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1.
Wiad Lek ; 73(1): 145-150, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124825

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The article examines the health-saving competencies of fitness technologies usage during physical education classes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Experimental work was carried out in three stages, each of which was characterized by certain goals and objectives, corresponding forms and methods of research organization. To determine the formation of each of the studied components, we used complex of valid diagnostic techniques. RESULTS: Results: Implementation of the methodological system significantly influenced on general level of motivational, cognitive, activity and reflexive component formation, which significantly improved, compared with the students of control groups who studied under the traditional system. Evaluation of students' competence in applying fitness technologies showed a high efficiency of the introduced methodological system. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The introduced methodical system of fitness technologies application contributed to increase of the level of students' preparedness by criteria of organizational, communicative, perceptual, speech abilities to fitness technologies, general cultural level, social activity and their involvement in healthy lifestyle. At the same time, the formation of competences in fitness technology usage contributed to the creation of new content of the main components of the methodological system.


Asunto(s)
Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Estudiantes , Ejercicio , Humanos , Motivación
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(684): 444-447, 2020 Mar 04.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134223

RESUMEN

The health benefits of regular physical activity are undeniable. There is a dose-response relationship between total physical activity and health outcomes, and thus every opportunity should be seized to exercise more. Among the methods used to increase the level of physical activity, physical activity counselling delivered in clinical practice is effective. The Pas à Pas+ project presented in this article allows to extend the advice from the healthcare professional and to lead up the patient to a physically more active lifestyle, providing a support in physical activity on prescription. There are several -challenges that need to be addressed in order to anchor definitely physical activity counselling and its delegation to professionals in adapted physical activity in the healthcare setting.


Asunto(s)
Consejo , Ejercicio/fisiología , Terapia por Ejercicio , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
6.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 94-99, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141858

RESUMEN

Aim - to investigate the effect of oxidative stress on the autonomic nervous system state in patients with liver cirrhosis. In a randomized way with the preliminary startification by the presence of LC 81 patients - 55 (67.9%) males, 26 (32.1%) females, aged 46.9±10.8 years were included to the study after the signing the informed cosent. All the patients underwent the comprehensive clinical laboratory and instrumental examination of all organs and systems in accordance with the requirements of the modern medicine.Among the indicators of redox homeostasis the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and of catalase (CAT) were determined. The study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) status was carried out using the registration of heart rate variability (HRV) before and after the physical activity. The results were processed on a personal computer in Statistica 6.0, RStudio v. 1.1.442 and R Commander v.2.4-4 using descriptive statistics. The difference was considered statistically significant if p<0.05. The results of HRV time parameters analysis before the physical activity revealed that MDA content negatively correlated with mean duration of NN (RR) intervals (RRNN), standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), the square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN interval (RMSSD), percent of consecutive NN intervals with difference more then 50 mc between (pNN 50%), percent of variation coefficient (CV%) and positively - with heart rate. This is verified by the fact that the CAT content positively correlated with RRNN, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN 50% and negatively - with heart rate.The results of the study of HRV spectral analysis correlation relationships revealed that MDA content negatively and CAT - positively correlated with total power (TP), high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF), very low frequency (VLF), LF/HF index, percent of very low frequency (%VLF), percent of low frequency (%LF), percent of high frequency (%HF). The results of analysis of HRV time analysis parameters after the physical activity revealed that the MDA content negatively correlated with CV% and the content of CAT positively correlated with SDNN, CV%. The results of the study of the correlation relationships of the HRV spectral analysis parameters after the physical activity revealed that the content of CAT positively correlated with TP, LF, VLF. Oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system activity lack, as important pathogenetic parts of vascular tone dysfunction, have a significant effect on the ANS in patients with LC, causing the predominance of the sympathetic branch activity over the parasympathetic one. Oxidative stress, triggering the relevant pathogenetic mechanisms has an effect on the autonomic nervous system in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the realization of the dominant influence of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is minimized due to the decrease in the sensitivity of receptors to vasoconstrictors, including to neurotransmitters.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso Autónomo , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Cirrosis Hepática , Estrés Oxidativo , Adulto , Anciano , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiología , Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 268: 1-13, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141875

