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1.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 83(3): 427-448, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646482

RESUMEN

In many areas of Africa, recent studies highlighted the great impact of ticks on animal and human health throughout the continent. On the other hand, very limited information on the bacterial endosymbionts of the African ticks and their pattern of co-infections with other bacteria are found in literature, notwithstanding their pivotal role in tick survival and vector efficiency. Thus, we investigated the distribution of selected pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria in hard ticks collected from wild, domestic animals and from vegetation in various ecological zones in Africa and their co-occurrence in the same tick host. Overall, 339 hard ticks were morphologically identified as belonging to the genera Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Haemaphysalis, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus. Molecular screening provided information on pathogens circulation in Africa, detecting spotted fever group rickettsiae, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium, Borrelia garinii, Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Coxiella burnetii. Furthermore, our work provides insights on the African scenario of tick-symbiont associations, revealing the presence of Coxiella, Francisella and Midichloria across multiple tick populations. Coxiella endosymbionts were the most prevalent microorganisms, and that with the broadest spectrum of hosts, being detected in 16 tick species. Francisella was highly prevalent among the Hyalomma species tested and correlated negatively with the presence of Coxiella, showing a potential competitive interaction. Interestingly, we detected a positive association of Francisella with Rickettsia in specimens of Hy. rufipes, suggesting a synergistic interaction between them. Finally, Midichloria was the most prevalent symbiont in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato from Egypt.


Asunto(s)
Rickettsia , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas , África , Animales , Animales Domésticos , Animales Salvajes , Egipto/epidemiología , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/epidemiología , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/veterinaria
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009413, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705496

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 virus is transmitted in closed settings to people in contact with COVID-19 patients such as healthcare workers and household contacts. However, household person-to-person transmission studies are limited. Households participating in an ongoing cohort study of influenza incidence and prevalence in rural Egypt were followed. Baseline enrollment was done from August 2015 to March 2017. The study protocol was amended in April 2020 to allow COVID-19 incidence and seroprevalence studies. A total of 290 households including 1598 participants were enrolled and followed from April to October 2020 in four study sites. When a participant showed respiratory illness symptoms, a serum sample and a nasal and an oropharyngeal swab were obtained. Swabs were tested by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection. If positive, the subject was followed and swabs collected on days three, six, nine, and 14 after the first swab day and a serum sample obtained on day 14. All subjects residing with the index case were swabbed following the same sampling schedule. Sera were collected from cohort participants in October 2020 to assess seroprevalence. Swabs were tested by RT-PCR. Sera were tested by Microneutralization Assay to measure the neutralizing antibody titer. Incidence of COVID-19, household secondary attack rate, and seroprevalence in the cohort were determined. The incidence of COVID-19 was 6.9% and the household secondary attack rate was 89.8%. Transmission within households occurred within two-days of confirming the index case. Infections were asymptomatic or mild with symptoms resolving within 10 days. The majority developed a neutralizing antibody titer by day 14 post onset. The overall seroprevalence among cohort participants was 34.8%. These results suggest that within-household transmission is high in Egypt. Asymptomatic or mild illness is common. Most infections seroconvert and have a durable neutralizing antibody titer.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , /transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , /epidemiología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Egipto/epidemiología , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , /inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 185, 2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713203

RESUMEN

Sandy beaches are challenging ecosystems, in which biota experience extreme physical conditions. We sampled meiofauna in conjunction with environmental factors that are well-known to affect faunal associations to describe the ecological state of sandy beaches that experience natural and human-made disturbances. We applied a random stratified sampling design with monthly collections (1800 cores) at three beaches on the Alexandria, Egypt, coast during two sampling periods over 1 year from November to April and May to September. We used multivariate analyses to compare beaches for water quality, particle size, and meiofaunal assemblages. The environmental analysis explained 60% of the total variation of physical factors among beaches and grouped beaches that moderately sorted fine-grained sand and high water salinity vs. the beach with well-sorted, coarse-grain, and low salinity. Meiofaunal analyses revealed unexpected results. The abundance and temporal variation were low, and the explained proportion of natural variation by the putative environmental factors was small. The natural variation was an indicator of long-term beach ruin and oligotrophic conditions. Our results suggest that a large fraction of natural variation in beach meiofauna is stochastic or that other, non-measured, the natural forces (e.g., storm events) or human-made forces (e.g., tourism activities) are essential contributors to variation. Our best models indicate that meiofauna is more resilient to natural disturbances than to human-made stressors, and the higher the beach exposure to the synergetic effects of natural forces and anthropogenic stressors, the lower the ecological state is.


