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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406588

RESUMEN

The restrictions enacted during lockdown to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have led to changes in people's lifestyle habits. In Italy, these restrictions have dramatically changed the way people work and spend their leisure time, also with repercussions on diet and physical activity. An anonymous survey was disseminated via websites and social media to a convenience sample of the Italian population during and immediately after the first lockdown (10 March-18 May 2020). Data collected on 1826 individuals show that lockdown might have worsened the quality of sleep of almost half of the participants in this cross-sectional study. This worsening was associated with a deterioration in crucial determinants of health, such as physical activity and diet (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.18-2.40 and OR 4.19; 95% CI 2.51-6.96, respectively), with symptoms of psychological distress, such as tension (OR 3.88; 95% CI 2.74-5.52) and loneliness (OR 3.27; 95% CI 2.23-4.79), and with the presence of financial problems (some OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.72; many OR 7.27; 95% CI 3.59-14.73). The multivariate regression analysis models confirmed these associations. This impact on sleep quality was seen especially among females, those with low education level, and those who experienced financial problems.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias , Sueño , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Soledad , Masculino , Cuarentena , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e23876, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429747

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) on cognition function in people with schizophrenia (SZ) during daily nursing. METHODS: The literature search will be conducted via PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be adopted to calculate the association between AE and cognitive function in patients with SZ. Publication bias will be performed by Begg test. When there is publication bias, "cut-and-fill method" will be adopted to adjust publication bias. Sensitivity analysis will be used to test the stability of the result. When the heterogeneity is large (I2 ≥ 50%), meta regression will be used to explore the source of inter-study heterogeneity. When the heterogeneity is large (I2 ≥ 50%) and the results are statistically significant (P < .05), age, sex, duration of disease, duration of intervention, amount of exercise per week, improvement of cardiopulmonary health, and other factors will be sub-analyzed. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis will evaluate the impact of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in patients with SZ during daily nursing on the basis of existing evidence. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/C8ABX.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos Clínicos , Cognición/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Esquizofrenia/enfermería , Correlación de Datos , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Atención de Enfermería/métodos , Atención de Enfermería/normas , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 126, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435943

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity. The Program 4 of the Healthy Aging in Industrial Environment study investigates whether the health and wellbeing benefits of physical activity (PA) can be fully realized in individuals living in highly polluted environments. Herein, we introduce the behavioral, psychological and neuroimaging protocol of the study. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of N = 1500 individuals aged 18-65 years comparing: (1) individuals living in the highly polluted, industrial region surrounding the city of Ostrava (n = 750), and (2) controls from the comparison region with relative low pollution levels in Southern Bohemia (n = 750). Quota sampling is used to obtain samples balanced on age, gender, PA status (60% active runners vs. 40% insufficiently active). Participants are screened and complete baseline assessments through online questionnaires and in-person lab-based assessments of physiological, biomechanical, neuroimaging and cognitive function parameters. Prospective 12-month intensive monitoring of air pollution and behavioral parameters (PA, inactivity, and sleep) follows, with a focus on PA-related injuries and psychological factors through fitness trackers, smartphones, and mobile apps. Subsequently, there will be a 5-year follow-up of the study cohort. DISCUSSION: The design of the study will allow for (1) the assessment of both short-term variation and long-term change in behavioral parameters, (2) evaluation of the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and psychological factors impacting behavior and injury recovery, and (3) the impact that air pollution status (and change) has on behavior, psychological resilience, and injury recovery. Furthermore, the integration of MRI techniques and cognitive assessment in combination with data on behavioral, biological and environmental variables will provide an opportunity to examine brain structure and cognitive function in relation to health behavior and air pollution, as well as other factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse changes in brain structure and cognitive aging. This study will help inform individuals about personal risk factors and decision-makers about the impact of environmental factors on negative health outcomes and potential underlying biological, behavioral and psychological mechanisms. Challenges and opportunities stemming from the timing of the study that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Ejercicio Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Envejecimiento Saludable , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuroimagen , Estudios Prospectivos , Pirimidinas/química , Proyectos de Investigación , Resiliencia Psicológica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431602

