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1.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110227, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148297

RESUMEN

This paper used the panel data of various regions in China from 2007 to 2018 and constructs a green economic efficiency measurement index system. Following this, the super-efficient DEA model has been employed to measure the efficiency of China's green economy. Then, the Tobit model is used to verify the environmental regulation influence on efficiency of China's regional green economy extent and direction. The results show that: (1) in 2007-2018, the green economy efficiency level of China's eastern, central and western regions is on the rise, accompanied by more obvious spatial differences. The green economy efficiency basically shows the spatial differentiation characteristics of the highest in the eastern region and the lowest in the western region. (2) From the national perspective, environmental regulation influence on efficiency of green economy presents a "U" shaped curve that promotes and then suppresses. At the eastern and national levels, environmental regulation has the same characteristics for green economy efficiency, and both exhibit U-shaped curve characteristics. Whereas, in the central and western regions shows negative correlation. (3) From the perspective of control variables, there are significant differences in variables at the national and regional levels. Finally, the study concludes with some policy suggestion for future green development and the formulation of environmental regulations in China.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia , Industrias , China
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200015, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159626

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study associated factors with loss productivity in people involved road traffic accidents (RTA). METHODS: The population based cohort study was conducted in Jequié, Brazil between 2013 to 2015. The instrument for interview was used in people involved in RTA and interview in four months. Individuals, occupational, health conditions, injury and support variables were used for bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence was loss productivity was 61.1% and density incidence of 7.45 cases/100 person-month. Multivariate analysis showed association for injury (IDR = 4.23; 95%CI = 2.90 - 6.17) and vehicle used with work instrument (IDR = 2.80; 95%CI = 1.62 - 4.85). CONCLUSION: Public policies are needed to ensure traffic safety in order to minimize the effects of RTA about productivity and to carry news studies to expand knowledge about loss productivity.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducción de Automóvil/estadística & datos numéricos , Costo de Enfermedad , Eficiencia , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/economía , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Ausencia por Enfermedad/economía , Índices de Gravedad del Trauma , Heridas y Traumatismos/etiología
3.
Waste Manag ; 105: 384-394, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120265

RESUMEN

The efficient provision of municipal solid waste (MSW) services is essential from an economic and environmental perspective. This paper investigates the effect of ownership type on the eco-efficiency of MSW management in Tuscan municipalities. In the first stage of the analysis, the authors use a data envelopment analysis metafrontier approach with the integration of unsorted waste as an undesirable output. Three different clusters of municipalities are created based on the ownership type of the municipal waste operators: public, private, and mixed. In the second stage of analysis, the paper investigates factors affecting eco-efficiency in order to provide new knowledge that can be used by policy and decision makers to improve eco-efficiency. The results show that eco-efficiency is higher for municipalities that entrust the delivery of waste services to publicly owned firms compared to municipalities with delivery by mixed and private firms. Moreover, eco-efficiency in MSW management is higher for municipalities with younger residents, a larger population, and an overall higher population density. Smaller municipalities and those with less tourism manage their waste services more eco-efficiently than do bigger municipalities and those with more tourism. The results indicate that policy-makers should improve communication and engagement activities with older residents in smaller, less densely populated areas. In municipalities featuring heavy tourism, eco-taxes could be used to support these activities, avoiding any impact on residents.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Ciudades , Eficiencia , Residuos Sólidos
4.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(1): 7401390010p1-7401390010p5, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078523

RESUMEN

Evidence Connection articles provide clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA's) Evidence-Based Practice Project. In this Evidence Connection article, we describe a case report of an older adult who was referred to outpatient occupational therapy services due to chronic back pain from herniated discs. Findings from the systematic review of occupational therapy for community-dwelling older adults were published in the July/August 2018 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (Berger et al., 2018; Elliott & Leland, 2018; Hunter & Kearney, 2018; Liu et al., 2018; Smallfield & Lucas Molitor, 2018a, 2018b) and in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Productive Aging for Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Each article in the Evidence Connection series summarizes the evidence from the published reviews on a given topic and presents an application of the evidence to a related clinical case. These articles illustrate how the research evidence from the reviews can be used to inform and guide clinical decision making.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Ocupacional , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Eficiencia , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110123, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090824

