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1.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917454

RESUMEN

The biodegradable metals, including magnesium (Mg), are a convenient alternative to permanent metals but fast uncontrolled corrosion limited wide clinical application. Formation of a barrier coating on Mg alloys could be a successful strategy for the production of a stable external layer that prevents fast corrosion. Our research was aimed to develop an Mg stable oxide coating using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in silicate-based solutions. 99.9% pure Mg alloy was anodized in electrolytes contained mixtures of sodium silicate and sodium fluoride, calcium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), contact angle (CA), Photoluminescence analysis and immersion tests were performed to assess structural and long-term corrosion properties of the new coating. Biocompatibility and antibacterial potential of the new coating were evaluated using U2OS cell culture and the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, strain B 918). PEO provided the formation of a porous oxide layer with relatively high roughness. It was shown that Ca(OH)2 was a crucial compound for oxidation and surface modification of Mg implants, treated with the PEO method. The addition of Ca2+ ions resulted in more intense oxidation of the Mg surface and growth of the oxide layer with a higher active surface area. Cell culture experiments demonstrated appropriate cell adhesion to all investigated coatings with a significantly better proliferation rate for the samples treated in Ca(OH)2-containing electrolyte. In contrast, NaOH-based electrolyte provided more relevant antibacterial effects but did not support cell proliferation. In conclusion, it should be noted that PEO of Mg alloy in silicate baths containing Ca(OH)2 provided the formation of stable biocompatible oxide coatings that could be used in the development of commercial degradable implants.


Asunto(s)
Electrólisis , Magnesio/farmacología , Gases em Plasma/química , Silicatos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Líquidos Corporales/química , Calcio/análisis , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular , Materiales Biocompatibles Revestidos/farmacología , Electrodos , Humanos , Luminiscencia , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Oxidación-Reducción , Fósforo/análisis , Soluciones , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crecimiento & desarrollo
2.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112499, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823407

RESUMEN

The concentration of solids in secondary sludge before anaerobic digestion in a wastewater treatment plant, bring about the production of a return flow, which contains high concentrations of all the common pollutant parameters. This return flow could unfavourably affect the performance of the processes and effluent quality of the waterline. Here, we report the utilisation of three similar microbial electrolysis cells reactors that performs simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal to reduce the impact of the return flow in the plant. The result of the batch-fed (72 h) experiment showed COD and total nitrogen removal efficiencies that reached 90% and 80%, respectively, supporting the premise that return flows are suitable substrates for a bioelectrochemical treatment. The three reactors followed similar trends, showing good replicability and confirming the potential of MECs as a feasible technology for return flow treatment. Furthermore, when cathodic conversion efficiency was higher than 80%, the pure hydrogen production allows to recover the electric energy consumption, indicating that the system could be theoretically energy neutral.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno , Purificación del Agua , Reactores Biológicos , Carbono , Electrólisis , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(8): 1973-1986, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905366

RESUMEN

Long-term accumulation of cobalt-containing wastewater may also pollute groundwater and cause a large amount of loss of valuable metals. Therefore, the comprehensive utilization of cobalt-containing wastewater must be realized, especially as cobalt itself is a very important strategic resource. This paper proposes a membrane electroconversion method to separate cobalt ions from cobalt-containing wastewater and prepare cobalt hydroxide. In addition, the electrolysis process was optimized, and single-factor experiments such as the initial concentration, cobalt ions, current density, temperature etc., and economic calculations such as current efficiency were explored. The electrolysis product was calcined as the precursor to obtain the oxide Co3O4, and the calcination experiment was also optimized. In this concentration range, more than 90% of cobalt can be recovered within 2 h.