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Lockdown measures have a profound effect on many aspects of daily life relevant for diabetes self-management. We assessed whether lockdown measures, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, differentially affect perceived stress, body weight, exercise and related this to glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a short-term observational cohort study at the Leiden University Medical Center. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes ≥18 years were eligible to participate. Participants filled out online questionnaires, sent in blood for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analysis and shared data of their flash or continuous glucose sensors. HbA1c during the lockdown was compared with the last known HbA1c before the lockdown. RESULTS: In total, 435 people were included (type 1 diabetes n=280, type 2 diabetes n=155). An increase in perceived stress and anxiety, weight gain and less exercise was observed in both groups. There was improvement in glycemic control in the group with the highest HbA1c tertile (type 1 diabetes: -0.39% (-4.3 mmol/mol) (p<0.0001 and type 2 diabetes: -0.62% (-6.8 mmol/mol) (p=0.0036). Perceived stress was associated with difficulty with glycemic control (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in perceived stress and anxiety, weight gain and less exercise but no deterioration of glycemic control occurs in both people with relatively well-controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes during short-term lockdown measures. As perceived stress showed to be associated with glycemic control, this provides opportunities for healthcare professionals to put more emphasis on psychological aspects during diabetes care consultations.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Aumento de Peso/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Automonitorización de la Glucosa Sanguínea/psicología , Automonitorización de la Glucosa Sanguínea/tendencias , /psicología , Estudios de Cohortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , /tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Servicio Ambulatorio en Hospital/tendencias , Conducta Sedentaria
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418907

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, entire populations were instructed to live in home-confinement to prevent the expansion of the disease. Spain was one of the countries with the strictest conditions, as outdoor physical activity was banned for nearly two months. This study aimed to analyse the changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Spanish university students before and during the confinement by COVID-19 with special focus on gender. We also analysed enjoyment, the tools used and motivation and impediments for doing physical activity. An online questionnaire, which included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form and certain "ad hoc" questions, was designed. Students were recruited by distributing an invitation through the administrative channels of 16 universities and a total of 13,754 valid surveys were collected. Overall, university students reduced moderate (-29.5%) and vigorous (-18.3%) physical activity during the confinement and increased sedentary time (+52.7%). However, they spent more time on high intensity interval training (HIIT) (+18.2%) and mind-body activities (e.g., yoga) (+80.0%). Adaptation to the confinement, in terms of physical activity, was handled better by women than by men. These results will help design strategies for each gender to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour during confinement periods.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Pandemias , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , España/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Yoga , Adulto Joven
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429989

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: It has been suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic impaired people's moods and general levels of physical activity, but the way in which each country is coping with the situation may result in different outcomes. The aim of the present study was to compare the mental health and physical activity levels between residents of Brazil and Switzerland during the social distancing period associated with COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire aiming to assess personal, quarantine, physical activity, and mood state disorders data was answered by 114 participants (57 from each country) of both sexes. Results: Swiss participants presented a higher frequency of people (47.4%) not abiding by social distancing measures compared to Brazilian participants (1.8%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.56). There were no significant differences between the participants from the two countries regarding physical activity levels (p = 0.09). The Swiss presented a higher frequency (78.9%) of people without symptoms of depression compared to Brazilians (31.6%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.48). The Swiss also presented a higher frequency (77.2%) of people without symptoms of anxiety compared to Brazilians (35.1%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.43). There was a significant association between the restriction level and depression symptoms (p = 0.01, effect size = 0.25) but not with anxiety symptoms (p = 0.21, effect size = 0.16). Conclusions: According to the preliminary results, Brazilians presented a much higher frequency of depression and anxiety symptoms, which can be explained by characteristics other than the restriction level.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Ejercicio Físico , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena/psicología , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suiza/epidemiología
8.
Global Health ; 17(1): 10, 2021 01 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430894