RESUMEN

Based on a unique micro-level dataset of 30,689 mining enterprises from 2008 to 2011, this paper uses the non-radial directional distance function (NDDF) to calculate the unified efficiency index (UEI) and energy-environmental performance index (EEI) for China's mining enterprises. The double bootstrap method is then used to test how tax incentive policies affect the UEI and EEI of China's mining enterprises. The results show that: (1) the UEI and EEI of Chinese mining enterprises first decreased and then increased over the sample period; overall, Chinese mining enterprises had low energy and environmental efficiency, especially the coal mining enterprises, private mining enterprises and mining enterprises in the central and western regions. (2) Tax incentives positively affect the energy and environmental efficiency of mining enterprises, especially the efficiency of coal mining enterprises, non-state-owned mining enterprises and mining enterprises in the central and western regions. Our results remain robust after using the propensity score matching estimator (PSM). (3) There is a positive feedback between tax incentives and energy and environmental efficiency, more efficient mining enterprises receive more government incentives. Further analysis shows that although tax incentives do not reduce the total energy consumption of enterprises, reducing the energy consumption of enterprises can improve their UEI and EEI. In addition, R&D investment, profitability and resource taxes all contribute to improving the UEI and EEI of mining enterprises.


Asunto(s)
Minas de Carbón , Industrias , China , Eficiencia , Impuestos
6.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110138, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090835

RESUMEN

Incorporating undesirable outputs in the operational assessments through the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has received great attention recently. There are many studies throughout literature that apply various methods to integrate LCA and DEA. In this case study, the six most common approaches were employed to assess the winter wheat cropping system in Poland. These six methods were: a) ignoring undesirable outputs, b) treating undesirables as inputs to the DEA model, c) data transformation, d) impact rate, e) ratio model, and f) slack based measurement DEA with undesirable outputs. The environmental impact of wheat production was assessed by determining its carbon footprint (CF). The mean CF equalled 0.45 kg CO2eq per kg wheat grain (ranging from 0.25 to 0.67). According to the model comparison results, a slack based measurement DEA with undesirable outputs could better reflect the performance of undesirable outputs, and was selected as the most appropriate method to maximize the efficiency of winter wheat production while minimizing undesirable outputs. The advantage of applying the slack based model with undesirable outputs was that the targets presented by this model were based on existing efficient farms, as opposed to theoretical results; thus achieving these targets are feasible. The average efficiency score equalled 0.43, whereby few farms were classified as efficient farms. The results of the proposed integrated model showed a high reduction potential for mineral fertilizers (up to 595 kg ha-1 y-1), seed (up to 37 kg ha-1 y-1), and fuel (up to 75 L ha-1 y-1) in winter wheat farms. These results help farmers to obtain a realistic and reliable usage pattern for inputs in a winter wheat production system, whereby the greatest production can be achieved in conjunction with the lowest possible environmental impact.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia , Triticum , Huella de Carbono , Polonia , Estaciones del Año
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 239-248, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957401

RESUMEN

With Tongxin, Xiji, and Longde counties in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia as the research area, we used extended-exergy analysis (EEA) to compare their ecological efficiency driving mechanism in 2008-2017 to explore the causes of their variation in ecological degradation. The results showed that the overall difference of ecological efficiency in the three counties was significant during the study period. The ecological efficiency of Tongxin was low, with large inter-annual variation. The ecological efficiency of Xiji was stable, and the overall efficiency of Longde was the highest. The difference of exergy scale was small among the three counties. The exergy proportion in the economic sectors was not coordinated, which were dominated by agricultural and residential sectors. The economic sectors presented significant capital-pull-type and labor-intensive characteristics, indicating the driving force for ecological degradation mainly came from agricultural production and residents' lives in underdeveloped regions. The system's internal exergy conversion rate and the external energy exchange rate of the three counties were extremely low, constituting a simple network circulation path with high input, low storage, low opening and low conversion, which weakened the endogenous development of social economic subsystem and threatened the fragile ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Ecología , Ecosistema , Agricultura , China , Eficiencia
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8371-8385, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902075

