit the knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications to women, which delays the recognition of complications and seeking appropriate health care. Recently, a novel rapidly scalable community-based program combining maternal health literacy delivery through microfinance-based women-only self-help groups (SHG) was implemented in rural India. This study evaluates the impact of the integrated microfinance and health literacy (IMFHL) program on the knowledge of maternal danger signs in marginalised women from one of India's most populated and poorer states - Uttar Pradesh. Additionally, the study evaluates the presence of a diffusion effect of the knowledge of maternal danger signs from SHG members receiving health literacy to non-members in program villages. METHODS: Secondary data from the IMFHL program comprising 17,232 women from SHG and non-member households in rural Uttar Pradesh was included. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the program's effects on the knowledge of maternal danger signs adjusting for a comprehensive range of confounders at the individual, household, and community level. RESULTS: SHG member women receiving health literacy were 27% more likely to know all danger signs as compared with SHG members only. Moreover, the results showed that the SHG network facilitates diffusion of knowledge of maternal danger signs from SHG members receiving health literacy to non-members in program villages. The study found that the magnitude of the program impact on outcome remained stable even after controlling for other confounding effects suggesting that the health message delivered through the program reaches all women uniformly irrespective of their socioeconomic and health system characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The findings can guide community health programs and policy that seek to impact maternal health outcomes in low resource settings by demonstrating the differential impact of SHG alone and SHG plus health literacy on maternal danger sign knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Complicaciones del Trabajo de Parto/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , India , Salud Materna , Complicaciones del Trabajo de Parto/epidemiología , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/organización & administración
8.
Am J Public Health ; 111(3): 475-484, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476234

RESUMEN

Objectives. To improve understanding of the future public health workforce by analyzing first-destination employment outcomes of public health graduates.Methods. We assessed graduate outcomes for those graduating in 2015-2018 using descriptive statistics and the Pearson χ2 test.Results. In our analysis of data on 53 463 graduates, we found that 73% were employed; 15% enrolled in further education; 5% entered a fellowship, internship, residency, volunteer, or service program; and 6% were not employed. Employed graduates went to work in health care (27%), corporations (24%), academia (19%), government (17%), nonprofit (12%), and other sectors (1%). In 2018, 9% of bachelor's, 4% of master's, and 2% of doctoral graduates were not employed but seeking employment.Conclusions. Today's public health graduates are successful in finding employment in various sectors. This new workforce may expand public health's reach and lead to healthier communities overall.Public Health Implications. With predicted shortages in the governmental public health workforce and expanding hiring because of COVID-19, policymakers need to work to ensure the supply of public health graduates meets the demands of the workforce.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud Pública Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación de Postgrado/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud , Humanos
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 22, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407249

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Postnatal care (PNC) visits provide a huge benefit for ensuring appropriate breastfeeding practices, to monitor the overall health status of the newborn, to timely diagnose and intervene birth-related complications, and to plan future family planning options. Despite delayed PNC attendance have a great impact on the survival of the mother and the newborn it still receives less emphasis. As a result, most mothers do not receive PNC services early. We, therefore, aimed to determine individual and community level factors associated with delayed first Postnatal Care attendance among reproductive age group women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used the most recent Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2016) data to determine associated factors of delayed first PNC in Ethiopia. A weighted sample of 4308 women with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey was included. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Variables with p-value < 0.05 in the multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis were declared significantly associated with delayed first PNC attendance. RESULTS: In this study, both individual level and community level factors were associated with delayed PNC attendance. Among the individual level factors: having four or more antenatal care visit [Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.92], delivery at a health facility [AOR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.05], and perceiving distance from the health facility as not a big problem [AOR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.91] were associated with lower odds of delayed first PNC attendance. Of community level factors: being in Oromia [AOR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.83] and Gambela [AOR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.56] regions were associated higher odds of delayed first PNC attendance. CONCLUSIONS: Both individual level and community level factors were found to be associated with delayed PNC attendance. Strengthening antenatal care utilization, institutional delivery, and appropriate distributions of maternal health services in each region and areas far apart from the health facility are recommended.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Posnatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Salud del Lactante/estadística & datos numéricos , Recién Nacido , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
Acad Med ; 96(6): 795-797, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394665