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During isolation, sharing physical activity experiences on social network sites (SNS) can enhance individual social connectedness. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sharing physical activity experiences on SNS, positive self-presentation, positive feedback, and social connectedness during isolation. METHODS: Based on the Physical Activity Experience Sharing Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Positive Self-Presentation Scale, and Online Positive Feedback Scale, we collected 460 questionnaires online from across 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China. We used multiple linear regression models to investigate the relationship between variables, and used bootstrapping to test for mediation.. RESULTS: During isolation, sharing physical activity experiences was positively associated with social connectedness (b = 0.308, p < 0.001), as well as with positive self-presentation(b = 0.956, p < 0.001)and positive feedback(b = 0.421, p < 0.001). In addition,we found that positive self-presentation showed a significant positive impact on positive feedback (b = 0.563, p < 0.001), and that positive self-presentation(b = 0.331, p < 0.001) and positive feedback(b = 0.311, p < 0.001) were positively associated with social connectedness. Finally, we found an effect on sharing physical activity experiences indirectly through positive self-presentation (b = 0.316, 95% CI: [0.180, 0.463]),and positive feedback (b = 0.131, 95% CI: [0.063, 0.207]) and that the mediation chain between the two also had a significant impact on social connectedness (b = 0.167, 95% CI: [0.088, 0.251]). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, sharing physical activity experiences on SNS can create a positive, healthy, and energetic personal image, gain recognition from others, and establish new interpersonal relationships.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico , Cuarentena , Aislamiento Social , Red Social , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435497

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the resulting outbreak response measures in Germany and worldwide led to severe limitations in everyday life. This affected all sorts of daily activities and the possibility for physical activity (PA), which represents a major coping strategy against stress. The objective of this study was to analyse PA in German adults during a total lockdown phase including school closures in April 2020 in certain subgroups and in relation to other coping strategies. Data from the COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO) survey, an online cross-sectional study with 1034 participants between 18 and 74 years, were utilised (14/15 April 2020). In addition to descriptive analyses, the odds of performing PA according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for adults (at least 2.5 h/week of at least moderate intensity) were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. In total, 440 (42.6%) participants fulfilled this criterion. Participants with children <6 years were less likely to meet the WHO recommendation (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.33-0.78), while those with a higher level of education, good coping behaviour, regular alcohol consumption, and being satisfied with life were more likely to meet the WHO recommendation. In conclusion, PA intervention strategies tailored to specific vulnerable subgroups such as individuals with low educational background and parents with young children are needed in future pandemic response.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Pandemias , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Alemania , Humanos
10.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(1): 7501205120p1-7501205120p8, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399060

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Scanning the environment is critical for driving safety. The ScanCourse is a functional assessment that assesses a person's ability to scan the environment for visual information while in motion. Measurement properties for the ScanCourse have been reported; however, its predictive validity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive validity of the ScanCourse for on-road driving performance and establish clinical cutoff scores. DESIGN: Retrospective chart reviews were conducted over a 6-mo period. SETTING: Four Canadian driver rehabilitation programs. PARTICIPANTS: Charts from patients with neurological or vision conditions were eligible if they contained ScanCourse and on-road driving evaluation results between September 1, 2008, and August 30, 2018. Three hundred twenty-five charts were included for analysis. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to determine the predictive validity of ScanCourse scores for on-road outcomes; cutoff scores were established by optimizing sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: The ScanCourse had an AUC of .702. The optimal cutoff score was 18/20 with a sensitivity of 76.7% and a specificity of 47.1%. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Assessing the scanning abilities of at-risk drivers who intend to return to driving after sustaining an injury can help identify safety risks and inform interventions. The ScanCourse was found to have acceptable discriminatory ability for on-road driving performance. This study provides evidence supporting its continued use as a screening tool to assess driver fitness with an identified optimal cutoff score for clinical use. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Measuring the predictive ability of the ScanCourse assessment in relation to on-road driving performance provides occupational therapists with an evidence-based clinical tool to assist with screening fitness to drive among at-risk people.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Terapeutas Ocupacionales , Examen de Aptitud para la Conducción de Vehículos , Canadá , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 156-164, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413813