RESUMEN

The promotion of industrial restructuring and technological innovation is the most important and realistic way of improving energy efficiency. This thesis uses the modified Super-SBM method to measure China's total-factor energy efficiency and then uses the dynamic spatial panel model (DSPM) to verify the effect of industrial structure and technological innovation on total-factor energy efficiency. The study found that from 2003 to 2016, China's total-factor energy efficiency showed a fluctuating trend of "falling first and then rising." The inflection point appeared in 2012; total-factor energy efficiency in the Eastern region was significantly higher than the national average, while in the Central and Western regions, it was significantly lower. The results of the analysis show that both the service adjustment of the inter-industry structure and the productivity growth of the intra-industry structure significantly promote improvements in total-factor energy efficiency. However, due to the low conversion rate of scientific and technological achievements in China, the impact of technological innovation input on total-factor energy efficiency is not significant. This is in contradistinction to technological innovation output which does significantly improve total-factor energy efficiency. The above research conclusion is still robust and reliable after changing the measurement method and spatial weight matrix.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , Invenciones , China , Eficiencia , Industrias/métodos , Invenciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Tecnología
9.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109843, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739204

RESUMEN

This paper proposes a new methodology for measuring energy efficiency inequality based on the Shephard energy distance function and the "double" stochastic meta-frontier. To incorporate the regional inequality, we use three different grouping criteria, geography, city features, and strategic development goals. We also explore whether the different city grouping criteria can influence the energy efficiency. A panel data of 284 cities in China from 2003 to 2013 is used for empirical analysis. The results indicate that the regional heterogeneity has significant impact on the energy efficiency. We find that different grouping criteria affect energy efficiency, especially, the urban feature criteria. These results highlight the importance of choosing a proper grouping criteria in meta-frontier energy efficiency analysis.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia , China , Ciudades , Geografía , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109795, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756578

RESUMEN

Abundant studies have been made around the impact of environmental management on economic performance in business, but there is still no consistent conclusion. This study focuses on labor productivity as a measure of economic performance. We argue that environmental management has a negative impact on the labor productivity of company in the special context of Chinese increasingly stringent environmental regulations, but this impact is moderated by quality management. Environmental management score and the years that companies have passed ISO 9001 are set as proxies for independent and moderating variable respectively. A sample including 229 Chinese listed companies is used to test the hypotheses by multiple regression analysis. Results show that environmental management has a negative impact on labor productivity, and quality management moderates the relationship.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Eficiencia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Análisis de Regresión
11.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109916, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785461

RESUMEN

The existing literature on environmental efficiency focuses on economic and social factors, and rarely on the role of local leadership. Thus, this study aims to measure the environmental efficiency and analyze the impact of mayors' characteristics on environmental efficiency. By using the metafrontier-stochastic frontier analysis two-step estimate method, the average value of the overall environmental efficiency in China is only 0.523, which is high in the eastern region and low in the central and western regions. Empirical results show that mayors' tenure plays an inverted U-shaped effect on environmental efficiency. Mayors who are highly educated, young, and aware of environmental protection can improve environmental efficiency. Moreover, mayors' experience in official exchange can improve environmental efficiency; mayors with work experience in the central government are effective in terms of environmental governance. The policy implication is that improving the educational level of leaders, appointing young cadres, and strengthening official exchanges can effectively improve environmental efficiency.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , China , Ciudades , Eficiencia
13.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(1): 27-35, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563507

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Conventional treatment of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures is nonoperative. Recent studies have implied that operative treatment might result in a faster return to work, resulting in a decreased productivity loss for society. The cost utility of plate fixation vs. nonoperative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures has not previously been investigated using a societal perspective. METHODS: Decision analytical modeling of incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) was performed. Data on utility, hospitalization, and productivity costs were retrieved from a Danish randomized controlled trial. Supplementary data were taken from randomized controlled trials identified in the literature. A 1-year time horizon was applied, and all prices were reported with respect to a 2016 level. RESULTS: Operative treatment was associated with a larger QALY gain in patients and a higher cost compared with nonoperative treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated in Danish currency (Danish krone [kr]) at kr1,360,000 (€182,306) per QALY from a health-sector perspective and kr1,388,738 (€186,158) per QALY from a societal perspective. Considering a subgroup analysis of patients with a high-load shoulder profession, operative treatment was dominated by nonoperative treatment from a health-sector perspective. Considering a societal perspective, the ICER was estimated at -kr889,091 (-€119,181) per reduction of 1 QALY. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed that the results were subject to uncertainty. CONCLUSION: Operative treatment is not cost-effective when considering a threshold of €34,000/QALY. However, for a subgroup of patients with a high-load shoulder profession, operative treatment might be cost-effective compared with nonoperative treatment.