RESUMEN

As technological innovations continue to be developed and introduced within healthcare, public health, and our daily lives, human beings now have access to sophisticated and powerful tools that could be used in a variety of ways to change health behaviours. Information and communications technology (ICT) features prominently among 21st century innovations, and we must consider how they may be used to help or hinder our efforts to address population health challenges. There are numerous relevant challenges that need to be addressed within healthcare, public health, and other areas relevant to population health. The Australian population is aging (increasing in both the absolute number, and also proportion of older adults), along with having greater levels of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and other chronic diseases that will take a large toll on Australia. There are many lifestyle determinants of chronic disease that could potentially be addressed through ICT-based intervention efforts to improve diet, physical activity, alcohol, tobacco, sleep, and sexual behaviour. Challenges also include better delivery of what innovations or interventions have been shown to work, how we can best help those who need help the most, and how to implement policy, systems, or environmental interventions that can help to make healthy behaviours more convenient, attractive, and normative. As the name suggests, ICT involves any technology that allows us to store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit, or receive information electronically in a digital form. Although such technologies may allow us to reach more people than we could without them, and to do so in more rapid manner, with better geographic reach than ever before, ICT does not automatically provide any advantage in addressing the key drivers of health behaviour. Information itself could be useful-but is almost never sufficient-to facilitate health behaviour change; rather, information must instead be placed within the context of the key drivers of behaviour change. These drivers can be described most simply as factors that enhance people's capability, opportunity, and motivation to engage in health promoting behaviour, or their obverse, behaviours that undermine health. Beyond the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission, or receipt of information, we must ensure that key drivers of behaviour are built into ICT approaches. Understanding, predicting, and influencing human behaviour is crucially important if we aim to address relevant population health challenges, and to achieve better health and wellness within populations. In other words, if we want to be well, we need to be "well behaved." Illustrative examples will be shared from the author's research studies, primarily focused on motivating and building the capability of adult leaders to provide better opportunities for children to be physically active, eat healthfully, and to establish health promoting habits. These studies range from interventions set in girl scouts, schools, and whole communities, with a variety of ICT approaches.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Salud Poblacional , Australia , Dieta , Ejercicio , Humanos
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 268: 15-30, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141876

RESUMEN

The 10,000 Steps program originated from a landmark whole-of-community multi-strategy intervention to increase physical activity (PA) in Rockhampton, Australia in 2001-2003. It used a social ecological framework to promote physical activity at the individual, population, environmental and policy level. Two of the fundamental aspects of the original program were goal setting (10,000 steps per day) and self-monitoring (use of a pedometer for daily step counts). A project website (www.10000steps.org.au) allowed registered participants to record their physical activity. Over time the program morphed into an e- & mHealth intervention without face-to-face elements. The program is now delivered via website and smartphone apps and employs activity trackers (pedometers, Fitbit, Garmin). To date the project has signed-up over 425,000 members who have logged 221 billion steps (∼43 million a day) on the website or app. More than 14,000 workplaces and community organisations have been involved with the program. A central element of the program, the 'Workplace Challenge' has been used by ∼65% of 10,000 Steps members, which on average increases physical activity by 159 min/week for those who participate in it. In 2011, the Queensland Government designated the 10,000 Steps program as their key physical activity workplace health promotion strategy. Multiple factors underpin the success of the program. The message is simple and clear: the project name, with its distinctive logo and tagline ('Every Step Counts') provides a clear and prescriptive target for the physical activity 'dose'. Using effective behaviour change techniques: goal setting (the 10,000 Steps concept), self-monitoring (steps are tracked), social support (participants organise as 'teams' to reach certain step goals) and gamification (teams competing against each other creating 'friendly competition'). Ongoing redevelopment: since inception, there have been three complete redesigns of the website (including a branding redesign), and new smartphone apps. More recently, the website was modified to allow syncing of steps using popular activity trackers. Resources to support implementation: the program provides resources (e.g. 'Active Workplace Guide') and has dedicated staff to respond to queries from workplaces and individuals to help overcome implementation barriers. Project staff continuously promote the program via media interviews, attendance at events, social media and marketing, advertising, and networking and collaboration. Ongoing evaluation has contributed to continuous funding: to ensure the program remains successful in a fast-changing technology environment, continuous evaluation has been necessary. These evaluation strategies, the success of the original project and the strong partnership with the program funder (Queensland Health) have all contributed to the long-term (19 years) support for the project.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Promoción de la Salud , Actigrafía , Australia , Humanos , Queensland
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 268: 31-43, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141877