Asunto(s)
Playas , Ecosistema , Biota , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 17029-17043, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646543

RESUMEN

North Africa coastline extends on 8955 km from Mauritania to Egypt. These areas continue to experience population and economic growth. North Africa coastal aquifers were exposed to an increase in groundwater salinity and seawater intrusion, which may contribute to economic crisis as a result of freshwater resources crisis. This work aims to explore the status and a holistic comprehending review of saltwater intrusion extent in the region and future challenges. Results on seawater intrusion in North Africa, from published papers and grey literature, show a several efforts have been made in understanding this phenomenon and developing management strategies in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania. The most method used is geochemical data and statistical analysis. Some studies linked geochemical data with geophysical techniques, geographical information system (GIS), and GALDIT index. Seawater intrusion varies from one country to another according to the aquifer hydrogeological settings, abstraction rates and aquifer morphology, climate change, urban expansion, and economic development. North Africa countries, such as Libya and Mauritania, need, for instance, more expertise and experience on the part of local researchers. The challenge of inadequate data and a need for a more robust data inventory was stressed. This paper recommends developing and building scientific capabilities in regional and international partnerships, and adopting rational water governance for sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Argelia , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Marruecos , Salinidad , Agua de Mar , Túnez
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145436, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736166

RESUMEN

The emerging torque teno virus (TTV) has been identified as a biohazard marker of anthropocentric pollution and contamination in drinking water, natural water and wastewater systems (DWNWWS). Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS. The study systematically identified and meta-analyzed published studies on TTV prevalence in DWNWWS hosted in Dimensions, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases using a random-effects model and mixed-effects meta-regression model for sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, the meta-analysis was stratified to estimate water type-specific TTV prevalence. The study found a total of 58 articles, of which 13 articles subdivided into 31 studies with 374 TTV positive cases and 862 total sample sizes were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. The pooled prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS was 37.18% (95%CI: 23.76-55.55%). Prevalence of TTV was significantly different across water types and it was 56.67% (95%CI: 36.94-75.46%) in wastewater, 26.72% (95%CI: 6.87-52.56%) in river water, and 17.17% (95%CI: 0.54-45.39%) in drinking water. TTV incidence in seawater and groundwater was 0% and 25.0% respectively. Funnel plots constructed and associated statistics of rank correlation test and Egger's regression test in this study, show lack of publication bias in the pooled prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS. Although, sample type (QM(df = 1) = 6.9656, p = 0.0083) and concentration methods (QM(df = 1) = 3.8055, p = 0.0511) significantly moderated and accounted for 15.39% and 6.00% of heterogeneity in the prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS respectively. In conclusion, research focus/monitoring activities on TTV is generally inadequate and potential risk of TTV in DWNWWS is underappreciated in most nations; the analyzed studies were from 7 countries (USA, Japan, Italy, Iran, Germany, Egypt, and Brazil). Finally, inefficient concentration method severely influences the prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS and could give rise to underestimation of TTV and mar TTV-based source-tracking of anthropogenic pollutions.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Torque teno virus , Brasil , Egipto , Alemania , Irán , Italia , Japón , Prevalencia , Aguas Residuales
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(2): 626-633, 2021 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594986