Asunto(s)
Clavícula/lesiones , Tratamiento Conservador/economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Fracturas Óseas/economía , Fracturas Óseas/terapia , Procedimientos Ortopédicos/economía , Placas Óseas , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Dinamarca , Diáfisis/lesiones , Eficiencia , Fijación Interna de Fracturas , Fracturas Óseas/cirugía , Hospitalización/economía , Humanos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1676, 2019 Dec 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830955

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyles play an important role in the prevention of premature death, chronic diseases, productivity loss and other social and economic concerns. However, workplace interventions to address issues of fitness and nutrition which include work-related outcomes are complex and thus challenging to implement and appropriately measure the effectiveness of. This systematic review investigated the impact of workplace nutrition and physical activity interventions, which include components aimed at workplace's physical environment and organizational structure, on employees' productivity, work performance and workability. METHODS: A systematic review that included randomized controlled trials and or non-randomized controlled studies was conducted. Medline, EMBASE.com, Cochrane Library and Scopus were searched until September 2016. Productivity, absenteeism, presenteeism, work performance and workability were the primary outcomes of our interest, while sedentary behavior and changes in other health-related behaviors were considered as secondary outcomes. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full-texts for study eligibility, extracted the data and performed a quality assessment using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk-of-Bias Tool for randomized trials and the Risk-of-Bias in non-randomized studies of interventions. Findings were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: Thirty-nine randomized control trials and non-randomized controlled studies were included. Nearly 28% of the included studies were of high quality, while 56% were of medium quality. The studies covered a broad range of multi-level and environmental-level interventions. Fourteen workplace nutrition and physical activity intervention studies yielded statistically significant changes on absenteeism (n = 7), work performance (n = 2), workability (n = 3), productivity (n = 1) and on both workability and productivity (n = 1). Two studies showed effects on absenteeism only between subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The scientific evidence shows that it is possible to influence work-related outcomes, especially absenteeism, positively through health promotion efforts that include components aimed at the workplace's physical work environment and organizational structure. In order to draw further conclusions regarding work-related outcomes in controlled high-quality studies, long-term follow-up using objective outcomes and/or quality assured questionnaires are required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration number: PROSPERO CRD42017081837.


Asunto(s)
Absentismo , Eficiencia , Servicios de Salud del Trabajador , Rendimiento Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio/psicología , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados no Aleatorios como Asunto , Estado Nutricional , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1692, 2019 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847821

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sit-stand desk interventions have the potential to reduce workplace sedentary behaviour and improve employee health. However, the extent of sit-stand desk use varies between employees and in different organisational contexts. Framed by organisational cultural theory and product design theory, this study examined employees' lived experience of taking part in a workplace sit-stand desk intervention, to understand the processes influencing feasibility and acceptability. METHODS: Participant observations and qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 employees from two office-based workplaces in the UK, as part of a process evaluation that ran alongside a pilot RCT of a workplace sit-stand desk intervention. Observational field notes and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes related to the experience of using a sit-stand desk at work were generated: employees' relationship with their sit-stand desk; aspirations and outcomes related to employee health and productivity; and cultural norms and interpersonal relationships. The perceived usability of the desk varied depending on how employees interacted with the desk within their personal and organisational context. Employees reported that the perceived influence of the desk on their productivity levels shaped use of the desk; those who perceived that standing increased energy and alertness tended to stand more often. Sit-stand desks were voiced as being more acceptable than intervention strategies that involve leaving the desk, as productivity was conflated with being at the desk. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate a range of organisational, social-cultural and individual-level factors that shape the feasibility and acceptability of sit-stand desk use, and suggest strategies for improving employees' experiences of using a sit-stand desk at work, which might positively influence sedentary behaviour reduction and health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02172599, 22nd June 2014 (prospectively registered).