RESUMEN

Health behaviour change programs that utilise IT-based delivery have great potential to improve health. Whilst more static Web 1.0 technologies have been somewhat effective, they often failed to promote longer-term user engagement required for greater health promotion impact. With Web 2.0 technologies, however, there is potential for greater engagement and retention, through allowing individuals to determine how information is generated, modified, and shared collaboratively. The WALK 2.0 study utilised a Web 2.0-based platform to engage participants in health behaviour change aimed at increasing physical activity levels. The program included two trials: (1) a three-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) that compared the effectiveness of Web 2.0, Web 1.0, and paper-based logbook interventions; and (2) a real-world randomised ecological trial (RET) that compared a Web 2.0 and Web 1.0 intervention. The aim of this paper is not to focus on the research trial results per se, but rather the success factors and challenges in both the RCT and RET. Both the RCT and RET demonstrated successful outcomes, with greater improvements in physical activity for the Web 2.0 groups. A range of challenges, however, were identified in designing, implementing, and evaluating such interventions. These include IT-based intervention development within a research context, the ability to establish a self-sustaining online community, the rapid pace of change in web-based technology and implications for trial design, the selection of best outcome measures for ecological trials, and managing engagement, non-usage and study attrition in real-world trials. Future research and developments in this area must look to broader research designs that allow for the ever-changing IT-user landscape and behaviour, and greater reliance on development and testing in real-world settings.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Recolección de Datos , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200008, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130397

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sedentary behavior has been associated with several health indicators. This study aims to describe this outcome in elderly people living in rural areas. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elderly people from the rural area in the city of Rio Grande/RS, in 2017. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Sedentary behavior was evaluated by eight aspects: watching television/videos/DVDs, using computer/internet, reading, socializing with friends and/or family, driving or riding a car/bike/taking public transport, practicing a hobby, working, and other activities. The analysis was composed by the description of aspects and multivariable (linear regression) analysis to test associations between the outcome and socioeconomic, demographic and physical activity characteristics. Association of the excess of sedentary behavior and time watching television within the independent variables was also verified. RESULTS: The mean of sedentary behavior was 274.9 minutes/day (n = 1,030), but watching television represented almost half (130.5 minutes/ day). Age was inversely associated with sedentary behavior, while income and schooling presented a direct relation. Income had a positive association with excessive sedentary behavior and time watching television. CONCLUSION: The mean sedentary behavior was lower when compared with the literature for the elderly. We suggest that actions to encourage healthy habits aim especially at reducing the time spent watching television.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sedentaria , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Televisión , Factores de Tiempo
12.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(1): 51-56, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150214

