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1.
J Water Health ; 18(1): 30-37, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129184

RESUMEN

Wastewater plays a major role in water pollution causing transmission of several viral pathogens, including Aichi virus (AiV) and human bocavirus (HBoV), associated with gastrointestinal illness in humans. In this study, we investigated the presence of AiV and HBoV in aquatic, sludge, sediment matrices collected from Abu-Rawash wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), El-Rahawy drain, Rosetta branch of the River Nile in Egypt by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). AiV RNA was detected in 16.6% (2/12), 8.3% (1/12), 8.3% (1/12), 22% (16/72), 12.5% (3/24), 4% (1/24), and 0/24 (0%) of untreated raw sewage, treated sewage, sewage sludge, drainage water, drain sediment, river water, and river sediment, respectively. On the other hand, HBoV DNA was detected in 41.6% (5/12), 25% (3/12), 16.6% (2/12), 48.6% (35/72), 29% (7/24), 3/24 (12.5%), 4% (1/24) of untreated raw sewage, treated raw sewage, sewage sludge, drainage water, drain sediment, river water, and river sediment, respectively. This study provides data on the presence of these viruses in various types of water samples that are valuable to environmental risk assessment. In addition, the current study demonstrates the importance of environmental monitoring as an additional tool to investigate the epidemiology of AiV and HBoV circulating in a given community.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Bocavirus Humano , Kobuvirus , Ríos/virología , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales/virología , Egipto , Humanos , Aguas del Alcantarillado
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 228, 2020 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162005

RESUMEN

Rosetta and Damietta are the main branches of the Nile River in Egypt. They provide the required freshwater for different usage for about 20 million people. In the present study, chemical and biological indices were used to assess the water quality and provide a full image of the environmental status in the investigated area. Generally, the chemical parameters, except the dissolved oxygen, were at higher levels in Rosetta Branch when compared to Damietta Branch. Also, Damietta Branch frequently showed the presence of the macroinvertebrate families that are bioindicators of moderate and good water quality. Contrarily, the most resistant species to pollution were frequently recorded in the Rosetta Branch. According to Canadian WQI, the water of Rosetta Branch is classified from "marginal" to "poor" for the drinking and aquatic life uses and "fair" to "good" for irrigation usage. On the other side, the water quality of Damietta Branch is classified as "fair" with respect to drinking water and "good" to aquatic life and irrigation. Based on using macroinvertebrate families as bioindicators, the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) index and the Nile Biotic Pollution Index (NBPI) indicated that the water quality of the Damietta Branch was within "moderate" class, while Rosetta Branch is categorized from "very polluted" to "extremely polluted" classes. The results proved that both BMWP and NBPI have coincided with the CWQI for the drinking and aquatic life indices (p < 0.0001) indicating the validity of BMWP and NBPI to assess the water quality of the investigated area.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Calidad del Agua , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
N Engl J Med ; 382(12): 1166-1174, 2020 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187475
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19261, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080134

RESUMEN

Barrett's esophagus has 0.5% to 7% risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. The method of obtaining biopsies to diagnose Barrett's is challenging. Seattle protocol has been considered as the gold standard, however its difficulty limits its applicability in practice. Narrow band imaging guided biopsy has been proposed as an alternative.To investigate the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and applicability of Narrow band guided biopsy as a screening tool for Barret's esophagus in gastroesophageal reflux patients.Endoscopy was done in 2 different sessions 2 weeks apart for 100 patients in Alexandria, Egypt. Patients had at least one of the following: Chronic Gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or two or more risk factors for Barrett's esophagus. All patients with known Barrett's esophagus were excluded.Seventeen patients had Barrett's esophagus either by one of the two techniques or by both, 4 patients by both methods, 7 patients by narrow band imaging alone and 6 patients by Seattle protocol alone (P < .001, κ = 0.461). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value for Seattle protocol were 58.8%, 100%, 92.2%, 100% vs 76.5%, 100%, 95.4%, 100% respectively for narrow band imaging. A mean of 7.73 samples/patient was taken in Seattle protocol vs 3.42 samples in narrow band imaging (P < .001). A mean of 8.63 minutes was consumed in Seattle protocol vs 2.65 minutes in narrow band imaging (P < .001).Narrow band imaging guided biopsy might have higher accuracy, sensitivity and negative predictive value as well as fewer number of biopsies and shorter time of the procedure compared to Seattle protocol which might increases its applicability as screening protocol for Barrett's esophagus. However, further larger multicentric studies are needed.