RESUMEN

Behavioral lifestyle factors are associated with cardiometabolic disease and obesity, which are risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate whether physical activity, and the timing and balance of physical activity and sleep/rest, were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity. Data from 91,248 UK Biobank participants with accelerometer data and complete covariate and linked COVID-19 data to July 19, 2020, were included. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity-in relation to overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), balance between activity and sleep/rest, and variability in timing of sleep/rest-was assessed with adjusted logistic regression. Of 207 individuals with a positive test result, 124 were classified as having a severe infection. Overall physical activity and MVPA were not associated with severe COVID-19, whereas a poor balance between activity and sleep/rest was (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.81]). This finding was related to higher daytime activity being associated with lower risk (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93) but higher movement during sleep/rest being associated with higher risk (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.42) of severe infection. Greater variability in timing of sleep/rest was also associated with increased risk (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.35). Results for testing positive were broadly consistent. In conclusion, these results highlight the importance of not just physical activity, but also quality sleep/rest and regular sleep/rest patterns, on risk of COVID-19. Our findings indicate the risk of COVID-19 was consistently approximately 1.2-fold greater per approximately 40-minute increase in variability in timing of proxy measures of sleep, indicative of irregular sleeping patterns.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Descanso , Sueño , Acelerometría , Anciano , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Reino Unido/epidemiología
12.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/prevención & control , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Familia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escocia/epidemiología , Sueño/fisiología , Higiene del Sueño , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Saudi Med J ; 42(1): 44-48, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399170

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify how children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes were coping with their condition during the COVID-19 lockdown, by detecting differences in blood glucose control and in lifestyle, including diet, physical activity, and mood deterioration, before and during the lockdown. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2020 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from interviews, using various forms of telecommunication. RESULTS: The total sample size was 150 patients, 48 (28%) of whom were males and 102 (72%) females. The mean age of the patients was 12.45 years. The lockdown was associated with a significant increase in patients' weight (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.001), and blood glucose readings (p=0.007) compared to their values before the lockdown. Conclusion: A negative impact of the COVID-19 lockdown was found on blood glucose values and BMI, which may correlate with a lack of physical activity, increased consumption of carbohydrates and fast food, and mood deterioration.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Adolescente , Afecto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamiento farmacológico , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Insulina/uso terapéutico , Pandemias/prevención & control , Arabia Saudita , Aumento de Peso
14.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 41(1): 1-5, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351538

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Masking has been employed as a strategy for reducing transmission of a variety of communicable diseases. With the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, many countries have implemented mandatory public masking. However, the perceived impact of mask use on pulmonary function has been a deterrent to public compliance with recommendations. COVID-19 has shed light on the impact that comorbid cardiac and pulmonary conditions may have on disease severity. This knowledge has led to increased primary and secondary prevention efforts for which exercise and rehabilitation are central. The importance of safe methods of exercise while mitigating risk of viral transmission is paramount to global recovery from the pandemic and prevention of future outbreaks. METHODS: We constructed a focused literature review of the impact of various masks on pulmonary function at rest and with exercise. This was then incorporated into recommendations for the integration of masks with exercise and rehabilitation in the COVID-19 era. RESULTS: While there is a paucity of evidence, we identified the physiological effects of masking at rest and during exercise to be negligible. The perceived impact appears to be far greater than the measured impact, and increased frequency of mask use leads to a physiological and psychological adaptive response. CONCLUSIONS: Masking during daily activities, exercise, and rehabilitation is safe in both healthy individuals and those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Rehabilitation participants should be reassured that the benefits of masking during COVID-19 far outweigh the risks, and increased frequency of mask use invokes adaptive responses that make long-term masking tolerable.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Pulmón/fisiología , Máscaras , Actividades Cotidianas , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Humanos , Máscaras/efectos adversos , Rehabilitación , Descanso/fisiología
15.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111823, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348187