RESUMEN

Global health and its predecessors, tropical medicine and international health, have historically been driven by the agendas of institutions in high-income countries (HICs), with power dynamics that have disadvantaged partner institutions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Since the 2000s, however, the academic global health community has been moving toward a focus on health equity and reexamining the dynamics of global health education (GHE) partnerships. Whereas GHE partnerships have largely focused on providing opportunities for learners from HIC institutions, LMIC institutions are now seeking more equitable experiences for their trainees. Additionally, lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic underscore already important lessons about the value of bidirectional educational exchange, as regions gain new insights from one another regarding strategies to impact health outcomes. Interruptions in experiential GHE programs due to COVID-19-related travel restrictions provide an opportunity to reflect on existing GHE systems, to consider the opportunities and dynamics of these partnerships, and to redesign these systems for the equitable benefit of the various partners. In this commentary, the authors offer recommendations for beginning this process of change, with an emphasis on restructuring GHE relationships and addressing supremacist attitudes at both the systemic and individual levels.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo/economía , Salud Global/educación , Equidad en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional/métodos , /diagnóstico , /virología , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Equidad en Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Cooperación Internacional , Liderazgo , /aislamiento & purificación
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e22407, 2020 11 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147163

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The internet is a well-known source of information that patients use to better inform their opinions and to guide their conversations with physicians during clinic visits. The novelty of the recent COVID-19 outbreak has led patients to turn more frequently to the internet to gather more information and to alleviate their concerns about the virus. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to (1) determine the most commonly searched phrases related to COVID-19 in the United States and (2) identify the sources of information for these web searches. METHODS: Search terms related to COVID-19 were entered into Google. Questions and websites from Google web search were extracted to a database using customized software. Each question was categorized into one of 6 topics: clinical signs and symptoms, treatment, transmission, cleaning methods, activity modification, and policy. Additionally, the websites were categorized according to source: World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), non-CDC government, academic, news, and other media. RESULTS: In total, 200 questions and websites were extracted. The most common question topic was transmission (n=63, 31.5%), followed by clinical signs and symptoms (n=54, 27.0%) and activity modification (n=31, 15.5%). Notably, the clinical signs and symptoms category captured questions about myths associated with the disease, such as whether consuming alcohol stops the coronavirus. The most common websites provided were maintained by the CDC, the WHO, and academic medical organizations. Collectively, these three sources accounted for 84.0% (n=168) of the websites in our sample. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, the most commonly searched topics related to COVID-19 were transmission, clinical signs and symptoms, and activity modification. Reassuringly, a sizable majority of internet sources provided were from major health organizations or from academic medical institutions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Motor de Búsqueda/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e21099, 2020 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027037

