Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.670
Filtrar
1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114398, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626939

RESUMEN

Natural sweeteners are in high demand as a part of a healthy lifestyle. Among them, sweeteners with decreased caloric value and suitability for diabetes patients are most requested. Extension in their consumption extends the need for their quality control. A fast gradient UHPLC coupled with charged aerosol detection enabling quantitation of stevioside, rebaudioside A-D, and steviolbioside in commercial sweeteners and Stevia rebaudiana plant extracts has been developed. The method was developed to achieve high efficiency, simplicity, versatility, and low solvent consumption. All steviol glycosides were baseline-separated in less than 4 min with a total run time of 7 min. Buffer-free eluents were used in the separations and only 2.45 mL solvent were needed per analysis. The Luna Omega Polar column featuring polar modification of the C18 stationary phase was employed with mobile phases composed of water and acetonitrile for the excellent separation of polar steviol glycosides. The flow rate of the mobile phase 0.35 mL/min, column temperature 50 °C and injection volume 2 µL were used. Critical pair of glycosides, stevioside and rebaudioside A, were baseline separated with a resolution of 2.41. The universal charged aerosol detector allowed quantitation of steviol glycosides with a limit of detection and quantitation 0.15 and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. Method intra-day precision was less than 2% (RSD), and the recovery was 89.6-105.0% and 93.8-111.4% for plant material and sweetener tablets, respectively. The quantity of steviol glycosides in three out of four commercial sweeteners was 3.0-12.3% higher than declared. The content was about 12.4% less than declared in one sample. But the difference from the labeled content corresponded to trueness and precision of the developed method together with variability of sweeteners production. The most abundant glycoside detected in sweeteners was stevioside followed by rebaudioside A. A leaf-to-stem ratio describing the dominant accumulation of steviol glycosides in leaves affected the differences in the amount of steviol glycosides among plant samples.


Asunto(s)
Diterpenos de Tipo Kaurano , Stevia , Aerosoles , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Diterpenos de Tipo Kaurano/análisis , Glucósidos , Glicósidos , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales , Hojas de la Planta/química , Edulcorantes/análisis
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(1): 171-183, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962394

RESUMEN

Non-nutritive sweeteners are the most widely used food additives designed to provide sweetness and reduce caloric intake. Studies have confirmed a link between sweeteners and colitis, yet supporting scientific data remain exiguous and controversial. In this study, three common sweeteners (Saccharin sodium, Stevioside, and Sucralose) in acceptable daily intake dosage were added to water in order to determine their effects on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice. Our results show that the three sweeteners meliorate colitis to varying degrees─Saccharin exerts the most pronounced effect, followed by Stevioside and Sucralose. Intake of sweeteners alleviates colitis symptoms, alters gut microbiota, reshapes the TH17/Treg balance, protects the intestinal barrier, and reduces inflammation. Most significantly, sweeteners can enhance the abundance of Mucispirillum and Alistipes, which are conducive to colitis recovery, and upregulate the expression of E-cadherin through the miR-15b/RECK/MMP-9 axis to improve intestinal barrier integrity. Moreover, by inhibiting the MMP-9/AKT/NF-κB pathway, inflammation is relieved, as reflected in the restoration of the Th17/Treg balance. Our results link the consumption of sweeteners to the remission of colitis, which provides new scientific evidence for the safe use of sweeteners.


Asunto(s)
Colitis , MicroARNs , Animales , Colitis/inducido químicamente , Colitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Colitis/genética , Colon , Sulfato de Dextran/efectos adversos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Homeostasis , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , MicroARNs/genética , Sulfatos , Edulcorantes
3.
Food Chem ; 366: 130623, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320438