Asunto(s)
Cobalto , Aguas Residuales , Electrólisis , Óxidos
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799443

RESUMEN

This case study covers the application of the fuzzy optimization in simultaneously satisfying various constraints that include the compliance of ammonia and nitrate concentrations with stringent environmental standards. Essential components in the multi-criteria decision-making analysis is in the utilization of the Box-Behnken design (BBD) response equations, cost equations and the cumulative uncertainty of response towards the sodium chloride dosage, current density and electrolysis time parameters. The energy consumption in the electrochemical oxidation of ammonia plays an essential role in influencing the total operating cost analysis. The determination of boundary limits based on the global optimum resulted in the complete ammonia removal and USD 64.0 operating cost as its maximum boundary limits and the 40.6% ammonia removal and USD 17.1 as its minimum boundary limits. Based on the fuzzy optimal results, the overall satisfaction level incurred a decrease in adhering with a lower ammonia standard concentration (10 mg/L at 80.3% vs. 1.9 mg/L at 76.1%) due to a higher energy consumption requirement. Global optimal fuzzy results showed to be highly cost efficient (232.5% lower) as compared to using BBD alone. This demonstrates the practicality of fuzzy optimization applications in the electrochemical reactions.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco , Electrólisis , Electrodos , Nitratos , Oxidación-Reducción
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2008, 2021 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790295

RESUMEN

Despite the tremendous progress of coupling organic electrooxidation with hydrogen generation in a hybrid electrolysis, electroreforming of raw biomass coupled to green hydrogen generation has not been reported yet due to the rigid polymeric structures of raw biomass. Herein, we electrooxidize the most abundant natural amino biopolymer chitin to acetate with over 90% yield in hybrid electrolysis. The overall energy consumption of electrolysis can be reduced by 15% due to the thermodynamically and kinetically more favorable chitin oxidation over water oxidation. In obvious contrast to small organics as the anodic reactant, the abundance of chitin endows the new oxidation reaction excellent scalability. A solar-driven electroreforming of chitin and chitin-containing shrimp shell waste is coupled to safe green hydrogen production thanks to the liquid anodic product and suppression of oxygen evolution. Our work thus demonstrates a scalable and safe process for resource upcycling and green hydrogen production for a sustainable energy future.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos/química , Quitina/química , Electrólisis/métodos , Hidrógeno/química , Energía Renovable , Acetatos/metabolismo , Biomasa , Quitina/metabolismo , Electrodos , Electrólisis/instrumentación , Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Estructura Molecular , Oxidación-Reducción , Espectroscopía de Protones por Resonancia Magnética , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 331: 125030, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823486

RESUMEN

Maintaining high current densities is a key challenge in scaling-up microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) reactors. In this study, a novel 10 L MEC reactor with a total electrode surface area greater than 1 m2 was designed and evaluated to maximize the current density and H2 recovery. Performances of the reactor suggest that the longitudinal structure with parallel vertical orientation of the electrodes encouraged high fluid mixing and the sheet metal electrode frames provided distributed electrical connection. Results also demonstrated that the electrode pairs located next to reactor walls decreased current density, as did separating the electrodes with separators. High volumetric H2 production rate of 5.9 L/L/d was achieved at a volumetric current density of 970 A/m3 (34 A/m2). Moreover, the observed current densities of the large reactor were accurately predicted based on the internal resistance analysis of small scale MECs (0.15 L), demonstrating the scalability of the single chamber MEC design.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Electricidad , Electrodos , Electrólisis , Hidrógeno
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1230-1241, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724949

RESUMEN

This work constructed a divided diaphragm seawater electrolysis system with two tandem packed towers for the synergistic removal of NOx and SO2. The first tower was mainly used to oxidize NO and SO2 by AC (active chlorine), and the second tower was used to further absorb NOx. The factors affecting on NO removal, including ACC (active chlorine concentration), pH value, initial NO concentration and temperature in the oxidation tower were investigated. Moreover, the effect of different inlet gas concentrations and current values were explored. The results showed that with the increase of ACC, the NO and NOx removal efficiency increased rapidly, but when the ACC was higher than 500 mg/L [Cl2], the removal efficiency did not increase further in the oxidation tower. Low pH values in the oxidation tower were favorable for NO removal. NO removal efficiency reached a maximum at 40 °C. Higher NO and SO2 concentrations were favorable for NO removal. The decline of pH in the anode cell was not conducive to the storage of AC in the continuous electrolysis removal process. NOx and SO2 were almost completely removed after being scrubbed in the oxidation and absorption towers. The relationship between current and removal efficiency of NO and SO2 in the oxidation tower was also analyzed. Finally, the removal mechanism and the application prospects were discussed.