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Great efforts have been made to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including national initiatives to promote the change of personal behaviors. The lessons learned from the 2003 SARS outbreak indicate that knowledge and attitudes about infectious diseases are related to panic among the population, which may further complicate efforts to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Misunderstandings may result in behaviors such as underestimation, panic, and taking ineffective measures to avoid infection; these behaviors are likely to cause the epidemic to spread further. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess public health perceptions and misunderstandings about COVID-19 in China, and to propose targeted response measures based on the findings to control the development of the epidemic. METHODS: The study was conducted in April 2020 through an online survey, with participants in 8 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China. We designed a questionnaire with a health knowledge section consisting of 5 questions (4 conventional questions and 1 misleading question) on clinical features of and preventive measures against COVID-19. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, binary logistic regression, and Mantel-Haenszel hierarchical analysis were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In total, 4788 participants completed the survey and the mean knowledge score was 4.63 (SD 0.67), gained mainly through experts (76.1%), television (60.0%), newspapers (57.9%), and opinions (46.6%) and videos (42.9%) from social media. Compared to those who obtained information from only 1 or 2 channels, people who obtained information from >3 channels had increased health perception and a better ability to identify misleading information. Suggestions from experts were the most positive information source (χ2=41.61), while information on social media was the most misleading. Those aged >60 years (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10-2.11), those with a lower or middle income (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.00-1.83), those not working and not able to work (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.04-3.21), those with a household income <100,000 RMB (2 suspected symptoms (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.50-5.80) were more likely to be misled by videos on social media, but the error correction effect of expert advice was limited in these groups. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple information channels can improve public health perception and the identification of misleading information during the COVID-19 pandemic. Videos on social media increased the risk of rumor propagation among vulnerable groups. We suggest the government should strengthen social media regulation and increase experts' influence on the targeted vulnerable populations to reduce the risk of rumors spreading.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Internet , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , Niño , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239905, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002054

RESUMEN

Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA) for the management of type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), the topic of PA is poorly addressed in Saudi Arabia (SA), especially in females with T2DM. The present study examined PA and its associated factors in females with T2DM in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This observational cross-sectional study was performed in a random sample of 372 women with T2DM. A face-to-face interview that covered PA, health and environmental correlates of PA was performed. Discriminant analysis was used to determine which barriers had the greatest impact on PA in these women. The results showed that approximately 26.3% of the study participants met PA recommendations. Multivariate linear regression revealed lower levels of PA were associated with women who had more than three children (ß = -0.17) compared to women with no children, older age (ß = -0.18), women with a duration of diabetes ≥ 6 years (ß = -0.16), women who were obese (ß = -0.23), women with no family support (ß = -0.20), no friend support (ß = -0.13) and no healthcare provider support (ß = -0.14). Discriminant analysis indicated that culture and tradition, lack of skills and knowledge, safety, fatigue, lack of time, weather conditions, and lack of facilities were the barriers that differentiated between the women who met and those who did not meet the PA recommendations. The present study suggests that the prevalence of PA is low and number of children, age, duration of diabetes, Obesity, family support, friend support and healthcare provider support are identified correlates of PA. These findings are valuable and should be used to design and implement future PA interventions, especially for women with T2DM. Healthcare providers may improve exercise levels and identify the specific barriers to reaching the recommended level of PA to improve health outcomes for each patient.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Anciano , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 50, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912181