RESUMEN

Stevioside (ST) is currently considered as a highly-demanded natural and zero-caloric replacer of sucrose with several health-promoting properties. Nonetheless, its bitter aftertaste limits its use in the food industry. Herein, glucosyl steviosides were synthesized using primarily a food-grade lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc kimchii dextransucrase and conversion yield (%) was 40.3%. A glucose moiety was transferred stereo-selectively to ST by α-1,6-linkage and this is the first report about obtaining rebaudioside A (Reb-A) like glucosyl stevioside-2 (STG-2). Glucosyl steviosides revealed greatly improved stability up to 120 °C and remained stable over 32.1% and 58.12% in the pH (1.4) compared with 30.55% of ST. Moreover, the glucosylated steviosides improved the stability, reaching 95% after 30 days and Reb-A like compound (STG-2) especially exhibited higher stability in commercial beverages. Furthermore, the glucosyl steviosides showed over 1.92- and 2.24-fold decreases than that of enzymatically modified ST in the glucose generation rate test.


Asunto(s)
Diterpenos de Tipo Kaurano , Stevia , Glucosiltransferasas/genética , Leuconostoc/genética , Edulcorantes
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126942, 2022 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449343

RESUMEN

The abuse of antibiotics on animals could induce the development of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), and acesulfame potassium (ACE) is the widely used artificial sweetener in animal feed. Generally speaking, ACE and ARB often coexist in livestock wastewater, however, the impact of the co-occurrence of ACE and ARB on the transmission of ARGs is still unknown. In this study, the effects of ACE on vertical gene transfer (VGT) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) were both evaluated. For VGT, ACE may hinder the spread of sul gene in Pseudomonas HLS-6 by blocking ARB growth. As for HGT (from Escherichia coli DH5α to Pseudomonas HLS-6), environmentally relevant ACE concentration could facilitate the conjugative transfer. The underlying mechanisms of HGT were characterized by enhanced cell membrane permeability, reactive oxygen species overproduction, SOS response, energy supply, which were all further verified by the changes in transcription levels of related genes. Interestingly, intracellular Mg2+ in donor strain was found for the first time as an indicator for the conjugation occurrence in ACE treated mating system. This study may provide new insights into the role of ACE on ARGs proliferation and highlight its potential environmental impacts.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Edulcorantes , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Animales , Antibacterianos/toxicidad , Membrana Celular , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Transferencia de Gen Horizontal , Genes Bacterianos , Edulcorantes/toxicidad , Tiazinas , Transcriptoma
5.
Food Chem ; 374: 131807, 2022 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915374

RESUMEN

Knowing the mechanism of action of sweet taste receptors is important for the design of new, healthy sweeteners. However, little is known about the structures and recognition mechanisms of these receptors. 28 sweeteners were assessed by molecular docking, and 8 typical sweeteners were chosen to construct sweetener-T1R2-membrane systems to analyze interactions between receptor and sweeteners. Natural sweeteners with low-intensity sweetness, such as fructose and xylitol, were released from the Venus flytrap domain at ∼30 ns, with displacements greater than 50 Å. In contrast, artificial neotame and advantame bound stably to the receptor, within 5 Å. Van der Waals interactions were significant in high-intensity sweetener systems, imparting an energy difference of over 15 kcal/mol between neotame (artificial sweetener) and fructose (natural). These results provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of sweetener function and offer a new direction for the design of sweeteners.


Asunto(s)
Edulcorantes , Gusto , Excipientes , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G
6.
Food Chem ; 372: 131249, 2022 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634587

RESUMEN

Nowadays, computational approaches have drawn more and more attention when exploring the relationship between sweetness and chemical structure instead of traditional experimental tests. In this work, we proposed a novel multi-layer sweetness evaluation system based on machine learning methods. It can be used to evaluate sweet properties of compounds with different chemical spaces and categories, including natural, artificial, carbohydrate, non-carbohydrate, nutritive and non-nutritive ones, suitable for different application scenarios. Furthermore, it provided quantitative predictions of sweetness. In addition, sweetness-related chemical basis and structure transforming rules were obtained by using molecular cloud and matched molecular pair analysis (MMPA) methods. This work systematically improved the data quality, explored the best machine learning algorithm and molecular characterizing strategy, and finally obtained robust models to establish a multi-layer prediction system (available at: https://github.com/ifyoungnet/ChemSweet). We hope that this study could facilitate food scientists with efficient screening and precise development of high-quality sweeteners.