Asunto(s)
Esófago de Barrett/diagnóstico , Esofagoscopía , Esófago/diagnóstico por imagen , Esófago/patología , Biopsia Guiada por Imagen , Imagen de Banda Estrecha , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Biopsia , Egipto , Femenino , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/complicaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Estudios Prospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 161, 2020 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020301

RESUMEN

This study was aimed to biologically treat domestic wastewater using identified bacterial consortium for chemical pollutants removal by treating/passing it through sand biofilters. The identification, toxicity test, and the optimum dose of the investigated bacterial consortium were carried out using Microtox analyzer and Batch biological treatment, respectively. Furthermore, application of sedimentation followed by gravel and sand biofilters for wastewater treatment was evaluated. The results showed that the bacterial consortium is composed of Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bacillus subtilis. The optimum dose for wastewater treatment within 6 h of contact time is 2.5 mg/L, this dose (2.5 mg/L) has no toxic effect. The removal percentage of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia, nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and oil and grease reached 93.4, 83.5, 37.5, 49.2, 93.4, 100, 55.7, 76.6, and 76% in the effluent of the treated wastewater, respectively after the third sand biofilter filtration. It can be concluded that using bacterial consortium for domestic wastewater treatment could be a good tool for chemical pollutants removal. Moreover, this study provides low cost and eco-friendly tool for domestic wastewater treatment using simple multistage biofilters based on an identified bacterial consortium. This system can be upscaled for the treatment of larger volumes of wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Purificación del Agua , Reactores Biológicos , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Nitrógeno , Oxígeno , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
7.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(4): 371-382, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043425

RESUMEN

Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most critical global challenges nowadays. It has a severe negative effect on the triple bottom line of sustainability. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) contributes about 50% of the total global annual generated SW. In the particular case of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region including Egypt, the SW problem has become a major challenge, and the need to find sustainable solutions is overwhelming. However, the region faces several challenges that hinder the development of an effective and efficient SWM system. This has resulted in the predominance of unsustainable SWM practices such as indiscriminate disposals. The aim of this paper is to investigate the escalating problem of SW in the MENA region, while focusing on CDW in Egypt as a part of the total generated SW, by reviewing the most recent research papers, and technical and governmental reports on the SW problem. The main challenges towards effective and efficient SWM systems and recommendations for improvement are gathered in this study based on the explored literature. Findings from this study are expected to be beneficial to local and central governments, academics, construction industry practitioners, and policymakers contending with the problems of SW in the MENA region and especially CDW in Egypt.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Administración de Residuos , Materiales de Construcción , Egipto , Medio Oriente , Residuos Sólidos
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 174, 2020 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052191

RESUMEN

Association of trace metal concentrations in water is problematic; however, its information is scarce and sometimes contradicted. This work presents variations in dissolved major constituents and trace element concentrations along the quaternary aquifers located in middle Upper Egypt (Minia and Assiut governorates). A total of 205 groundwater samples from these aquifers were collected. Auxiliary parameters (pH, alkalinity, and conductivity), major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+), dominant anions (HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-), and trace element (B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) concentrations were measured in all samples. Univariate (correlation coefficient and scatter matrix) analysis was employed combined with multivariate (principal coordinates analysis) analysis to identify the chemical characteristics of groundwater that are responsible for generating most of the variability within the dataset. Also, hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to classify the geochemical origin of the groundwater constituents. The results indicate that the groundwater pollution is mainly due to water-rock interactions, including aquifer matrix dissolution, redox reaction of trace metals, input from wastewater, and agricultural fertilizers.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Oligoelementos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e18730, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049781