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Diseño Interior y Mobiliario/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral , Posición de Pie , Adolescente , Adulto , Eficiencia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Observación , Proyectos Piloto , Investigación Cualitativa , Conducta Sedentaria , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1855-1861, nov./dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049146

RESUMEN

Upland cotton fiber is one of the most used natural fibers in the production of textile materials worldwide. For this reason, the selection of genotypes that meet the industry's requirements is one of the main goals of cotton breeding programs. This study aimed to estimate the phenotypic and genotypic correlations among fiber traits and identify the direct and indirect effects of these traits on seed cotton yield of upland cotton genotypes in the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast. This study assessed 21 upland cotton genotypes from a complete diallel cross without reciprocals. The design was randomized blocks, with three replications and 21 treatments. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Patos - PB, in 2015. The statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance by the F test, phenotypic and genotypic correlation analysis, and path analysis. The studied materials revealed genetic variability for all traits. Path analysis has shown that the traits fiber elongation, fiber strength, and fiber fineness have a direct positive effect on seed cotton yield.


A fibra do algodoeiro herbáceo é uma das fibras naturais mais utilizadas na produção de materiais têxteis no mundo. Portanto, a seleção de genótipos que atendam às exigências desta indústria é um dos principais objetivos dos programas de melhoramento do algodoeiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas entre as características tecnológicas da fibra e identificar os efeitos diretos e indiretos destas características sobre a produtividade de algodão em caroço de genótipos de algodoeiro herbáceo no semiárido nordestino. Foram avaliados 21 genótipos de algodoeiro herbáceo provenientes de um cruzamento dialélico completo sem os recíprocos. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Patos - PB, em 2015. As análises estatísticas consistiram de análise de variância pelo teste F, análise de correlação fenotípica e genotípica e análise de trilha. Todas as características apresentaram variabilidade genética entre os genótipos estudados. A correlação fenotípica foi positiva entre CSP, COMP, UNF e RES. Foram observados efeitos indiretos de ALON, COMP e FIN sobre PROD, por meio das variáveis FIN, RD e +b.


Asunto(s)
Gossypium , Zona Semiárida , Fibra de Algodón , Eficiencia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1727, 2019 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870442

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. However, identifying patients has proved challenging, resulting in widespread under-diagnosis of the condition. We examined the prevalence of COPD diagnosis and COPD risk among adults in urban mainland China, the factors associated with having a COPD diagnosis or COPD risk, and the healthcare resource use and health outcomes of these groups compared with controls. METHODS: Respondents to the 2017 National Health and Wellness Survey in China (n = 19,994) were classified into three groups: 'COPD Diagnosed', 'COPD Risk (undiagnosed)', and Control (unaffected), based on their self-reported diagnosis and Lung Function Questionnaire (LFQ) score. The groups were characterised by sociodemographic, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), productivity impairment, and healthcare resource use. Pairwise comparisons (t tests and chi-squared tests) and multivariable regression analyses were used to investigate factors associated with being at risk of, or diagnosed with, COPD. RESULTS: 3320 (16.6%) respondents had a suspected risk of COPD but did not report receiving a diagnosis. This was projected to 105.3 million people, or 16.9% of adult urban Chinese. Of these respondents with an identified risk, only 554 (16.7%) were aware of COPD by name. Relative to those without COPD, those with a risk of COPD (undiagnosed) had significantly greater healthcare resource use, lower productivity and lower HRQoL not only compared to those without COPD, but also compared to people with a COPD diagnosis. Factors associated with increased odds of being at risk of COPD were older age, smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight BMI, occasional exercise, higher comorbidities, asthma diagnosis, being female, lower education, not being employed, and living in a high pollution province (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial group of individuals, undiagnosed, but living with a risk of COPD, who have impaired HRQoL, lower productivity and elevated healthcare resource use patterns. Case-detection tools such as the LFQ may prove a quick and cost-effective approach for identifying these at-risk individuals for further definitive testing and appropriate treatment in China.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Eficiencia , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
18.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25026, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048001