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: From 2010 to 2015, there was a twofold growth of new HIV/AIDS infection in Beijing among young students aged 15-24. HIV/AIDS education was found effective in promoting positive behavior change related to HIV/AIDS prevention. However, little evidence was found on the evaluation of HIV/AIDS education policy. This study aimed to evaluate the college-based HIV/AIDS education policy in Beijing. METHODS: By using a mixed method approach, the current study reviewed college-based HIV/AIDS education policy at national level and in Beijing from 1985 to 2016 and conducted policy content analysis to evaluate the policy ability to structure implementation. Cross-sectional surveys in 2006 and 2016 were used to evaluate college's implementation of relevant policies. T test, χ2 test, and logistic regression were used to analyze college students' perception of HIV/AIDS education provided in their colleges and their knowledge of HIV/AIDS and their risk factors. RESULTS: Fourteen pieces of national policy and four pieces of Beijing's policy were identified. Policy's ability to structure implementation was at moderate level. The percentage of students in Beijing who ever perceived HIV/ADIS education at colleges decreased from 71.14 to 39.80%, and the percentage of students with comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS dropped from 50.00% in 2006 to 40.42% in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: HIV/AIDS education in college had drawn considerable attentions from the Chinese government, while the policy implementation needs further strengthening.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Política de Salud , Adolescente , Beijing , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1467, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the leading public health problem globally, especially in low-resource countries (LRCs). Breast cancer screening (BCS) services are an effective strategy for early determining of breast cancer. Hence, it is imperative to understand the utilisation of BCS services and their correlated predictors in LRCs. This study aims to determine the distribution of predictors that significantly influence the utilisation of BCS services among women in LRCs. METHODS: The present study used data on 140,974 women aged 40 years or over from 14 LRCs. The data came from country Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) between 2008 and 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate the significant predictors that influence the use of BCS services. RESULTS: The utilisation of BCS services was 15.41%, varying from 81.10% (95% CI: 76.85-84.73%) in one European country, to 18.61% (95% CI: 18.16 to 19.06%) in Asian countries, 14.30% (95% CI: 13.67-14.96%) in American countries, and 14.29% (95% CI: 13.87-14.74%). Factors that were significantly associated to increase the use of BCS services include a higher level of education (OR = 2.48), advanced age at first birth (> 25 years) (OR = 1.65), female-headed households (OR = 1.65), access to mass media communication (OR = 1.84), health insurance coverage (OR = 1.09), urban residence (OR = 1.20) and highest socio-economic status (OR = 2.01). However, obese women shown a significantly 11% (OR = 0.89) lower use of BSC services compared to health weight women. CONCLUSION: The utilisation of BCS services is low in many LRCs. The findings of this study will assist policymakers in identifying the factors that influence the use of BCS services. To increase the national BCS rate, more attention should be essential to under-represented clusters; in particular women who have a poor socioeconomic clusters, live in a rural community, have limited access to mass media communication, and are have a low level educational background. These factors highlight the necessity for a new country-specific emphasis of promotional campaigns, health education, and policy targeting these underrepresented groups in LRCs.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Asia , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872662