Asunto(s)
Navíos , Dióxido de Azufre , Diafragma/química , Electrólisis , Agua de Mar , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis
8.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672940

RESUMEN

Pseudomonas is considered as the specific spoilage bacteria in meat and meat products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inactivation efficiency and mechanisms of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against Pseudomonas deceptionensis CM2, a strain isolated from spoiling chicken breast. SAEW caused time-dependent inactivation of P. deceptionensis CM2 cells. After exposure to SAEW (pH 5.9, oxidation-reduction potential of 945 mV, and 64 mg/L of available chlorine concentration) for 60 s, the bacterial populations were reduced by 5.14 log reduction from the initial load of 10.2 log10 CFU/mL. Morphological changes in P. deceptionensis CM2 cells were clearly observed through field emission-scanning electron microscopy as a consequence of SAEW treatment. SAEW treatment also resulted in significant increases in the extracellular proteins and nucleic acids, and the fluorescence intensities of propidium iodide and n-phenyl-1-napthylamine in P. deceptionensis CM2 cells, suggesting the disruption of cytoplasmic and outer membrane integrity. These findings show that SAEW is a promising antimicrobial agent.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos/farmacología , Membrana Celular/patología , Electrólisis , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Pseudomonas/efectos de los fármacos , Agua/farmacología , Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Membrana Celular/ultraestructura , Permeabilidad de la Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Citoplasma/efectos de los fármacos , Desinfección , Pseudomonas/citología , Pseudomonas/ultraestructura
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124965, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735725

RESUMEN

With the increasing of data in wastewater treatment, data-driven machine learning models are useful for modeling biological processes and complex reactions. However, few data-driven models have been developed for simulating the microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and traditional models are too ambiguous to comprehend the mechanisms. In this study, a new general data-driven two-stage model was firstly developed to predict CH4 production from in-situ biogas upgrading in the biocathode MECs via direct electron transfer (DET), named NARX-BP hybrid neural networks. Compared with traditional one-stage model, the model could well predict methane production via DET with excellent performance (all R2 and MES of 0.918 and 6.52 × 10-2, respectively) and reveal the mechanisms of biogas upgrading, for the new systematical modeling approach could improve the versatility and applicability by inputting significant intermediate variables. In addition, the model is generally available to support long-term prediction and optimal operation for anaerobic digestion or complex MEC systems.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Metano , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Electrólisis , Electrones , Aprendizaje Automático , Redes Neurales de la Computación
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144761, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736424

RESUMEN

Intensified Mn redox cycling could enhance nutrient removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). In this study, Mn oxides (birnessite-coated sand) were used as the matrix in horizontal flow CWs (HFCWs) with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) (E-B-CW) or without an MEC (B-CW). The model CWs were developed to investigate the capacities and mechanisms of nitrogen removal with increased Mn redox cycling. The results showed that E-B-CW had the highest average removal efficiencies for NH4-N, NO3-N and TN, followed by B-CW and control HFCW (C-CW). The Mn(III) oxides (MnOOH or Mn2O3) and the Mn(IV) oxide (MnO2) were all detected in E-B-CW and B-CW, while the matrix in E-B-CW had much more Mn(IV) oxides than B-CW. Interestingly, clustering heat map showed that ammonification and nitrate reduction were related to Mn-oxidizing bacteria and the relative abundance of Mn-oxidizing bacteria in E-B-CW was highest due to the re-oxidation of Mn(II) by the MEC.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno , Humedales , Desnitrificación , Electrólisis , Compuestos de Manganeso , Óxidos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
11.
Chemosphere ; 273: 129696, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524759

RESUMEN

The electro-oxidation of tetracycline (TeC) in methanol medium containing chloride or sulfate ions was evaluated using a DSA®-Cl2 in a flow reactor and compared with BDD. The results show that after 30 min of electrolysis no TeC is detected by liquid chromatography when chloride is used as supporting electrolyte. On the other hand, after 90 min of electrolysis using a BDD anode only 61% of TeC was removed from solutions with chloride, but in the presence of sulfate the removal reaches 94%. This evidences that the oxidizing species generated during electrochemical oxidation control the process and the mechanism of degradation of the TeC. Besides that, it was possible to infer that only a small amount of methanol might convert to formaldehyde or formic acid, although they were not detected according to the nil changes in the FTIR spectra or in the HPLC chromatograms recorded.