RESUMEN

The off-label use of medications is a "right" for pediatricians, owing to lack of enough safety and effectiveness drug trials in pediatric age group. Pediatricians have to rely on their personal judicial use of medications in children.We studied off-label use of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) retrospectively during 2005 to 2015 among those who attended the Pediatic Hepatology Unit, Cairo University.We analyzed data of 779 neonates and infants with cholestasis. 15% dropped out. Males comprised 374 (56.5%). Cholestasis was due to surgical causes in 129 (19.5%), neonatal hepatitis in 445 (67.2%), and paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts in 88 (13.3%). Three hundred sixty (54.4%) received UDCA (15-30 mg/kg/d), and 302 (45.6%) did not. Both groups were matched as regards causes and severity of cholestasis. Those who received UDCA had worse outcome (P < .001), and more complications (P < .001). A total of 73.1% (221) achieved cure without UDCA compared to only 45.8% (165) of those on UDCA (P < .001).UDCA is not effective and not safe in Egyptian neonates and infants with cholestasis. UDCA use compromises chance of cure, and is associated with serious morbidity, progression of disease, and death. UDCA off-label use mortality was absolutely preventable. Off- label use of UDCA in neonates and children should be utterly prohibited. Information of use of off-label medications, effectiveness, and safety, should be recorded, analyzed, and made available within context of Off-label Use Registry Studies with informed consent of parents.


Asunto(s)
Colestasis/mortalidad , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/efectos adversos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Colestasis/epidemiología , Colestasis/etiología , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Uso Fuera de lo Indicado , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/mortalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110816, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056609

RESUMEN

Coastal wetlands of the northern coast of Egypt have been impacted with higher loads of runoff, especially the large urbanized lakes of the Nile deltaic coast. Five urban lakes spanning the northern coast of Egypt (from east to west: Bardawil, Manzala, Burullus, Edku, and Mariut) were sampled for quantifying concentrations of heavy metals in their sediment and plant tissues. Sediment and plant tissues in lake Bardawil were the least contaminated, and the other lakes were moderately to highly polluted with Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. Edku had the highest concentrations of Co, Cr, and Cu (19.83, 45.42 and 68.60 mg kg-1, respectively). The proportion of clay in sediment was significantly and positively correlated with Co and Ni in sediment (r = 0.7 and P ≤ 0.001), suggesting an important role of clay cation exchange capacity in the sorption of metals and removing them from the water column.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Arcilla , Egipto , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos/química , Humedales
11.
12.
Gene ; 736: 144419, 2020 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018016

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CD40 gene (rs1883832 C/T and rs4810485 G/T) and the risk of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in the Egyptian population. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted retrospectively on 101 cases with ITP and 97 healthy subjects. Two SNPs of CD40 gene (rs1883832 C/T and rs4810485 G/T) were genotyped via Taqman allele discrimination real-time PCR. The frequencies of different genetic models of both SNPs were calculated and compared between ITP cases and controls. Linkage analysis was performed between the studied SNPs. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were assessed using multinomial logistic regression analysis to determine the association of CD40 gene SNPs genotypes, alleles, and haplotypes with the risk of ITP. The odds ratio was further adjusted to the confounders for risk stratification. RESULTS: CD40 (rs1883832) TT genotype carriers have a significantly higher risk of ITP when compared to CC genotype carriers (adjusted OR: 3.792, 95%CI: 1.252-11.49, P = 0.018). T allele also represents 1.711-fold increased risk of ITP which is more evident in males (P = 0.016). No significant difference was observed in the frequency of CD40 (rs4810485 G/T) genetic models between cases and controls. Linkage disequilibrium was found between the two SNPs and revealed four main haplotypes (C-G; C-T; T-G; T-T) with a significantly higher frequency of T-G haplotype in ITP cases than in healthy controls which confers an increased risk of ITP development (OR: 2.349, 95%CI: 1.271-4.339, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: CD40 gene SNP rs1883832 is associated with an increased risk of ITP development in the Egyptian population, while the SNP rs4810485 has no association. Moreover, T-G haplotype is a risk genetic model for ITP.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos CD40/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Púrpura Trombocitopénica Idiopática/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Egipto , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Genotipo , Haplotipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento/genética , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109778, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063315