RESUMEN

Health disparities in diabetes management and control are well-documented. The objective of this study is to describe one diabetes education program delivered in the United States in terms of the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) Planning and Evaluation Framework. Questionnaires, clinical data, and administrative records were analyzed from 8664 adults with diabetes living in South Texas, an area characterized by high health disparities. The Diabetes Education Program delivered was a professionally led 12-month program involving 8 h of in-person workshop education followed by quarterly follow-up sessions. Changes in average blood glucose levels over the past 3 months (e.g., A1c levels) were the primary clinical outcome. Descriptive and multiple generalized linear mixed models were performed. This community-based initiative reached a large and diverse population, and statistically significant reductions in A1c levels (p < 0.01) were observed among participants with Type 2 diabetes at 3 months. These reductions in A1c levels were sustained at 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up assessments (p < 0.01). However, considerable attrition over time at follow-up sessions indicate the need for more robust strategies to keep participants engaged. For this diabetes education program, the RE-AIM model was a useful framework to present study processes and outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Educación en Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Texas/epidemiología
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19791, 2020 10 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on global society, health care, governments, and mass media. Public dissemination of government policies, medical interventions, and misinformation has been remarkably rapid and largely unregulated during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in increased misinterpretations, miscommunication, and public panic. Being the first full-scale global pandemic of the digital age, COVID-19 has presented novel challenges pertinent to government advice, the spread of news and misinformation, and the trade-off between the accessibility of science and the premature public use of unproven medical interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the use of internet search terms relating to COVID-19 information and misinformation during the global pandemic, identify which were most used in six affected countries, investigate any temporal trends and the likely propagators of key search terms, and determine any correlation between the per capita cases and deaths with the adoption of these search terms in each of the six countries. METHODS: This study uses relative search volume data extracted from Google Trends for search terms linked to the COVID-19 pandemic alongside per capita case and mortality data extracted from the European Open Data Portal to identify the temporal dynamics of the spread of news and misinformation during the global pandemic in six affected countries (Australia, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States). A correlation analysis was carried out to ascertain any correlation between the temporal trends of search term use and the rise of per capita mortality and disease cases. RESULTS: Of the selected search terms, most were searched immediately following promotion by governments, public figures, or viral circulation of information, but also in relation to the publication of scientific resources, which were sometimes misinterpreted before further dissemination. Strong correlations were identified between the volume of these COVID-19-related search terms (overall mean Spearman rho 0.753, SD 0.158), and per capita mortality (mean per capita deaths Spearman rho 0.690, SD 0.168) and cases (mean per capita cases Spearman rho 0.800, SD 0.112). CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the increased rate and volume of the public consumption of novel information during a global health care crisis. The positive correlation between mortality and online searching, particularly in countries with lower COVID-19 testing rates, may demonstrate the imperative to safeguard official communications and dispel misinformation in these countries. Online news, government briefings, and social media provide a powerful tool for the dissemination of important information to the public during pandemics, but their misuse and the presentation of misrepresented medical information should be monitored, minimized, and addressed to safeguard public safety. Ultimately, governments, public health authorities, and scientists have a moral imperative to safeguard the truth and maintain an accessible discourse with the public to limit fear.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Internacionalidad , Internet , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Salud Global , Educación en Salud/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19913, 2020 09 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social media is one of the most rapid and impactful ways of obtaining and delivering information in the modern era. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to rapidly obtain information on public perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors related to COVID-19 in order to identify deficiencies in key areas of public education. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, a survey web link was posted on the social media and messaging platforms Instagram, Twitter, and WhatsApp by the study investigators. Participants, aged ≥18 years, filled out the survey on a voluntary basis. The main outcomes measured were knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, protective measures against COVID-19, and source(s) of information about COVID-19. Subgroup analyses were conducted to determine the effects of age, gender, underlying illness, and working or studying in the health care industry on the perceived likelihood of acquiring COVID-19 and getting vaccinated. RESULTS: A total of 5677 subjects completed the survey over the course of 1 week. "Fever or chills" (n=4973, 87.6%) and "shortness of breath" (n=4695, 82.7%) were identified as the main symptoms of COVID-19. Washing and sanitizing hands (n=4990, 87.9%) and avoiding public places and crowds (n=4865, 85.7%) were identified as the protective measures most frequently used against COVID-19. Social media was the most utilized source for information on the disease (n=4740, 83.5%), followed by the World Health Organization (n=2844, 50.1%). Subgroup analysis revealed that younger subjects (<35 years), males, and those working or studying in health care reported a higher perceived likelihood of acquiring COVID-19, whereas older subjects, females, and those working or studying in non-health care areas reported a lower perceived likelihood of acquiring COVID-19. Similar trends were observed for vaccination against COVID-19, with older subjects, females, and those working or studying in non-health care sectors reporting a lower likelihood of vaccinating against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are indicative of a relatively well-informed cohort implementing appropriate protective measures. However, key knowledge deficiencies exist with regards to vaccination against COVID-19, which future efforts should aim at correcting.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Vacunación , Voluntarios , Adulto Joven
20.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 6042146, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831855

RESUMEN

Few studies have investigated household interventions to enhance indoor air quality (IAQ) and health outcomes in relatively low-income communities. This study aims to examine the impact of the combined intervention with asthma education and air purifier on IAQ and health outcomes in the US-Mexico border area. An intervention study conducted in McAllen, Texas, between June and November 2019 included 16 households having children with asthma. The particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were monitored in the bedroom, kitchen, and living room to measure the IAQ for 7 days before and after the intervention, respectively. Multiple surveys were applied to evaluate changes in children's health outcomes. The mean PM2.5 levels in each place were significantly improved. Overall, they significantly decreased by 1.91 µg/m3 on average (p < 0.05). All surveys showed better health outcomes; particularly, quality of life for children was significantly improved (p < 0.05). This pilot study suggests that the combined household intervention might improve IAQ in households and health outcomes for children with asthma and reduce health disparities in low-income communities. Future large-scale studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of this household intervention to improve IAQ and asthma management.


Asunto(s)
Filtros de Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Asma/etiología , Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análisis , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad de Vida , Texas
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