Asunto(s)
Metanol , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Diamante , Electrodos , Electrólisis , Oxidación-Reducción , Sulfatos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578856

RESUMEN

In this study, a Ti/IrO2-Ta2O5 anode was prepared by a hydrothermal method, and the prepared electrode was characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. At the same time, the anode characteristics before and after electrochemical experiments were analyzed. The electrode gradation mechanism of oxytetracycline is discussed. In the whole experimental process, the range of electrolysis conditions was determined by single factor experiment, and then the optimal removal condition of oxytetracycline was determined by orthogonal experiments. The removal rate of oxytetracycline reached 99.02% after 20 min of electrolysis under the following optimal conditions: a current of 0.500 A, plate spacing of 2 cm, Na2SO4 electrolyte concentration of 4 g/L, and solution pH of 3. Additionally, the mechanism of oxytetracycline removal was explored, free radical scavenging experiments were performed, and the degradation mechanism was inferred based on the changes in the ultraviolet absorption of the oxytetracycline solution before and after electrolysis. Then, based on the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data, seven possible compounds and five possible removal pathways were proposed.


Asunto(s)
Oxitetraciclina , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Electrodos , Electrólisis , Oxidación-Reducción , Titanio , Difracción de Rayos X
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 774: 145733, 2021 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609841

RESUMEN

Bio-cathode Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising and eco-friendly technology for concurrent hydrogen production and heavy metal reduction. However, the bioreduction of Antimony (Sb) in a bio-electrochemical system with H2 production is not explored. In this study, two efficient sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) strains were used to investigate the enhanced bioreduction of sulfate and Sb with H2 production in the MEC. SRB Bio-cathode MEC was developed from the microbial fuel cell (MFC) and operated with an applied voltage of 0.8 V. The performance of the SRB bio-cathode was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. SRB strains of BY7 and SR10 supported the synergy reduction of sulfate and Sb by sulfide metal precipitation reaction. Hydrogen gas was the main product of SRB bio-cathode, with 86.9%, and 83.6% of H2 is produced by SR10 and BY7, respectively. Sb removal efficiency reached up to 88.2% in BY7 and 96.3% in SR10 with a sulfate reduction rate of 92.3 ± 2.6 and 98.4 ± 1.6 gm-3d-1 in BY7 and SR10, respectively. The conversion efficiency of Sb (V) to Sb (III) reached up to 70.1% in BY7 and 89.2% in SR10. It was concluded that the total removal efficiency of Sb relies on the amount of sulfide concentration produced by the sulfate reduction reaction. The hydrogen production rate was increased up to 1.25 ± 0.06 (BY7) and 1.36 ± 0.02 m3 H2/(m3·d) (SR10) before addition of Sb and produced up to 0.893 ± 0.03 and 0.981 ± 0.02 m3H2/(m3·d) after addition of Sb. The precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which confirmed Sb (V) was reduced to Sb2S3.


Asunto(s)
Antimonio , Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Electrodos , Electrólisis , Hidrógeno , Sulfatos
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124676, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556705

RESUMEN

Global need for transformation from fossil-based to bio-based economy is constantly emerging for the production of low-carbon/renewable energy/products. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) catalysed by bio-electrochemical process gained significant attention initially for its unique potential to generate energy. Diversification of MFC is an emerging trend in the context of prioritising/enhancing product output while exploring the mechanism specificity of individual processes. Bioelectrochemical treatment system (BET), microbial electrosynthesis system (MES), bioelectrochemical system (BES), electro-fermentation (EF), microbial desalination cell (MDC), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and electro-methanogenesis (EM) are the diversified MFC systems that are being researched actively. Owing to its broad diversification, MFC domain is increasing its potential credibility as a platform technology. Microbial catalyzed electrochemical reactions are the key which directly/indirectly are proportionally linked to electrometabolic activity of microorganisms towards final anticipated output. This review intends to holistically document the mechanisms, applications and current trends of MFC diversifications towards multi-faced applications.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Electrodos , Electrólisis , Fermentación
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124788, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561662