RESUMEN

Waterlogged soils and sediments contaminated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) constitute a complicated case of degraded areas; their management requires understanding of the dynamic redox-driven PTE mobilization. Such studies about PTE redox-induced dynamics in fishpond sediments are still scarce, but of great importance concerning environmental and human health risk. We studied the redox potential (EH)-induced impacts on the solubility of As, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, V, and Zn in the sediments of a fish farm in the Nile Delta, Egypt, using an automated apparatus of biogeochemical microcosm. We assessed the fate of elements as affected by the EH-induced changes in pH, Fe, Mn, SO42-, Cl-, and the dissolved aliphatic (DOC) and aromatic (DAC) organic carbon. Sediment redox ranged from -480 mV to +264 mV. Flooding the sediments caused a significant decrease in pH from 8.2 to 5.7. Dissolved concentrations of As, Co, Ni, Se, and Zn, as well as DOC, Fe, and Mn increased under the reducing acidic conditions. The release of As, Co, Ni, Se, and Zn could be attributed to the decrease of EH and the subsequent decrease of pH, as well as to the increase of DOC, and/or the dissolution of Fe-Mn oxides caused by redox reactions. Dissolved concentrations of Cu, Mo, and V increased under oxic conditions and were significantly positive correlated with EH, pH, DAC, and SO42-. This enhancement might be caused by the EH-dependent increase of pH under oxic conditions (particularly for Mo and V), which also led to DAC increase. Sulfide oxidation and the release of the associated elements may have also had a contribution, particularly in the release of Cu. Therefore, the release dynamics of dissolved Cu, Mo, and V in the sediments were controlled, to a certain extent, by the changes of EH/pH, DAC, and sulfur chemistry. We conclude that the biogeochemical differences in the behaviour of the studied elements under variable redox regimes substantially affected the fishponds via possible enhancement of PTE mobilization. Our work shows that the potential environmental risks related to PTE mobilization and fish food security should be taken into consideration for the management of degraded aquaculture systems and waterlogged soils and sediments.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes del Suelo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oxidación-Reducción , Suelo
14.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 51-57, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955661

RESUMEN

Abomasal ulcers are difficult to diagnose clinically with limited therapeutic approach to combat the disease. Omental bursitis (OB) and local peritonitis (LP) are known sequelae of abomasal ulcer in cows. In this study, differentiation between OB and LP in regard to clinical symptoms, biochemical analyses and the response to treatment in Buffaloes was done. Twenty buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were admitted with a history of intermittent appetite, wasting and mild abdominal distension during the period between March 2016 and August 2018. All cases were female (12 recently calved, 2 pregnant, 6 non-pregnant) aging from 3 to 9 years and weighing 350-600 kg. For comparison, 10 apparently healthy non-pregnant female buffaloes were used as controls. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of 11 OB and 9 LP in admitted cases. Laboratory analysis revealed hyperproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia in OB. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were detected in both OB and LP. Ultrasonography showed hypo-anechoic content with echoic stippling surrounded by echogenic wall in OB, whereas echogenic strands interspersed with anechoic fluid was reported in LP. Intra-lesional lavage by normal saline was applied several times under ultrasongraphic guidance followed by gentamicin 10% intramuscular and H2 antagonist intravenous for 5 days as well as parenteral and enteral fluid therapy. Seven cases of OB clinically improved, whereas no improvements were found in LP cases. OB secondary to abomasal ulcer has a good prognosis in contrast to LP. Ultrasonography provides a useful diagnostic tool and therapeutic guidance for such diseases.