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Vascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality in end stage renal disease, and particularly in hemodialysis patients. Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be associated with vascular calcification among this category of patients. Cholecalciferol or vitamin D3; the native inactivated 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], has been proposed to have a good impact on vascular calcification and vitamin D deficiency. However, clinical data is still limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was carried out to evaluate the effect of oral cholecalciferol on vascular calcification and 25(OH)D levels in hemodialysis patients. A total of sixty eligible hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (Oral 200.000IU Cholecalciferol per month) or a placebo group, for 3 months. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), fetuin-A, fibroblast growth factor (FGF-23), osteoprotegerin (OPG), calcium, phosphorus, their product (CaXP) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels, were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT03602430. Cholecalciferol significantly increased serum levels of 25(OH)D and fetuin-A in the treatment group (p-value < 0.001), while no significant difference was observed in the placebo group. Cholecalciferol administration showed no effect on either FGF-23 or OPG. None of the treatment group patients experienced any adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Cholecalciferol was shown to be an effective, tolerable, inexpensive pharmacotherapeutic option to overcome vitamin D deficiency, with a possible modulating effect on fetuin-A, among hemodialysis patients. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03602430.


Asunto(s)
Colecalciferol/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Renales/terapia , Diálisis Renal , Calcificación Vascular/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/tratamiento farmacológico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Colecalciferol/efectos adversos , Egipto , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Renales/sangre , Enfermedades Renales/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Diálisis Renal/efectos adversos , Método Simple Ciego , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Calcificación Vascular/diagnóstico , Calcificación Vascular/etiología , Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Vitaminas/efectos adversos , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/metabolismo
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567519

RESUMEN

As the world fights the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the World Health Organization (WHO) reports that over 17 million people globally were infected with SARS-CoV-2 as of 1 August 2020. Although infections are asymptomatic in 80% of cases, severe respiratory illness occurs in 20% of cases, requiring hospitalization and highly specialized intensive care. The WHO, under the International Health Regulations, declared this pandemic a public health emergency of international concern; it has affected nearly all health systems worldwide. The health system in Egypt, similar to many others, was severely challenged when confronted with the need for urgent and major expansion required to manage such a significant pandemic. This review uses publicly available data to provide an epidemiological summary of the COVID-19 pandemic behavior during the first wave of the outbreak in Egypt. The article covers mathematical modeling predictions, Egypt's healthcare system, economic and social impacts of COVID-19, as well as national responses that were crucial to the initial containment of the pandemic. We observed how the government managed the outbreak by enhancing testing capacity, contact tracing, announcing public health and social measures (PHSMs), as well as allocating extra funds and human resources to contain SARS-COV-2. Prospectively, economic losses from major sources of revenues-tourism, travel, and trade-may be reflected in future timelines, as Egypt continues to control cases and loss of life from COVID-19. Overall, trends indicate that the spread of COVID-19 in Egypt was initially contained. Revalidation of prediction models and follow-up studies may reveal the aftermath of the pandemic and how well it was managed in Egypt.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Trazado de Contacto , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Control de Infecciones , Pandemias , /epidemiología , Planificación en Desastres , Egipto/epidemiología , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Salud Pública , Cuarentena
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 143: 57-67, 2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570040

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to diagnose infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) among cultured penaeid shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus, n = 120) collected from private farms in 2 Egyptian provinces (Damietta and North Sinai) along the Mediterranean coast. The collected shrimp were subjected to clinical examination, histopathology, molecular characterization, and phylogenetic analysis. Most of the shrimp infected with IMNV showed a distinctive appearance resembling cooked shrimp and white necrosis on distal abdominal segments and tail fans. Simultaneously, IHHNV-infected cases displayed opaque abdominal muscles, white milky to buff mottling on the shell, and a pathognomonic runt-deformity syndrome. Histopathological examination of infected specimens revealed muscular edema, hemocyte infiltration, deformities, Zenker's necrosis, and eosinophilic intra-nuclear inclusion bodies (Cowdry type A). PCR results gave predictable amplicon sizes of 139 and 81 bp and confirmed the presence of IMNV and IHHNV with a total prevalence of 37.5 and 25%, respectively. A homology search by BLAST analysis showed that the retrieved isolates putatively belonged to IMNV and IHHNV based on 96.3 to 97% nucleotide identity to the corresponding open reading frame gene of each virus. The phylogenetic analysis clearly showed genetic similarity and cross-lineage between our isolates and other isolates from Egypt, the USA, Brazil, Indonesia, China, Korea, Taiwan, and Ecuador. In conclusion, gross inspection and histopathology may aid in the diagnosis of viral diseases; however, molecular tools are indispensable for confirming a possible infection. The current study recommends strict regulations during live shrimp transportation and implementing health control certificates over all imports and exports, especially in developing countries, including Egypt.