RESUMEN

Air pollution has been a major health concern worldwide, such that there is an urgent need for exposure assessments of human exposure to air pollutants. As children are more active and may experience more exposure events than adults, it is more challenging to conduct exposure assessments for children. To obtain a general understanding of the impact that children's activity, associated with their respiratory rate (IR), has on estimated exposure risks, we adopted a simple model to narrow down children's exposure behaviors to four categories, which integrated children's regular schedules and the indoor-outdoor ratio (rI/O) of air pollutants. Although outdoor play only occupies approximately 8.6% of the total weekly time, the results indicate that, in general, outdoor play contributes to over 50% of the total exposure to air pollutants when rI/O is less than 0.1, which is due to children's relatively large IR during high-intensity activities. When air pollutants mainly originate from indoor sources (i.e., rI/O=3.0), indoor sitting (28%) and sleeping (36%) account for the major portion of the total exposure due to the longer exposure duration while outdoor events, including playing, walking, and sitting, account for ~15% of the total exposure. In addition, we applied a ratio function (RM/C) to compare our simple model to a common basic model, revealing that our simulated results are consistent with the basic model, i.e., 0.94≤RM/C≤1.12, if the rI/O of air pollutants falls in the range between 0.5 and 1.5. The sensitivity analysis indicates that indoor or outdoor play has a larger impact on the output results than other activity-related variables because of the correspondingly largest IR. We also incorporated weather factors to adjust children's activity schedules for winter and non-winter days showing the change in the contributions of children's activities to total exposure. For example, the contribution differential of outdoor play to the total exposure between winter and non-winter days is ~8% for air pollutants with an rI/O value of 0.1. Although other factors, such as the activity intensity level and concentration of air pollutant in the microenvironment, must be refined in future studies, our simple model can be applied as a convenient approach to arrange children's activity schedules against possible air pollutant exposure.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Niño , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Estaciones del Año , Factores de Tiempo
17.
J Sports Sci ; 39(1): 101-107, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842905

RESUMEN

As the world is witnessing the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019, emerging genetics and clinical pieces of evidence suggest a similar immunopathology to those of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome. Staying at home to prevent the spread of the virus and consequently being largely inactive is associated with unintended consequences. These can actually enhance the infection risk and exacerbate poor health conditions including impaired immune function. Physical activity is a feasible way of improving health, particularly physical and mental health in a time of social isolation. However, people with certain health conditions in these circumstances may need a special physical activity programme in addition to any exercise they may already be performing via online programmes. This review aims to provide practical guidelines during the COVID-19 quarantine period. We suggest performing aerobic, resistance training, respiratory muscle training and yoga in the healthy, and in those with upper respiratory tract illness, patients with lower respiratory tract illness should be restricted to respiratory muscle training and yoga. In addition, vitamins D and C, omega-3 fatty acids, and regular consumption of fruit and vegetables might be considered as nutritional aids to support the immune system in those affected by COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Dieta Saludable , Ejercicio Físico , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Política Nutricional , /inmunología , Humanos , Cuarentena
18.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(4): 553-565, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180431