Asunto(s)
Edulcorantes , Gusto , Aprendizaje Automático
7.
Food Chem ; 370: 130991, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509947

RESUMEN

Food producers have leaned towards alternative natural and synthetic sweeteners in food formulations to satisfy market demands. Even so, several synthetic sweeteners (e.g., aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) are becoming less popular due to health-related concerns, lower nutritional values, and controversies around their safety. Conversely, natural sweeteners confer favourable customer perceptions due to their association to a healthier lifestyle and higher nutritional values. This article discusses the evidence of natural sweeteners in the available commercial products. A comprehensive review of natural sweeteners is presented, which includes their resources, properties and extraction methods, as well as a discussion on several emerging technologies that offer improvements to the traditional extraction methods. Finally, the progress of natural sweeteners in the food industry is assessed, and the commercial food products containing these natural sweeteners are mentioned.


Asunto(s)
Aspartame , Edulcorantes , Industria de Alimentos , Sacarina
8.
Food Chem ; 370: 131051, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530345

RESUMEN

The comparison of non-caloric sweeteners (stevia and sucralose) and sucrose, on the plasma concentration and cumulative effects of phenolic compounds, was achieved. A long-term intervention, consisting of the daily intake of 330 mL of healthy citrus-maqui soft drinks, for 60 days, by 138 healthy overweight adults, was followed. A total of 24 bioavailable metabolites derived from caffeic acid, 3,4-di-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, eriodictyol, homoeriodictyol, hippuric acid, naringenin, 2,4,6-tri-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillic acid were detected in peripheral blood plasma. A similar augment of bioactive compounds in plasma concentrations were found for the three beverages, in the range 12.3% (day 0)- 85.3% (day 60), depending on the analyte considered. Due to this, the present study highlights sucralose and stevia as valuable alternatives to sucrose, providing and non-significantly different plasma concentration and cumulative effect in the plasma, thus contributing to prevent a diversity of metabolic disorders and health constraints.


Asunto(s)
Stevia , Edulcorantes , Bebidas , Disponibilidad Biológica , Bebidas Gaseosas , Polifenoles , Sacarosa/análogos & derivados
9.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959798

RESUMEN

Reduced Glycemic Index (GI) of breakfast has been linked to improved cognitive performance in both children and adult populations across the morning. However, few studies have profiled the post-prandial glycemic response (PPGR) in younger children. The aim of this study was to assess PPGR to breakfast interventions differing in GI in healthy children aged 5-7 years. Eleven subjects completed an open-label, randomized, cross-over trial, receiving three equicaloric test beverages (260 kcal) consisting of 125 mL semi-skimmed milk and 50 g sugar (either glucose, sucrose, or isomaltulose). On a fourth occasion, the sucrose beverage was delivered as intermittent supply. PPGR was measured over 180 min using Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM). The incremental area under the curve (3h-iAUC) was highest for the glucose beverage, followed by intermittent sucrose (-21%, p = 0.288), sucrose (-27%, p = 0.139), and isomaltulose (-48%, p = 0.018). The isomaltulose beverage induced the smallest Cmax (7.8 mmol/L vs. >9.2 mmol/L for others) and the longest duration with moderate glucose level, between baseline value and 7.8 mmol/L (150 vs. <115 min for others). These results confirm that substituting mid-high GI sugars (e.g., sucrose and glucose) with low GI sugars (e.g., isomaltulose) during breakfast are a viable strategy for sustained energy release and glycemic response during the morning even in younger children.