RESUMEN

Esta pesquisa realizou uma avaliação de desempenho em um polo do Programa Academia da Saúde em Belo Horizonte/MG. É uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva, do tipo estudo de caso. A escolha do polo e dos participantes foi intencional. Adotamos a entrevista em profundidade para a coleta dos dados, sendo que a amostra foi estipulada pela técnica de saturação. Para a interpretação das informações usamos a análise crítica do discurso. Os resultados indicam algumas lacunas existentes no programa, como aspectos logísticos adequados; inadequação da articulação entre polo e Unidade Básica de Saúde; ausência de metas definidas. Como aspectos positivos identificamos a satisfação dos profissionais em atuar no programa e dos alunos em participar das aulas. Concluímos que o modelo de avaliação adotado contribuiu para diagnosticar importantes condições operacionais executadas que podem auxiliar a tomada de decisões dos gestores quanto ao desenvolvimento do programa


This research conducted a performance evaluation on the Health Gym Program in Belo Horizonte, MG. It is a qualitative case study and the choice of Gym and participants was intentional. We used in-depth interview to collect data and the sample was set by saturation. To interpret the information, we used critical discourse analysis. The results point to some gaps in the program such as proper logistics, coordination between Gym and Basic Health Unit, and clear goals. As positive aspects we found professionals' satisfaction in working in the program and students' satisfaction in participating in the classes. We concluded that the evaluation model adopted contributed to finding important operational conditions that can help managers to make decisions regarding the development of the program


Esta investigación realizó una evaluación de desempeño en un polo del Programa Academia de la Salud en Belo Horizonte/MG. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, descriptiva, del tipo estudio de caso. La elección del polo y de los participantes fue intencional. Se adoptó la entrevista en profundidad para la recolección de los datos, siendo que la muestra fue estipulada por la técnica de saturación. Para la interpretación de las informaciones usamos el análisis crítico del discurso. Los resultados indican algunas lagunas existentes en el programa, como: aspectos logísticos adecuados, inadecuación de la articulación entre polo y Unidad Básica de Salud; ausencia de metas definidas. Como aspectos positivos, identificamos la satisfacción de los profesionales en actuar en el programa y de los alumnos en participar de las clases. Concluimos que el modelo de evaluación adoptado contribuyó para diagnosticar importantes condiciones operacionales ejecutadas que pueden auxiliar en la toma de decisiones de los gestores en cuanto al desarrollo del programa


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Programas de Gobierno , Efectividad , Eficacia , Eficiencia
19.
Pediatr Dent ; 41(6): 451-454, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882031

RESUMEN

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether disparities in promotion and academic productivity exist within academic pediatric dentistry. Methods: The top 15 schools funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research were included in this study. Gender differences in productivity and advancement were evaluated. Results: Women comprised 48.9 percent of all faculty surveyed (n=184). Less than a third of full professors were women. Female faculty graduated more recently (18.2 years; [95 percent confidence interval (95% CI) equals 15.4 to 20.9], versus 28.5 years for men [95% CI equals 24.8 to 32.1]; P<0.001) and had fewer senior author publications (1.6 [95% CI equals 1.9 to 5.1] versus 3.5 [95% CI equals 0.7 to 2.4]; P=0.03) than their male colleagues. In a linear regression correcting for number of publications and years since graduation, gender was not a significant predictor of academic advancement. Conclusions: Most women in academic pediatric dentistry remain in lower academic tiers with fewer senior author publications. This discrepancy is explained by the years since graduation between male and female faculty at lower levels of academic advancement. Increasing scholarship opportunities and compensation for female faculty members may help improve gender equity in dental academia.


Asunto(s)
Docentes de Odontología , Docentes Médicos , Niño , Eficiencia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35034-35048, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673967

RESUMEN

Based on the idea of a "Community of Human Destiny," the Chinese government proposed the "Belt and Road" initiative, and clearly proposed to promote green development and strengthen ecological environmental protection. However, a considerable number of countries are resource-rich economies with serious market misallocations. Using the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) combined with the directional distance function (DDF) framework, this paper measures the green total factor productivity (GTFP) and its items (i.e., technical change and efficiency change) of 33 countries along the Belt and Road in 1995-2012, and then the impact of market misallocations on GTFP is analyzed. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) The main driving force for GTFP promotion in Asian countries came from technical change, while in European countries, it came from efficiency change. (2) Market misallocations had significantly hindered the GTFP of these economies. Countries with greater market misallocations have smaller GTFP. (3) Results based on counterfactual measures showed that GTFP could be increased by up to 4.04% and the average can be increased by 1.24% after eliminating market misallocations.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , Transportes , Asia , Ecología , Eficiencia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
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