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived functional cross-sectional area (FCSA) and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) to define skeletal muscle quality is of fundamental importance in order to understand aging and inactivity-related loss of muscle mass. OBJECTIVES: This study examined factors associated with lower-extremity skeletal muscle quality in healthy, younger, and middle-aged adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-eight participants (53% female) were classified as younger (20-35 years, n=50) or middle-aged (50-65 years, n=48) as well as sedentary (≤1 day per week) or active (≥3 days per week) on self-reported concurrent exercise (aerobic and resistance). MEASUREMENTS: All participants wore an accelerometer for seven days, recorded a three-day food diary, and participated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lower limbs. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined by tracing the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors, while muscle quality was established through the determination of FCSA and IMAT via color thresholding. RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance and stepwise regression models were performed to predict FCSA and IMAT. KE-IMAT (cm2) was significantly higher among sedentary (3.74 ± 1.93) vs. active (1.85 ± 0.56) and middle-aged (3.14 ± 2.05) vs. younger (2.74 ± 1.25) (p < 0.05). Protein intake (g•kg•day-1) was significantly higher in active (1.63 ± 0.55) vs. sedentary (1.19 ± 0.40) (p < 0.05). Sex, age, concurrent exercise training status, and protein intake were significant predictors of KE FCSA (R2 = 0.71, p < 0.01), while concurrent exercise training status and light physical activity predicted 33% of the variance in KE IMAT (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Concurrent exercise training, dietary protein intake, and light physical activity are significant determinants of skeletal muscle health and require further investigation to mitigate aging and inactivity-related loss of muscle quality.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ejercicio/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
13.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(1): 57-63, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150215

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human aging is characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammation suspected to contribute to reductions in skeletal muscle size, strength, and function. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), may play a role in the reduced skeletal muscle adaptive response seen in older individuals. OBJECTIVES: To investigate relationships between circulating IL-6, skeletal muscle health and exercise adaptation in mobility-limited older adults. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Exercise laboratory on the Health Sciences campus of an urban university. PARTICIPANTS: 99 mobility-limited (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) ≤9) older adults. INTERVENTION: 6-month structured physical activity with or without a protein and vitamin D nutritional supplement. MEASUREMENTS: Circulating IL-6, skeletal muscle size, composition (percent normal density muscle tissue), strength, power, and specific force (strength/CSA) as well as physical function (gait speed, stair climb time, SPPB-score) were measured pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: At baseline, Spearman's correlations demonstrated an inverse relationship (P<0.05) between circulating IL-6 and thigh muscle composition (r = -0.201), strength (r = -0.311), power (r = -0.210), and specific force (r = -0.248), and positive association between IL-6 and stair climb time (r = 0.256; P<0.05). Although the training program did not affect circulating IL-6 levels (P=0.69), reductions in IL-6 were associated with gait speed improvements (r = -0.487; P<0.05) in "higher" IL-6 individuals (>1.36 pg/ml). Moreover, baseline IL-6 was inversely associated (P<0.05) with gains in appendicular lean mass and improvements in SPPB score (r = -0.211 and -0.237, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings implicate age-related increases in circulating IL-6 as an important contributor to declines in skeletal muscle strength, quality, function, and training-mediated adaptation. Given the pervasive nature of inflammation among older adults, novel therapeutic strategies to reduce IL-6 as a means of preserving skeletal muscle health are enticing.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio/fisiología , Interleucina-6/sangre , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Anciano , Humanos , Limitación de la Movilidad
14.
Exerc Immunol Rev ; 26: 80-99, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139350

RESUMEN

An increasing body of evidence suggests that age-related immune changes and chronic inflammation contribute to cancer development. Recognizing that exercise has protective effects against cancer, promotes immune function, and beneficially modulates inflammation with ageing, this review outlines the current evidence indicating an emerging role for exercise immunology in preventing and treating cancer in older adults. A specific focus is on data suggesting that muscle- derived cytokines (myokines) mediate anti-cancer effects through promoting immunosurveillance against tumourigenesis or inhibiting cancer cell viability. Previous studies suggested that the exercise-induced release of myokines and other endocrine factors into the blood increases the capacity of blood serum to inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. However, little is known about whether this effect is influenced by ageing. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men. We therefore examined the effects of serum collected before and after exercise from healthy young and older men on the metabolic activity of androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-unresponsive PC3 prostate cancer cells. Exercise-conditioned serum collected from the young group did not alter cell metabolic activity, whereas post-exercise serum (compared with pre-exercise serum) from the older men inhibited the metabolic activity of LNCaP cancer cells. Serum levels of candidate cancer-inhibitory myokines oncostatin M and osteonectin increased in both age groups following exercise. Serum testosterone increased only in the younger men postexercise, potentially attenuating inhibitory effects of myokines on the LNCaP cell viability. The data from our study and the evidence in this review suggest that mobilizing serum factors and immune cells may be a key mechanism of how exercise counteracts cancer in the older population.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Ejercicio , Sistema Inmunológico , Oncostatina M/sangre , Osteonectina/sangre , Neoplasias de la Próstata/prevención & control , Anciano , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Exerc Immunol Rev ; 26: 8-22, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139352