Asunto(s)
Desayuno/fisiología , Índice Glucémico/fisiología , Leche/química , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Edulcorantes/administración & dosificación , Animales , Área Bajo la Curva , Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Automonitorización de la Glucosa Sanguínea , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Cruzados , Sacarosa en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Glucosa/administración & dosificación , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Isomaltosa/administración & dosificación , Isomaltosa/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Periodo Posprandial
10.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960115

RESUMEN

The association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and executive function among children has been less investigated. We aimed to explore this topic. We randomly recruited 6387 children aged 6-12 years from five elementary schools in Guangzhou, China in 2019. Information on frequency and servings of children's SSB consumption was assessed using a questionnaire. Children's executive function was evaluated using parents' ratings of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which comprises eight subscales-including inhibit, shift, emotional control, initiate, working memory, plan/organize, organization of materials and monitor, as well as three composite indexes including behavioral regulation index (BRI), metacognition index (MI), and global executive index (GEC). SSB consumption was positively associated with all subscales and composite scores of BRIEF as well as higher risks of elevated executive difficulties, indicating poorer executive function. For example, children who drank SSB ≥2 times/week were related to higher scores of GEC (estimates, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.44, 1.79 to 3.09) compared with those who never drank SSB. The odds ratio of elevated GEC associated with SSB consumption ≥2 times/week was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.96) than non-consumers. The results of this study indicated that SSB consumption was associated with poorer executive function in children.


Asunto(s)
Función Ejecutiva , Conducta Alimentaria , Bebidas Azucaradas/efectos adversos , Edulcorantes/administración & dosificación , Edulcorantes/efectos adversos , Bebidas/efectos adversos , Niño , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1260-E1268, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933884

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with diabetes mellitus commonly experience hypoglycemia, but they may not necessarily present to hospital after severe hypoglycemia requiring paramedic assistance. We sought to describe the incidence and characteristics of calls for hypoglycemia requiring paramedic assistance among adults in southwestern Ontario, Canada, and to determine predictors of hospital transport. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study used data extracted from ambulance call reports (ACRs) of 8 paramedic services of the Southwest Ontario Regional Base Hospital Program from January 2008 to June 2014. We described calls in which treatment for hypoglycemia was administered, summarized the incidence of hypoglycemia calls and performed logistic regression to determine predictors of hospital transport. RESULTS: Out of 470 467 ACRs during the study period, 9185 paramedic calls occurred in which hypoglycemia treatment was administered to an adult (mean age 60.2 yr, 56.8% male, 81.1% with documented diabetes). Refusal of hospital transport occurred in 2243 (24.4%) of calls. Documented diabetes diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.96), higher capillary blood glucose (adjusted OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.22-0.44) and overnight calls (adjusted OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.91) were associated with lower odds of hospital transport. Higher-acuity calls (adjusted OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.58-2.66) were associated with higher odds of transport. The estimated annual incidence rate of hypoglycemia requiring paramedic assistance was 108 per 10 000 people with diabetes per year. INTERPRETATION: Hypoglycemia requiring paramedic assistance in southwestern Ontario is common, and close to 25% of calls do not result in hospital transport. Physicians managing diabetes care may be unaware of patients' hypoglycemia requiring paramedic care, suggesting a potential gap in follow-up care; we suggest that paramedics play an important role in identifying those at high recurrence risk and communicating with their care providers.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Auxiliares de Urgencia , Glucagón/administración & dosificación , Glucosa/administración & dosificación , Hipoglucemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoglucemia/epidemiología , Edulcorantes/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Anciano , Ambulancias , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ontario/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(9): 1159-1167, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619938