Asunto(s)
Densovirinae , Penaeidae , Animales , Brasil , China , Ecuador , Egipto/epidemiología , Indonesia , Filogenia , República de Corea
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 128, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587189

RESUMEN

Temporal/spatial variations of surface water quality were examined for the Nile River in the Damietta region where it serves as the major source of water for the inhabitants of Damietta Governorate. A total of 32 water quality parameters were monitored at six sampling sites for 12 months from February 2016 to January 2017. Higher values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), heavy metals, and nutrients were observed upstream. About ~ 70% of the total variance in observations was explained by five main influences using factor analysis. The first factor (24.6% of the variance) was indicative of the mixed sources of natural and anthropogenic inputs. The second (nutritional) and the third (organic) factors were mainly controlled by the discharges from agricultural and domestic sources, respectively. Human activities and natural processes controlled the fourth and fifth factors. Only 11 parameters (K, temperature, COD, HPC, total hardness, DO, NO2, Na, TDS, Cl, and EC) were necessary for distinguishing temporal variations according to Discriminant analysis (DA). Seven parameters (BOD, PO4, SiO3, Al, Turbidity, Fe, and Chlorophyll-a) were the most important variables responsible for spatial variations. Using the results we developed a water quality index (WQI) using only those parameters identified as important. All water quality parameters were below the permissible limits except for turbidity according to the World Health Organization standards, BOD and COD according to the Egyptian regulations. The calculated WQI values ranged between 12.73 and 33.73. According to these values, the Nile River Damietta branch represents a good to an excellent source of drinking water for entering secondary treatment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Calidad del Agua , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144776, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545486

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic activities such as mining, industrialization and subsequent emission of industrial waste, and agricultural practices have led to an increase in the accumulation of metal(loid)s in agricultural soils and crops, which threatens the health of people; the risk is more pronounced for individuals whose survival depends on food sources from several contaminated regions. Selenium (Se) is an element essential for the normal functioning of the human body and is a beneficial element for plants. Se deficiency in the diet is a common issue in many countries around the world, such as China and Egypt. >40 diseases are associated with Se deficiency. In practice, Se compounds have been applied through foliar sprays or via base application of fertilizers to increase Se concentration in the edible parts of crops and to satisfy the daily Se intake. Moreover, Se at low concentrations has been used to mitigate the toxicity of many metal(loid)s. In this review, we present an overview of the latest knowledge and practices with regards to the utilization of Se to reduce the uptake/toxicity of metal(loid)s in plants. We have focused on the following issues: 1) the current status of understanding the mechanisms of detoxification and uptake restriction of metal(loid)s regulated by Se; 2) the optimal dose and speciation of Se, and stage of plant growth that is optimal for application; 3) the differences in the efficiency of different application methods of Se including seed priming, base application, and foliar spray of Se fertilizers; 4) the possibility of using Se along with other methods to reduce multiple metal(loid) accumulation in crops; and 5) potential risks when Se is used to reduce metal(loid) accumulation in crops.