RESUMEN

Multiple studies in humans and animals have demonstrated the profound impact that exercise can have on the immune system. There is a general consensus that regular bouts of short-lasting (i.e. up to 45 minutes) moderate intensity exercise is beneficial for host immune defense, particularly in older adults and people with chronic diseases. In contrast, infection burden is reported to be high among high performance athletes and second only to injury for the number of training days lost during preparation for major sporting events. This has shaped the common view that arduous exercise (i.e. those activities practiced by high performance athletes/ military personnel that greatly exceed recommended physical activity guidelines) can suppress immunity and increase infection risk. However, the idea that exercise per se can suppress immunity and increase infection risk independently of the many other factors (e.g. anxiety, sleep disruption, travel, exposure, nutritional deficits, environmental extremes, etc.) experienced by these populations has recently been challenged. The purpose of this debate article was to solicit opposing arguments centered around this fundamental question in the exercise immunology field: can exercise affect immune function to increase susceptibility to infection. Issues that were contested between the debating groups include: (i) whether or not athletes are more susceptible to infection (mainly of the upper respiratory tract) than the general population; (ii) whether exercise per se is capable of altering immunity to increase infection risk independently of the multiple factors that activate shared immune pathways and are unique to the study populations involved; (iii) the usefulness of certain biomarkers and the interpretation of in vitro and in vivo data to monitor immune health in those who perform arduous exercise; and (iv) the quality of scientific evidence that has been used to substantiate claims for and against the potential negative effects of arduous exercise on immunity and infection risk. A key point of agreement between the groups is that infection susceptibility has a multifactorial underpinning. An issue that remains to be resolved is whether exercise per se is a causative factor of increased infection risk in athletes. This article should provide impetus for more empirical research to unravel the complex questions that surround this contentious issue in the field of exercise immunology.


Asunto(s)
Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inmunología , Ejercicio , Inmunidad , /inmunología , Animales , Atletas , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico
16.
Exerc Immunol Rev ; 26: 24-42, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139353

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) is primarily degraded through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, which is dysregulated in several chronic diseases. KYN pathway metabolites have immune- and neuro-modulatory properties and are involved in th de novo synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Currently, little evidence exists demonstrating that physical exercise may influence this pathway. However, differences between acute and chronic stimuli as well as the influence of exercise modalities remain to be investigated. Here, we provide an overview of existing studies and present results of a randomized cross-over trial on acute effects of a single-bout of resistance and endurance exercise. METHODS: 24 healthy male adults conducted both an acute endurance exercise (EE) and resistance exercise (RE) session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and one hour after cessation of each exercise session. Outcomes comprised serum levels of TRP, KYN, kynurenic acid (KA), quinolinic acid (QA) and calculated ratios. Gene expression of the enzymes indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) 1 and kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) 4 was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, serum concentrations of the potential KYN pathway mediators interleukin (IL)-6 and cortisol were determined. Finally, we investigated baseline correlations between immune cell subsets, potential mediators and initial KYN pathway activation outcomes. RESULTS: The KYN/TRP ratio correlated positively with IL-6 and CD56bright NK-cells and negatively with CD56dim NKcells. Expression of IDO1 in PBMCs correlated positively with IL-6, regulatory T-cells and CD56bright NK-cells, whereas negative correlations to cytotoxic T-cells and CD56dim NKcells were revealed. A significant time effect on KYN/TRP ratio was detected for RE. Regarding KA and KA/KYN ratio, an increase after exercise followed by a decrease at the follow- up measurement was revealed in EE. KAT4 expression also increased after exercise in EE. Moreover, elevated QA levels were observed after the EE session. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to chronic exercise interventions, single-bouts of endurance exercise provoke acute alterations on KYN pathway outcomes in humans. Our results indicate that EE induces stronger alterations than RE. Enhanced conversion of KYN to both, KA and QA suggest a peripheral KYN clearance, thereby preventing pathological accumulation within the CNS. Future acute and chronic exercise studies are needed to examine the role of NAD+ synthesis starting with TRP and the interplay between KYN pathway activation and mid- to long-term immunological modulations.