Asunto(s)
Búfalos , Bursitis/veterinaria , Peritonitis/veterinaria , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinaria , Animales , Autopsia/veterinaria , Bursitis/complicaciones , Bursitis/terapia , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Egipto , Femenino , Peritonitis/complicaciones , Peritonitis/terapia , Embarazo , Úlcera Gástrica/complicaciones , Úlcera Gástrica/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125430, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995881

RESUMEN

This study aimed to test the ability of aqueous leaf extract of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and to estimate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs using Allium cepa assay. Fresh Eichhornia crassipes plants were collected from the Nile River of Egypt. The mixed-shaped structures of the biogenic AgNPs were qualitatively characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Selected area electron diffraction confirmed the crystalline structure of AgNPs and energy dispersive X-ray analysis clarified the presence of the elemental silver in a percentage of 83.29%. The biogenic AgNPs were quite stable (0.316) and negatively charged (-18.5 mV) based on the polydispersity index values. Allium cepa L. roots were exposed to several AgNPs concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg L-1) for different time intervals 2, 4 and 6 h. Cytotoxicity measured by both the spectrophotometric and macroscopic techniques recorded the maximum cell death of root tips of A. cepa after 20 mg L-1 treatment. The analysis of comet assay output images showed an alteration of DNA repair kinetics. The use of aqueous leaf extract of E. crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach in the large-scale production of AgNPs by the method proposed in this study may be a step in improving the water loss in the Nile River. At the same time, a sensitive approach to the cytogenotoxicity of AgNPs must be considered.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Cebollas/efectos de los fármacos , Plata/toxicidad , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Daño del ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Egipto , Cebollas/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Plata/química
16.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(1): 49-56, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-186064

RESUMEN

The anatomical variations of the intracranial venous dural sinuses must be put in consideration in diagnosing magnetic resonance venography (MRV) to avoid the diagnostic pitfalls resulting from over-diagnosis of cerebral venous dural sinus occlusion or thrombosis. The available data regarding the age and sex difference of the magnetic resonance venography (MRV) anatomical variations is still limited. A retrospective study is done for 500 patients ranging from 20 to 70 years. Only 363 patients (142 males and 221 females) were included in our final analysis: all have normal MRI brain & posterior fossa. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) is done to detect the presence or absence of the transverse venous dural sinuses and to detect any age-or sex-related differences. Also 64 dry Egyptian skulls (41 males and 23 females) were employed to detect symmetry of transverse sulcus and to determine age and sex difference. Hypoplastic left transverse sinus was by far the commonest asymmetrical transverse sinus variants representing 22.0% of total: it was noted in 38 male and 38 female. Even if the asymmetrical transverse sinus is more common in females, there is no significant difference between both genders. In the dry skull, symmetrical transverse sulcus was observed in 67.2% of total, while asymmetrical transverse sulcus was recorded in 32.8% of total, which were more observed in female skull 17.2% of total with no significant difference


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Variación Anatómica , Flebografía/métodos , Senos Craneales/anomalías , Senos Craneales/diagnóstico por imagen , Trombosis de los Senos Intracraneales/diagnóstico por imagen , Cráneo/anomalías , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Senos Craneales/anatomía & histología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Diferenciación Sexual , Egipto , Determinación de la Edad por el Esqueleto , Cráneo/diagnóstico por imagen
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 661-670, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938839

RESUMEN

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease that causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, ILT outbreaks were reported on 30 farms located in eight Egyptian governorates between January 2018 and May 2019. Gross examination of diseased chickens revealed congestion and hemorrhage of laryngeal and tracheal mucosa with fibrinohemorrhagic casts and/or caseous material in the lumens. Histopathological examination showed epithelial sloughing, syncytium formation, heterophilic exudation, and development of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) antigen was detected in the tracheal epithelium, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and syncytial cells, using immunohistochemistry. PCR targeting a portion of the thymidine kinase gene was further utilized to confirm the presence of ILTV DNA. The complete coding sequences of three envelope glycoprotein genes, gG, gD, and gJ, and a partial sequence of the infected cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4) gene from samples representing all of the farms and disease outbreaks were determined. Five prototype strains with unique sequences were chosen for detailed molecular characterization. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the partial ICP4 gene revealed that two strains were chicken embryo origin (CEO)-vaccine-like strains, and three were tissue culture origin (TCO)-vaccine-like strains. Analysis of the gJ gene sequence indicated that all of the strains were CEO vaccine-like strains. It was predicted that the latter three strains were recombinants of CEO- and TCO-vaccine-like strains. In conclusion, immunohistochemistry coupled with multi-genomic PCR sequencing proved to be efficient for identification and typing of ILTV strains during disease outbreaks. Both CEO-vaccine-like and recombinant virus strains were circulating in Egypt during the 2018 and 2019 outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/virología , Infecciones por Herpesviridae/veterinaria , Herpesvirus Gallináceo 1/clasificación , Herpesvirus Gallináceo 1/genética , Proteínas del Envoltorio Viral/genética , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Embrión de Pollo , ADN Viral/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Egipto , Glicoproteínas/genética , Infecciones por Herpesviridae/virología , Inmunohistoquímica , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
18.
Plant Dis ; 104(2): 340-347, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809255