Asunto(s)
Metaloides , Metales Pesados , Selenio , Contaminantes del Suelo , China , Egipto , Humanos , Metaloides/toxicidad , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Selenio/toxicidad , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(3): 516-527, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547904

RESUMEN

In the current work, we investigated the concentration of Ni and Pb in different organs of Phragmites australis to evaluate its potential application as a phytoremediator to remove these two metals from contaminated water and sediment in Lake Burullus (a Ramsar site in Egypt). Above- and below-ground biomass of P. australis, water and sediment were sampled monthly for 1 year at six sites of Lake Burullus (three sites represent each of the northern and southern parts of the lake) using six randomly distributed quadrats (each of 0.5 × 0.5 m) at each sampling site. Significant variation was detected for Ni and Pb concentrations in the sediments and waters between the northern and southern sites of the lake. The biomass of P. australis in the southern sites was greater than that in the northern sites; in addition, the above-ground biomass was higher than the below-ground biomass. The above-ground organs accumulated higher concentrations of Ni and Pb than the below-ground organs. The Ni and Pb standing stocks data indicated that the organs of P. australis extracted higher amounts of Ni and Pb per its area from the southern rather than the northern sites. In the current study, the Ni and Pb above-ground standing stocks increased from the early growing season (February) and reached its peak during August and then decreased. The highest monthly Ni and Pb standing stock (18.2 and 18.4 g m- 2, respectively) was recorded in the above-ground organs of plants in the southern sites in August. The bioaccumulation factor of Ni was 157.6 and 153.4 in the northern and southern sites, respectively, whereas that of Pb was 175.3 and 158.3. The translocation factor of Ni and Pb from the below- to above-ground organs was generally > 1. Thus, this reed species is a potential candidate for Ni and Pb phytoextraction. Based on our results, P. australis could be used for the extraction of Ni and Pb to reduce the pollution in Lake Burullus, if the above-ground biomass is harvested at its maximum value in August, as was the case regarding the maximum standing stock of Ni and Pb.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Biodegradación Ambiental , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Plomo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 17098-17108, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394417

RESUMEN

Freshwater scarcity appears clearly in coastal areas of Egypt despite the existence of a large amount of seawater around. Solar still is the cheapest and oldest way to desalinate seawater and brackish water. In the proposed study, single-slope solar still was examined in the climatic conditions of Qena, Egypt (Latitude: 26.16°, longitude: 32.71°). The purpose of the study was to analyze the energy storage behavior inside the phase change materials and to enhance the solar still productivity during both daytime and nighttime operation. The performance of the proposed solar still was tested under the use of phase change material (RT42PCM) with different quantities of 2, 4, and 6 kg in weight, which was placed inside the basin area. Furthermore, the optimum phase change material quantity was compared with simple conventional solar still without phase change material. The results showed that the productivity of the proposed solar still in the case of using 4-kg phase change material was higher than that for using 2-kg phase change material and 6-kg phase change material by about 18.6 and 27.7%, respectively. Moreover, the average daily efficiency is 68, 57.2, and 53.6%, respectively. The use of 4-kg phase change material in the basin caused an enhancement in the proposed solar still productivity by about 29.7% and the average daily efficiency was 66.7 and 51.5%, respectively, in comparison with simple solar still without phase change material. It was additionally seen that in the case of using phase change material, more yield was gotten over during the nighttime and the average basin water temperature was increased due to its high ability to store thermal energy inside. Furthermore, the produced freshwater could be used in different life applications, because of its appropriate ranges of total dissolved solids, pH, hardness, and water clarity.