RESUMEN

Background: A major therapeutic goal in weight management should be total body fat reduction whereas as preserving lean body mass and bone mass density. It is uncertain if an exercise program reduces the adverse effects of calorie restriction-induced weight loss in adults.Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in bone mass between adults who enrolled in a calorie restriction or an exercise-calorie restriction induced weight loss program.Data sources: Both PubMed and Scopus libraries were searched up to February 2020.Methods: Systematic reviews and a meta-analysis were carried out of randomized clinical trials (published to February 2020) on differences in bone mineral density and content (BMD and BMC) of adults who lost weight by calorie restriction alone (CR) or exercise-calorie restriction (CR-E). The study quality was calculated using the Cochrane scoring system. Retrieved data were pooled when weight mean differences (WMDs) were computed between two groups for BMD and BMC at various sites of the body.Results: Thirteen studies, with a total of 852 participants were included. Available evidence found significantly higher BMD at the hip (WMD: 0.03 g/cm2, 95%CI: 0.01 to 0.04, p < 0.001) and femoral neck WMD: 0.03 g/cm2, 95%CI: 0.01 to 0.05, p < 0.001) and total body BMC (WMD: 0.13 kg/cm2, 95%CI: -0.10 to 0.36, p < 0.001) in the CR-E compared to the CR weight loss group. In contrast, all changes in total body BMD (WMD: 0.00 g/cm2, 95%CI: -0.01 to 0.02, p = 0.57) and lumbar spine BMD (WMD: 0.00 g/cm2, 95%CI: -0.01 to 0.01, p = 0.89) were not statistically significant.Limitations: Little evidence was available for different sexes separately. Most individuals were postmenopausal females and no subgroup analysis could be conducted based on menopausal status.Conclusion: This study suggests that physical training can preserve and even significantly increase the bone mass of the hip and femoral neck during weight reduction. Of note, various exercise modalities affected BMD at different sites. Similar results were not found for lumbar spine and total body BMD.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Restricción Calórica , Adulto , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Vértebras Lumbares , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
19.
Appetite ; 156: 104853, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038479

RESUMEN

Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID-19 crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected. We examined weight-related behaviors and weight management barriers among UK adults during the COVID-19 social lockdown. During April-May of the 2020 COVID-19 social lockdown, UK adults (N = 2002) completed an online survey including measures relating to physical activity, diet quality, overeating and how mental/physical health had been affected by lockdown. Participants also reported on perceived changes in weight-related behaviors and whether they had experienced barriers to weight management, compared to before the lockdown. A large number of participants reported negative changes in eating and physical activity behavior (e.g. 56% reported snacking more frequently) and experiencing barriers to weight management (e.g. problems with motivation and control around food) compared to before lockdown. These trends were particularly pronounced among participants with higher BMI. During lockdown, higher BMI was associated with lower levels of physical activity and diet quality, and a greater reported frequency of overeating. Reporting a decline in mental health because of the COVID-19 crisis was not associated with higher BMI, but was predictive of greater overeating and lower physical activity in lockdown. The COVID-19 crisis may have had a disproportionately large and negative influence on weight-related behaviors among adults with higher BMI.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Salud Mental , Obesidad , Pandemias , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiología , Hiperfagia/psicología , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/psicología , Bocadillos , Aislamiento Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
20.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(1): 70-75, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969531

RESUMEN

COVID-19 outbreak has a profound impact on almost every aspect of life. Universal masking is recommended as a means of source control. Routinely exercising in a safe environment is an important strategy for healthy living during this crisis. As sports clubs and public spaces may serve a source of viral transmission, masking may become an integral part of physical activity. This study aimed to assess the physiological effects of wearing surgical masks and N95 respirators during short-term strenuous workout. This was a multiple cross-over trial of healthy volunteers. Using a standard cycle ergometry ramp protocol, each subject performed a maximal exercise test without a mask, with a surgical mask, and with an N95 respirator. Physiological parameters and time to exhaustion were compared. Each subject served his own control. Sixteen male volunteers (mean age and BMI of 34 ± 4 years and 28.72 ± 3.78 kg/m2 , respectively) completed the protocol. Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and time to exhaustion did not differ significantly. Exercising with N95 mask was associated with a significant increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2 ) levels. The differences were more prominent as the load increased, reaching 8 mm Hg at exhaustion (none vs N95, P = .001). In conclusion, in healthy subjects, short-term moderate-strenuous aerobic physical activity with a mask is feasible, safe, and associated with only minor changes in physiological parameters, particularly a mild increase in EtCO2 . Subjects suffering from lung diseases should have a cautious evaluation before attempting physical activity with any mask.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico , Máscaras , Pandemias , Adulto , Estudios Cruzados , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Humanos , Masculino , Volver al Deporte
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