RESUMEN

Objective: Using Meta-analysis to evaluate the relation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) intakes and artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) intakes with risk of incident cardiovascular disease. Methods: "Sugar-sweetened beverages"(SSBs),"artificially sweetened beverages"(ASBs),"coronary heart disease"(CHD),"stroke","cardiovascular disease"(CVD), and related terms (both in English and in Chinese) were searched in Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane library, ProQuest, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang databases, and VIP Chinese Science and Technology Journal. Besides, it searched for additional references in websites including Clinical Tirals.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The time was up to May 31st 2020. Stata 13 software was used to calculate pooled RR, perform heterogeneity test, and assess publication bias. Results: A total of 14 articles were included from the 40 804 articles retrieved, including 12 articles from European and American countries and 2 articles from Asian countries. The baseline mean age of the participants ranged from 52 to 69 years, and the mean follow-up time was from 6 to 26 years. Meta-analysis showed that compared with those in the lowest group, the RR (95%CI) for those in the highest group of SSBs consumption was 1.11 (1.04-1.08) for CHD, 1.10 (1.01-1.19) for stroke, and 1.09 (0.96-1.24) for CVD events. The corresponding RR (95%CI) comparing extreme groups of ASBs consumption was 1.10 (0.98-1.23) for CHD, 1.19 (1.09-1.29) for stroke, and 1.32 (1.15-1.52) for CVD events. Further analysis for subtypes of stroke showed that compared with the lowest group, the RR (95%CI) for those in the highest groups of SSBs consumption was 1.10 (0.99-1.22) for ischemic stroke and 0.86 (0.71-1.04) for hemorrhagic stroke. The corresponding RR (95%CI) comparing extreme consumption of ASBs was 1.23 (1.04-1.46) for ischemic stroke and 1.33 (1.03-1.72) for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusion: Higher consumption of SSBs or ASBs may lead to increased risk of incident CHD and stroke (particularly ischemic stroke).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Bebidas Azucaradas , Anciano , Bebidas Endulzadas Artificialmente , Bebidas , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Sacarosa en la Dieta , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Edulcorantes/efectos adversos , Estados Unidos
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(41): 12250-12261, 2021 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613740

RESUMEN

The sweet taste is elicited by activation of the TAS1R2/1R3 heterodimer G protein-coupled receptor. This is a therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and metabolic dysfunctions. Sweetener blends provide attractive strategies to lower the sugar level while preserving the attractive taste of food. To understand the synergic effect of various sweetener blend combinations of artificial and natural sweeteners, we carried out our molecular dynamics studies using predicted structures of the TAS1R2/1R3 heterodimer and predicted structures for the sweeteners. We used as a measure of activation the intracellular ionic lock distance between transmembrane helices 3 and 6 of TAS1R3. We find that full synergic combinations [rebaudioside A (Reb-A)/acesulfame K and Reb-A/sucralose] and partial synergic combinations (sucralose/acesulfame K) show significantly more negative changes in the free energy compared to single-ligand cases, while a pair known to be suppressive (saccharin and acesulfame K) shows significantly less changes than for the single-ligand case. This study provides an atomistic understanding of the mechanism for synergy and identifies new combinations of sweeteners to reduce the caloric content for treating diseases.


Asunto(s)
Edulcorantes , Gusto , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Sacarina , Azúcares
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1866, 2021 10 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654404

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: New Nutri-Grade labelling, aimed at reducing Singaporeans' sugar consumption will be implemented for all pre-packaged non-alcoholic beverages (NABs) sold in retail outlets from end 2021 onwards. It is expected such labelling will have a major impact on sugar content of beverages, as well as the replacement of sugar with non-caloric alternatives. METHODS: This study used product label data obtained from in-store surveys to investigate sugar and sweetener composition of NABs present on the Singapore market. Using this data we calculated products prospective Nutri-Grade classification in order to compare the current market composition with relation to sugar and/or sweetener use. RESULTS: Over half of the NABs on market were sweetened with sugar (59%) and were associated with less healthy Nutri-Grades of 'C' and 'D'. The use of natural sweeteners; Stevia and Monk fruit, remains low (6%). CONCLUSION: With continuous efforts by the government in promoting public health nutrition, it is expected that there will be a greater usage of sugar substitutes among NABs in response to the upcoming implementation of Nutri-Grade and ever-fluctuating consumers' demands. The data collected in this study provide a point estimate (July-September 2020) on market composition and use of both sugar and artificial sweeteners in beverages prior to integration of the mandatory labelling requirements.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas , Edulcorantes , Bebidas/análisis , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Singapur , Azúcares , Edulcorantes/análisis
15.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(6): 6012-6026, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668314

RESUMEN

D-allulose is the C-3 epimer of D-fructose, which rarely exists in nature, and can be biosynthesized from D-fructose by the catalysis of D-psicose 3-epimerase. D-allulose is safe for human consumption and was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for food applications. It is not only able be used in food and dietary supplements as a low-calorie sweetener, but also modulates a variety of physiological functions. D-allulose has gained increasing attention owing to its excellent properties. This article presents a review of recent progress on the properties, applications, and bioproduction progress of D-allulose.