Asunto(s)
Luz Solar , Agua , Egipto , Calor , Aguas Salinas
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 17865-17877, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400110

RESUMEN

This study explores the relationship between remittances received, education expenditure, energy use, income, poverty, and economic growth for a panel of the nine selected remittance-receiving countries (Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Philippines). World Development Indicator database is used for retrieving data from the period of 1990 to 2014. Panel cointegration technique is used to test the long-run relationship among studied variables. Furthermore, the autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) model is applied to confirm the presence of a long-run and short-run relationship. The findings of the ARDL model indicate that remittances received positively influence economic growth, and there is a significant relationship between remittances received and economic growth during the long-run. Education expenditure, energy use, and income also positively and significantly impact economic growth during the long-run. In contrast, final household consumption used in this study as a proxy of poverty showed a significant negative effect on economic growth during the long-run, which indicates that increasing poverty will reduce economic growth; on the other hand, reducing poverty will boost economic growth in the selected countries during the long-run.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Pobreza , Bangladesh , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Egipto , Metabolismo Energético , India , Indonesia , México , Nigeria , Pakistán , Filipinas
14.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(2): 145-162, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397546

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influences health care facilities world-wide. The flow rate, type, and severity of cases presented to emergency departments varied during the pandemic in comparison to the past years. However, this change has not been well-described among the cases of hospital admission due to toxic exposure. STUDY OBJECTIVE: Recognition of the pattern of toxic exposure among the cases refereed to Tanta Poison Control Center (TPCC; Tanta, Egypt) during the past five years, and furthermore, exploration of the impact of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the pattern of presented cases. METHODS: The current study is a five-year retrospective, comparative cross-sectional study carried out among acutely intoxicated patients admitted to TPCC during the spring months (March through May) of 2016-2020. A total of 1,916 patients with complete medical records were recruited. The type and manner of toxic exposure, demographic, clinical data, and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The current study noted that there were delays in time from toxic exposure to emergency services during the lockdown period. This was reflected in significant lower recovery rates (884.8/1,000 population; z = -3.0) and higher death rates (49.4/1,000 population; z = 2.1) despite the marked decrease in the total number of hospital admissions in comparison to the past four years. The lockdown period showed significantly higher phosphides (z = 3.5; χ2 = 34.295; P <.001) and antipsychotics exposure (z = 3.6; χ2 = 21.494; P <.001) than the previous years. However, predominance of female exposure and intentional self-poisoning was maintained over the past five years, including the lockdown. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-associated lockdown greatly reformed the usual intoxication pattern of the cases admitted to emergency room. Also, it played a role in delaying time of hospital arrival, which was reflected as lower recovery rates and higher death rates.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Sobredosis de Droga/terapia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Envenenamiento/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(7): 8936-8944, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405168

RESUMEN

In the face of rapid growth in the global demands for water, energy, and food, building large dams is expected to continue. Due to its potential opportunities and risks for the people of the Eastern Nile Basin, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Nile River has commanded regional and international attention. Once completed, it will rank the largest hydropower dam in Africa and among the largest worldwide. Discourse among scientists and negotiators from Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt on the design, initial filling, and long-term operation of the GERD is ongoing since the construction started in 2011, but no agreement has yet been reached. The discourse has hitherto focused on the impacts on hydropower production, water availability, and irrigated agriculture, with little attention to the dam's potential environmental impacts. Here, we communicate our viewpoint on this gap, drawing on knowledge from other dams around the world and some GERD characteristics. The hydrological alterations associated with the GERD could adversely impact fish, aquatic plants, and biodiversity in the downstream due to possible changes in water temperature, salinity, and oxygen content. The GERD's expected flooded area, location at low latitude in the tropics, and the deep turbine intakes could intensify greenhouse gas emissions, whereas the dam's high reservoir depth would abate the emissions. The dam's electricity could also reduce regional greenhouse gas emissions if combined with cleaner intermittent solar and wind energy sources. With a maximum reservoir area of 1904 km2, surface evaporation and consequently local extreme precipitation and humidity could increase. The aforementioned impacts could have transboundary ecological, agricultural, and health implications and, therefore, should be taken into consideration alongside the benefits of the dam.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ríos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Egipto , Etiopía , Humanos
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 144333, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412433