Asunto(s)
Entrenamiento Aeróbico , Quinurenina/sangre , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Entrenamiento de Resistencia , Adulto , Estudios Cruzados , Ejercicio , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/inmunología , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenasa/inmunología , Interleucina-6/inmunología , Ácido Quinurénico/sangre , Leucocitos Mononucleares/enzimología , Masculino , Ácido Quinolínico/sangre , Transaminasas/inmunología , Triptófano/sangre
17.
Exerc Immunol Rev ; 26: 116-131, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139354

RESUMEN

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease that targets and destroys insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells. Although T cell mediated, a number of other immune cells are also critically involved in coordinating the events leading to T1D. Specifically, innate subsets play an important role in the pathogenesis of T1D. NK cells are one of the first cell types to infiltrate the pancreas, causing damage and release of beta cell antigens. Previous work in our group has shown differential mobilisation of highly differentiated CD8+ T cells during vigorous intensity exercise in T1D compared to a control cohort. Here, we aimed to explore exercise-induced mobilisation of other cell types involved in T1D pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of a single bout of vigorous (80% predicted VO2max) intensity exercise on innate cell mobilisation in T1D and control participants. T1D (N=12, mean age 33.2yrs, predicted VO2max 32.2 ml.kg.min⁻¹, BMI 25.3 kg.m⁻²) and control (N=12, mean age 29.4yrs, predicted VO2 max 38.5 ml.kg.min⁻¹, BMI 23.7 kg.m⁻² male participants completed a 30-minute bout of cycling at 80% predicted VO2 max in a fasted state. Peripheral blood was collected at baseline, immediately post-exercise, and 1 hour post-exercise. NK cell subsets mobilised during vigorous intensity exercise in both control and T1D participants. However, mature NK cells, defined as the CD56dimCD16bright subset, displayed a lower percentage increase following vigorous intensity exercise in T1D participants (Control: 185.12%, T1D: 97.06%). This blunted mobilisation was specific to early mature NK cells (KIR+) but not later differentiated NK cells (KIR+CD57+). Myeloid lineage subsets mobilised to a similar extent in both control and T1D participants. In conclusion, vigorous exercise mobilises innate immune cells in people with T1D albeit to a different extent to those without T1D. This mobilisation of innate immune cells provides a mechanistic argument to support exercise in people with T1D where it has the potential to improve surveillance for infection and to modulate the autoimmune response to the beta cell.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/inmunología , Ejercicio , Células Asesinas Naturales/citología , Activación de Linfocitos , Adulto , Antígeno CD56 , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de IgG
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19269, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080136