RESUMEN

Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was identified as the causal agent of internal tuber necrosis in the potato cultivar Innovator in New Brunswick, Canada. Further pathological characterization of the isolate (designated as isolate CaM) was performed on six potato cultivars and one breeding clone. Upon mechanical inoculation, four cultivars (Innovator, Yukon Gold, Rochdale Gold-Dorée, and Shepody) showed needle-sized necrotic spots and increasing calico symptoms on new leaves, whereas the remaining cultivars only developed calico symptoms on new leaves. All tubers of CaM-infected Innovator and Shepody plants developed sporadic internal necrotic spots, as did ca. 23 and 8% tubers of CaM-infected Yukon Gold and Rochdale Gold-Dorée, respectively. Sequence analysis of the CP gene of CaM with AMV isolates from potato, all presumed belonging to the "non-necrotic" strain and retrieved from GenBank, indicated that CaM shared >97.1% sequence identity with all but four Egyptian isolates. At the complete genome level, phylogenetic analysis of all available sequences demonstrated that RNA 1 and RNA 3 can be grouped into three major clades each, whereas RNA 2 can be clustered into two clades. CaM and Ca175-1, an AMV isolate that was deemed non-necrotic in a previous study, had different phylogenetic clade patterns, indicating different RNA 1-RNA 2-RNA 3 haplotypes: IA-I-IB (CaM) versus Ca175-1 (IB-II-IA). Despite the difference in haplotype composition, CaM and Ca175-1 induced similar levels of internal necrosis in tubers of Innovator and its parent Shepody. The results suggest that the internal necrosis in AMV-infected tubers depends on potato cultivar rather than on AMV strain/haplotype, and CaM is just a "regular" isolate of AMV.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Mosaico de la Alfalfa , Solanum tuberosum , Canadá , Egipto , Filogenia
19.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(2): 210-222, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432685

RESUMEN

Leaf and bark of trees are tools for assessing the effects of the heavy metals pollution and monitoring the environmental air quality. In this study, the possibility of using leaves and bark of two urban trees, namely, Ficus nitida and Eucalyptus globulus as a bioindicator of atmospheric pollution was evaluated by determining the composition of heavy elements in the tree leaves, bark, soil, and the atmospheric dust. Two common tree species, namely, F. nitida and E. globulus were selected in the heavily industrial zone of surrounding Minya governorate, Upper Egypt. Two urban areas with heavy traffic load (sites 1 and 2), three industrial zones (sites 3, 4, and 5) and an uncontaminated area as a control were selected (site 6). Sampling from leaf, bark, soil, deposited dust of trees was carried out in winter and summer seasons (from November 2016 to March 2017). The concentrations of heavy metals in dust, soil, leaves, and bark possess the same trend: Pb>Cu>Cd. The highest concentration of cadmium, lead, and copper was found in the leaf of F. nitida and E. globulus higher than bark samples of the studied species, supporting the idea suggesting that tree leaves can be used as a good indicator of heavy metals accumulation. A high and statistically significant correlation (p < .05) was found between Pb concentrations in the atmospheric dust and those in the leaves of both species throughout the two growing seasons, confirming that the main source of incorporated Pb is the atmospheric dust. Otherwise, the obtained results showed that F. nitida tree does not seem to be a good accumulator of Cu. According to the obtained results, F. nitida and E. globulus trees are more likely to capture cadmium and lead from air, so planting these trees in industrial areas with such atmospheric pollutants would be beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Bioacumulación , Biodegradación Ambiental , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hojas de la Planta , Árboles
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