RESUMEN

Microbial electrolysis cells have attracted attention as a method to enhance anaerobic digesters' performance. However, optimization of individual factors is not directly transferrable among systems as many are intimately linked and influenced by the system design, influent, and inoculum. To avoid this, here the effects and interactions between the relative electrode size, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and voltage imposed have been explored within a pair of otherwise identical reactors. Methane production has a positive correlation with the applied voltage, reaching 12.9 mLCH4 L-1h-1 with 10 days HRT and 1000 mV, also achieving 35% energy storage efficiency, despite the higher electrical input. Shorter HRTs led to bacterial washouts, reducing the methane production below 10 mLCH4 L-1h-1. Contour plots were constructed to relate the energy storage efficiency with operational conditions changes. These highlighted the benefits of using a relatively larger cathode than anode for improving energy storage efficiency.


Asunto(s)
Electrólisis , Metano , Bacterias , Reactores Biológicos , Electricidad , Electrodos
16.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116604, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548671

RESUMEN

The effects of voltage intensity on the nutrient removal performance and microbial community in the iron electrolysis-integrated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) system were investigated over a period of 15 weeks. Results revealed that the application outcomes of iron electrolysis for AGS systems relied on voltage intensity. When a constant voltage of 1.5 V was applied, the sludge granulation was most obviously accelerated with a specific growth rate of the sludge diameter of 0.078 day-1, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) increased by 14.1% and 20.2%, respectively, compared to the control reactor (without the iron electrolysis-integration). Moreover, the AGS developed at different voltages included different microbial communities, whose shifts were driven by the Fe content and the average diameter of AGS. Both heterotrophic nitrifiers and mixotrophic denitrifiers were significantly enriched in the AGS developed at 1.5 V, which effectively enhanced TN removal. Together with the response of the functional genes involved in Fe, N, and P metabolism, the electrolytic iron-driven nutrient degradation pathway was further elaborated. Overall, this study clarified the optimum voltage condition when iron electrolysis was integrated into the AGS system, and revealed the enhancement mechanism of this coupling technology on nutrient removal during the treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Aerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Electrólisis , Hierro , Nitrógeno , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
17.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112064, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588169

RESUMEN

Powering electrochemical technologies with renewable energies is a promising way to get more sustainable environmental remediation techniques. However, the operational conditions of those processes must be optimized to undergo fast and efficient treatments. In this work, the influence of electrical and hydraulic connections in the performance of a set of two electrolyzers directly powered by photovoltaic panels was evaluated. Despite both electrolyzers were assembled using the same electrode material, they showed different performances. Results indicate that the electrolyzer with higher ohmic resistance and higher overpotential attained a greater production of oxidant species, being produced under the most efficient strategy around 4.8 and 15.1 mmol of oxidants per Ah by electrolyzer 1 and 2, respectively. Nevertheless, an excess of oxidant production because of an inefficient energy management, led to low removal efficiencies as a consequence of a waste of energy into undesirable reactions. Regarding the hydraulic distribution of wastewater between the cells, it was found to influence on the total remediation attained, being the serial connection 2.5 and 1.8 more efficient than a parallel wastewater distribution under series and parallel electrical strategies, respectively. Regarding electrical strategies, parallel connections maximize the use of power produced by the photovoltaic panels. Furthermore, this allows the system to work under lower current densities, reducing the mass transfer limitations. Considering both advantages, a hydraulic connection of the cells in series and an electrical connection in parallel was found to reach the highest specific removal of pollutant, 2.52 mg clopyralid (Wh)-1. Conversely, the opposite strategy (parallel hydraulic connection-series electrical connection) showed the lowest remediation ratio, 0.48 mg clopyralid (Wh)-1. These results are important to be considered in the design of electrolytic treatments of waste directly powered by photovoltaic panels, because they show the way to optimize the cells stack layout in full-scale applications, exhibiting significant impact on the sustainability of the electrochemical application.