RESUMEN

The effects of exercise interventions on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients have received extensive attention and recognition. However, the influence of exercise-related behaviors on the effects of blood pressure control and the management factors that affect exercise behaviors remain inconclusive. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the relationships between exercise and exercise-related behaviors and blood pressure control, expecting to provide a scientific basis for further improvement of exercise intervention programs for patients with hypertension.Long-term residents in a community in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China who were diagnosed with hypertension at a medical facility were recruited for this study. Hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure were placed in the case group, and those with controlled blood pressure were placed in the control group. The count data were analyzed with the χ test based on α = 0.05. A univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to screen significant variables; independent variables were selected based on professional knowledge and were tested for co-linearity. These variables were incorporated into a non-conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis to analyze relevant factors for blood pressure control, while calculating odds ratio (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and P values. Differences with a P < .05 were considered statistically significant.A total of 598 patients were included in the present study. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that exercise (OR = 0.194; 95%CI: 0.133-0.283), frequency of self-monitoring of blood pressure (OR = 2.412; 95%CI: 1.137-5.117), and regular housework (OR = 0.397, 95%CI: 0.248-0.633) were statistically significant factors for blood pressure control. In addition, there was a relationship between exercise-related behaviors and blood pressure control: walking (OR = 0.189, 95% CI: 0.065-0.551), 60 to 120 min/day of exercise time (OR = 0.317, 95% CI: 0.118-0.856). Sex (OR = 2.248, 95% CI: 1.279-3.954), health belief (OR = 0.016, 95% CI: 0.004-0.059), and company of a family member during exercise (OR = 0.048, 95% CI: 0.025-0.094) were significant factors predictive of regular exercise in hypertensive patients.Improving exercise-related behaviors and their management can help improve the effects of exercise interventions on blood pressure control in middle-aged and elderly hypertensive patients.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Hipertensión/terapia , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Estudios de Casos y Controles , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Servicio de Limpieza , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Factores Sexuales , Apoyo Social , Caminata
19.
Unfallchirurg ; 123(3): 170-175, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095904

RESUMEN

Blood flow restriction (BFR) limits arterial and venous blood flow and leads to blood pooling, which could increase exercise-induced training effects. Strength training at lower intensities (20-30% of maximum strength) in combination with BFR showed similar effects on muscle hypertrophy as training with 70% without BFR. Low-intensity cycling endurance training with BFR improves muscle hypertrophy and endurance performance and activates angiogenesis. After determination of the complete occlusion pressure on the corresponding extremity, it is recommended that BFR training should be performed with 40-80% of the measured occlusion pressure. During strength training of the upper extremities, an occlusion of 60-80% leads to a reduction in the arterial blood flow by 20-50%. Local ischemia and hypoxia, a stronger metabolic stimulus, swelling of the muscle cells and the increased oxidative stress are discussed as causes for the increased training effects due to BFR. In short-term studies, comparable adjustments to parameters of fibrinolytic activity, coagulation and inflammation could be observed for strength training with and without BFR. So far, thromboses after BFR have been described only rarely but need to be further clarified by appropriate studies. The BFR training leads to a stronger activation of the muscular metabolic reflex and thus to a relatively greater increase in exercise blood pressure, so that cardiovascular parameters should be controlled during BFR training. First meta-analyses with small numbers of healthy people and patients indicate the effectiveness of BFR training. Standardization or guidelines for clinical use are still lacking.


Asunto(s)
Músculo Esquelético , Entrenamiento de Resistencia , Ejercicio , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/irrigación sanguínea , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional , Extremidad Superior
20.
Pneumologie ; 74(2): 88-102, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050280

RESUMEN

Cardiorespiratory fitness has been established as an independent overall predictor of morbidity and mortality. However, patients' symptoms or stated levels of exercise intolerance correlate only poorly with resting functional and imaging tests. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard for the integrative assessment of the cardiocirculatory, pulmonary and metabolic response to exercise and can help identify the source of exercise limitation, monitor disease progression, evaluate treatment responsiveness and inform about prognosis. Though CPET offers more valuable and pertinent information with slightly more expenditure of time compared to other methods even at submaximal exercise levels, it remains underutilized for various reasons such as costs, reimbursement and expertise. CPET can be seen as a complex, but not necessarily difficult tool. The objective of this review was to provide a description of the underlying principles of physiology, and an easy-to-follow guidance to indications, methodology, and interpretative strategies of CPET.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Prueba de Esfuerzo/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Ejercicio , Tolerancia al Ejercicio , Humanos , Consumo de Oxígeno
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