RESUMEN

Discharge of Drinking Water Treatment Plants sludge directly on surface waters without any treatment is becoming an important issue in most countries around the world, behavior is not only affecting on the water quality, but also on soil and crops. This study investigated the effect of discharge of alum sludge and the variation in the level of the Nile water (flow regime) on water and soil qualities. The water samples were analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. In winter (closure season), the mean values of EC, TDS, major ions, pH, DO and total algae count were higher than in summer. In summer (flooding season), it was noticed that the mean values of SiO2, metals, COD, BOD, TOC, nutrients and bacteriological parameters exceed winter season values. Moreover, the concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn were above WHO permissible limits and the concentrations of aggregate organic parameters exceed the FAO permissible limits in sites near the areas of sludge discharge. Most of water samples exceed the national guidelines. For soil, our findings showed that the concentrations of metals in soil samples collected from areas irrigated from canals receiving alum sludge are more (two-three times) than their concentrations from the pure sites. However, Pb concentration in the contaminated soil reaches ten times more than in the pure one. The management of sludge disposal becomes an urgent priority to save waterways, soil and crops from pollution. Finally, the variation in water flow during the winter closure period with reduction by ≈15 BCM is similar to the same reduction in the Nile flow when the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam starts operation. This indicates that the long-term reduction in water flow due to the construction of this dam may cause serious environmental changes in the Nile River in Egypt.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Compuestos de Alumbre , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Ríos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Dióxido de Silicio , Suelo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464198

RESUMEN

Three Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria, BA1T, Q614T and PB68.1T, isolated from the digestive system of Heterorhabditis entomopathogenic nematodes, were biochemically and molecularly characterized to clarify their taxonomic affiliations. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains suggest that they belong to the Gammaproteobacteria, to the family Morganellacea, and to the genus Photorhabdus. Deeper analyses using whole genome-based phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that BA1T is closely related to Photorhabdus akhursti, that Q614T is closely related to Photorhabdus heterorhabditis, and that PB68.1T is closely related to Photorhabdus australis. In silico genomic comparisons confirm these observations: BA1T and P. akhursti 15138T share 68.8 % digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), Q614T and P. heterorhabditis SF41T share 75.4 % dDDH, and PB68.1T and P. australis DSM 17609T share 76.6  % dDDH. Physiological and biochemical characterizations reveal that these three strains also differ from all validly described Photorhabdus species and from their more closely related taxa, contrary to what was previously suggested. We therefore propose to classify BA1T as a new species within the genus Photorhabdus, Q614T as a new subspecies within P. heterorhabditis, and PB68.1T as a new subspecies within P. australis. Hence, the following names are proposed for these strains: Photorhabdus aegyptia sp. nov. with the type strain BA1T(=DSM 111180T=CCOS 1943T=LMG 31957T), Photorhabdus heterorhabditis subsp. aluminescens subsp. nov. with the type strain Q614T (=DSM 111144T=CCOS 1944T=LMG 31959T) and Photorhabdus australis subsp. thailandensis subsp. nov. with the type strain PB68.1T (=DSM 111145T=CCOS 1942T). These propositions automatically create Photorhabdus heterorhabditis subsp. heterorhabditis subsp. nov. with SF41T as the type strain (currently classified as P. heterorhabditis) and Photorhabdus australis subsp. australis subsp. nov. with DSM17609T as the type strain (currently classified as P. australis).


Asunto(s)
Nematodos/microbiología , Photorhabdus/clasificación , Filogenia , Animales , Australia , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Sistema Digestivo/microbiología , Egipto , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , Photorhabdus/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Tailandia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(7): 7636-7651, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398755