Asunto(s)
Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Aguas Residuales , Electricidad , Electrodos , Electrólisis
18.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111869, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385897

RESUMEN

In this paper, two control laws are proposed and applied in a model for a continuous Microbial Electrochemical Cells system. The used model is based on mass balances describing the behavior of substrate consumption, microbial growth, competition between anodophilic and methanogenic microorganisms for the carbon source in the anode, hydrogen generation, and electrical current production. The main control objective is to improve the electrical current generated and thus the production of bio-hydrogen gas in the reactor, using the dilution rate and the applied potential as individual control input variables. The control laws implemented are nonlinear adaptive type. In order to demonstrate its usefulness, numerical simulation runs involving multiple set-point changes and input perturbations were conducted for each control variable. The results of these simulations show that both control laws were able to respond adequately and efficiently to the disturbances and reach the reference value to which they were subjected. Moreover, it is possible to control both the electrical current produced and the hydrogen produced. Finally, these simulations also show that the highest rate of hydrogen production can be obtained using the applied potential as a control input, but such productivity is only attainable for a short period of time.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Purificación del Agua , Electrodos , Electrólisis , Hidrógeno
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 144293, 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385655

RESUMEN

River ecosystems are the most important resource of surface freshwater, but they have frequently been contaminated by excessive nutrient input of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in particular. An efficient and economic river water treatment technology that possesses the capacity of simultaneous N and P removal is urgently required. In this study, a solar-driven, self-sustainable electrolytic treatment was conducted in situ to intensify N and P removal from eutrophic river water. Solar panel was applied to provide the electrolysis setups with energy (voltage 10 ± 0.5 V), and the current density was controlled to be 0.06 ± 0.02 mA cm-2. Results indicated that the average removal efficiencies of total N (TN) and total P (TP) under electrolysis conditions reached 72.4 ± 11.7 and 13.8 ± 5.3 mg m-2 d-1, which were 3.7- and 4.7-fold higher compared to untreated conditions. Enhanced TN removal mainly reflected the abatement of nitrate N (NO3--N) (80.6 ± 4.1%). The formation of ferric ions through the electro-dissolution of the sacrificial iron anode improved TP removal by coprecipitation with SPS. Combined high-throughput sequencing and statistical analyses revealed that electrolysis significantly reshaped the microbial communities in both the sediment-water interface and suspended sediment (SPS), and hydrogenotrophic denitrifiers (e.g., Hydrogenophaga) were highly enriched under electrolysis conditions. These findings indicated that in situ electrolysis is a feasible and effective technology for intensified nutrient removal from river water.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Electrólisis , Agua Dulce , Nitrógeno , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Ríos , Agua
20.
Water Res ; 191: 116813, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454649

RESUMEN

Compared with common anaerobic digestion, microbial electrolysis has been proven feasibly to accelerate biodegradation and methanogenesis with the advantages of effective electron flow regulation. However, its actual application and scale-up required a full understanding and further investigation on electrode size and distribution. For making full use of the space of the integrated reactor and improve methane recovery, an effective interior configuration was significant. In this work, three types of reactors with different cathode spatial distributions, that is, different cathode space ratios (ratio of cathode surface area to reaction region volume), were studied to form a good flow pattern for obtaining high methane production. Tracer experiments and numerical simulation were employed simultaneously for understanding the hydrodynamics characters of the interior flow field. The results showed that by increasing the cathode space ratio to 1.33 cm2/cm3 and 2 cm2/cm3, respectively, better flow patterns with the residence time of 1.336 times and 1.363 times of theoretical hydraulic retention time could be obtained. The stacked structure of nickel meshes was beneficial to prolong the contact time of contaminant and improve the mass transfer. Increasing the cathode space ratio could also enhance the electrochemical performance. Considering the organic removal, methane recovery, electrons generation, and material consumption, the recommended cathode space ratio was 1.33 cm2/cm3. With this structure, COD removal efficiency reached 93.2 ± 1.9% and 94.1 ± 1.5%, methane production rate reached 332.0 and 334.8 mL CH4/L reactor/day, and methane yield was 171.3 and 246.4 mL CH4/g COD under the HRT of 24 h and 36 h, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Reactores Biológicos , Electrones , Anaerobiosis , Electrólisis , Hidrodinámica , Metano
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