Asunto(s)
Fructosa , Racemasas y Epimerasas , Catálisis , Humanos , Edulcorantes , Estados Unidos
16.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684345

RESUMEN

Type 2 diabetes mellitus has a high prevalence worldwide, with a rapidly increasing incidence even in youth. Nutrition, dietary macronutrient composition, and in particular dietary carbohydrates play a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the current evidence on the role of dietary carbohydrates in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The digestibility or availability of carbohydrates and their glycemic index (and glycemic load) markedly influence the glycemic response. High consumption of dietary fiber is beneficial for management of type 2 diabetes, whereas high consumption of both glycemic starch and sugars may have a harmful effect on glucose metabolism, thereby increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the presence of genetic predisposition or making its glycemic control more difficult to achieve in people with established T2D. Therefore, the same dietary macronutrient may have harmful or beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mainly depending on the subtypes consumed. Some other factors are involved in glucose metabolism, such as meal composition, gut microbiota and genetics. For this reason, the glycemic response after carbohydrate consumption is not easy to predict in the single individual. Nutrition suggested to subjects with known type 2 diabetes should be always person-centered, considering the individual features of each subject.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/farmacología , Adolescente , Glucemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Índice Glucémico , Humanos , Nutrientes/análisis , Edulcorantes , Adulto Joven
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639094

RESUMEN

Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle by inducing plasma membrane translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Although the small GTPase Rac1 is a key regulator downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the protein kinase Akt2 in skeletal muscle, it remains unclear whether Rac1 also regulates glucose uptake in white adipocytes. Herein, we investigated the physiological role of Rac1 in white adipocytes by employing adipocyte-specific rac1 knockout (adipo-rac1-KO) mice. Subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissues (WATs) in adipo-rac1-KO mice showed significant reductions in size and weight. Actually, white adipocytes lacking Rac1 were smaller than controls. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were abrogated in rac1-KO white adipocytes. On the other hand, GLUT4 translocation was augmented by constitutively activated PI3K or Akt2 in control, but not in rac1-KO, white adipocytes. Similarly, to skeletal muscle, the involvement of another small GTPase RalA downstream of Rac1 was demonstrated. In addition, mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes were down-regulated in rac1-KO white adipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that Rac1 is implicated in insulin-dependent glucose uptake and lipogenesis in white adipocytes, and reduced insulin responsiveness due to the deficiency of Rac1 may be a likely explanation for atrophy of WATs.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo Blanco/patología , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 4/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacología , Neuropéptidos/fisiología , Proteína de Unión al GTP rac1/fisiología , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/metabolismo , Animales , Atrofia , Femenino , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 4/genética , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Edulcorantes/farmacología
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(23): 8593-8614, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708277

RESUMEN

Plant cell and tissue culture makes provision of a sustainable and nature-friendly strategy for the production of secondary metabolites, and modern progress in gene editing and genome engineering provides novel possibilities to improve both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of such phytochemicals. The ever-expanding quest for plant-based medicine to treat diabetes facilitates large-scale cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana to enhance the yield of its much-coveted low-calorie sweetener glycosides. The potential to process stevia as a "natural" product should enhance the acceptance of steviosides as a natural calorie-free sweetener especially suitable for use in diabetic and weight control drinks and foods. Besides sweetener agents, S. rebaudiana is a potent source of many antioxidant compounds and is used to cure immunodeficiencies, neurologic disorders, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. This comprehensive review presents the research outcomes of the many biotechnological interventions implicated to upscale the yield of steviol glycosides and its derivatives in in vitro cell, callus, tissue, and organ cultures with notes on the use of bioreactor and genetic engineering in relation to the production of these valuable compounds in S. rebaudiana. KEY POINTS: • Critical and updated assessment on sustainable production of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana. • In vitro propagation of S. rebaudiana and elicitation of steviol glycosides production. • Genetic fidelity and diversity assessment of S. rebaudiana using molecular markers.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diterpenos de Tipo Kaurano , Stevia , Antioxidantes , Glicósidos , Hojas de la Planta , Stevia/genética , Edulcorantes
19.
Physiol Behav ; 241: 113590, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509472