RESUMEN

Rapid population growth and poor waste management practice are among the main drivers of plastic pollution in modern times, thus making Africa a hotspot for plastic pollution both now and in the future. This study is a review of plastic pollution reports from the African aquatic environment with regard to causes, current status, toxicological implications and implications for ecosystem services. A total of 59 plastic pollution studies from 1987 to September 2020 were reviewed. They comprised 15 from North Africa (NA) (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia), six from East Africa (EA) (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda), 13 from West Africa (WA) (Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania and Nigeria), and 25 studies from Southern Africa (SA) (South Africa). This shows that plastic pollution studies in Africa, according to the sub-regions, are in the order: SA > NA > WA > EA. High human population in the basins of African large aquatic systems is identified as the greatest driver enhancing plastic surge in the aquatic environment. The occurrence of plastics was mostly reported in the estuarine/marine environment (42 studies) compared to the freshwater environment (only 17 studies). Plastics have also been reported in the three compartments of the aquatic environment: water column, benthic sediment and animals. Zooplankton, annelids, molluscs, insects, fishes and birds were reported as bioindicators of plastic ingestion in the inland and coastal waters of Africa. Polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) and polypropylene were the common plastic polymers observed in the African aquatic environment. In situ toxicological implications of the ingested plastic polymers were not reported in any of the studies. However, reports from laboratory-controlled experiments showed that these polymers are deleterious to aquatic animal health. More research efforts need to delineate the plastic pollution status of the East, West and North of Africa. Furthermore, such studies are required to identify the plastic polymers and in situ ecotoxicological impacts of plastics on both animal and human health.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Argelia , Animales , Ecosistema , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Etiopía , Ghana , Guinea Bissau , Humanos , Kenia , Marruecos , Nigeria , Tanzanía , Túnez , Uganda , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
19.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a small but clinically significant risk of stroke, the cause of which is frequently cryptogenic. In a large multinational cohort of consecutive COVID-19 patients with stroke, we evaluated clinical predictors of cryptogenic stroke, short-term functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality among patients according to stroke etiology. METHODS: We explored clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of consecutively evaluated patients 18 years of age or older with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 31 hospitals in 4 countries (3/1/20-6/16/20). RESULTS: Of the 14.483 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19, 156 (1.1%) were diagnosed with AIS. Sixty-one (39.4%) were female, 84 (67.2%) white, and 88 (61.5%) were between 60 and 79 years of age. The most frequently reported etiology of AIS was cryptogenic (55/129, 42.6%), which was associated with significantly higher white blood cell count, c-reactive protein, and D-dimer levels than non-cryptogenic AIS patients (p

Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Isquemia Encefálica , /diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios de Cohortes , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Humanos , /diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 29, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413244

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leaks (AL) are among the most serious complications due to the substantial impact on the quality of life and mortality. Inspite of the advance in diagnostic tools such as laboratory tests and radiological adjuncts, only moderate improvement has been recorded in the rate of detected leaks. The purpose of the research was to assess the perioperative risk factors for AL. METHODS: This study was achieved at MUH and MIH/Egypt within the period between January 2016 and January 2019 for the candidates who underwent bowel anastomosis for small intestinal (except duodenal one) and colorectal pathology. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS of V-26. RESULTS: This study included 315 cases, among them, 27 cases (8.57%) developed AL. The percentage of covering stoma was significantly higher in the non-leakage group vs leakage one (24.3% vs 11.1% respectively). lower albumin, operative timing, perforation, and covering stoma were shown as significant risk factors for leakage, but with multivariate analysis for these factors, the emergency operation, and serum albumin level was the only independent risk factors that revealed the significance consequently (p = 0.043, p = 0.015). The analysis of different predictors of AL on the third day showed that the cut-off point in RR was 29 with 83% sensitivity and 92% specificity in prediction of leakage, the cut-off point in RR was 118 with 74% sensitivity and 87% specificity in prediction of leakage and the cut-off point in CRP was 184.7 with 82% sensitivity and 88% specificity in prediction of AL and all had statistically significant value. CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative serum albumin level and the emergency operations are independent risk factors for anastomotic leakage. Moreover, leakage should be highly suspected in cases with rising respiratory rate, heart rate, and CRP levels.


Asunto(s)
Anastomosis Quirúrgica/efectos adversos , Fuga Anastomótica/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Fuga Anastomótica/diagnóstico , Fuga Anastomótica/psicología , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Albúmina Sérica , Adulto Joven
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