RESUMEN

Inbred mouse strains differ in their postoral appetite stimulating response (appetition) to fructose as demonstrated in intragastric (IG) sugar conditioning and oral sugar vs. nonnutritive conditioning experiments. For example, FVB and SWR strains show experience-induced preferences for 8% fructose over a 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S + S) solution, whereas C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c strains do not. All strains, however, learn to prefer 8% glucose to S + S after experience, which is attributed to the potent appetition actions of this sugar. The present study extended this analysis to DBA/2 (DBA) and 129P3 (129) inbred mice. In Experiment 1A, ad libitum fed DBA and 129 mice preferred S + S to fructose before and after separate experience with the two sweeteners, indicating an indifference to the postoral nutrient effects of the sugar. When food restricted (Experiment 1B), 129 mice continued to prefer S + S to fructose while DBA mice showed equal preference for the sweeteners after experience, indicating some sensitivity to fructose appetition. In Experiment 1C, both strains acquired significant preferences for glucose over S + S after experience, confirming their sensitivity to postoral glucose appetition. Experiment 2 revealed that C57BL/6 × 129P3 (B6:129) hybrid mice responded like inbred B6 mice and 129 mice in acquiring a preference for glucose but not fructose over S + S. This is of interest because sweet "taste-blind" P2 × 2 / P2 × 3 double-knockout (DKO) mice on a B6:129 genetic background prefer fructose to water in 24 h tests, which is indicative of fructose appetition. Whether differences in the genetic makeup of DKO and B6:129 hybrid mice or other factors explain the fructose appetition of the DKO mice remains to be determined.


Asunto(s)
Edulcorantes no Nutritivos , Edulcorantes , Animales , Preferencias Alimentarias , Fructosa/farmacología , Glucosa , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Azúcares , Gusto
20.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(5): R751-R767, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523351

RESUMEN

The gene Tas1r3 codes for the protein T1R3, which dimerizes with T1R2 to form a sweetener-binding receptor in taste cells. Tas1r3 influences sweetener preferences in mice, as shown by work with a 129.B6-Tas1r3 segregating congenic strain on a 129P3/J (129) genetic background; members of this strain vary in whether they do or do not have one copy of a donor fragment with the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) allele for Tas1r3 (B6/129 and 129/129 mice, respectively). Taste-evoked neural responses were measured in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), the first central gustatory relay, in B6/129 and 129/129 littermates, to examine how the activity dependent on the T1R2/T1R3 receptor is distributed across neurons and over time. Responses to sucrose were larger in B6/129 than in 129/129 mice, but only during a later, tonic response portion (>600 ms) sent to different cells than the earlier, phasic response. Similar results were found for artificial sweeteners, whose responses were best considered as complex spatiotemporal patterns. There were also group differences in burst firing of NST cells, with a significant positive correlation between bursting prevalence and sucrose response size in only the 129/129 group. The results indicate that sweetener transduction initially occurs through T1R3-independent mechanisms, after which the T1R2/T1R3 receptor initiates a separate, spatially distinct response, with the later period dominating sweet taste perceptions and driving sugar preferences. Furthermore, the current data suggest that burst firing is distributed across NST neurons nonrandomly and in a manner that may amplify weak incoming gustatory signals.


Asunto(s)
Potenciales de Acción/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/agonistas , Núcleo Solitario/efectos de los fármacos , Sacarosa/farmacología , Edulcorantes/farmacología , Percepción del Gusto , Gusto , Animales , Preferencias Alimentarias , Masculino , Ratones de la Cepa 129 , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Tiempo de Reacción , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Núcleo Solitario/fisiología , Especificidad de la Especie , Factores de Tiempo
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...