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1.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 100(1): 30-33, 2021.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528953

RESUMEN

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to investigate the effectiveness of combined treatment with elastic bands and splints in patients with masticatory muscle hypertension. 103 patients (37 men and 66 women) aged from 21 to 65 years were examined. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and instrumental (electromyography) methods. Pain intensity was determined using a visual-analog scale (VAS). Elimination of masticatory muscle hypertension in patients of the first group (51 people) was carried out using only splints while patients of the second group (52 people) had a combined therapy with elastic bands and splints. In the second group of patients reliable reducing of pain intensity was observed by day 14 from the start of therapy (4.54±0.5 points), while in the first group of patients it was discovered only by day 21 (5.08±0.6 points). Reliable changing of the bioelectrical activity of masticatory muscles in the second group of patients was observed by the beginning of second week from the start of preliminary therapy, while in the first group of patients it was discovered only by the third week. Thus, the proposed method of masticatory muscles hypertension treatment using elastic bands and splints has features, favorably distinguish it from the other methods of the therapy, because it provides sparing functioning condition for masticatory muscles.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Férulas (Fijadores) , Adulto , Anciano , Electromiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/terapia , Masculino , Músculo Masetero , Músculos Masticadores , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
2.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 213: 103249, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429061

RESUMEN

The present research investigated facial mimicry of the basic emotions joy, anger, and sadness in response to stimuli in different formats. Specifically, in an electromyography study, 120 participants rated the expressions of joyful, angry, and sad faces presented as photographs or stick figures while facial muscle activity was measured. Using both frequentist and Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing, we found strong support for a facial mimicry effect: Participants showed higher zygomaticus major and orbicularis oculi activity (smiling) towards joyful faces, while they showed higher corrugator supercilii activity (frowning) towards angry and sad faces. Although participants rated the stick figures as more abstract and less interesting stimuli, the mimicry effect was equally strong and independent of the format in which the faces were presented (photographs or stick figures). Additionally, participants showed enhanced emotion recognition for stick figures compared to photographs, which, however, was unrelated to mimicry. The findings suggest that facial mimicry occurs in response to stimuli varying in their abstractness and might be more robust to social-cognitive influences than previously assumed.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Expresión Facial , Ira , Teorema de Bayes , Electromiografía , Músculos Faciales , Humanos
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 231: 105734, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385846

RESUMEN

Several studies have suggested eugenol as a suitable anaesthetic for fish. However, it has also been regarded as a toxic and aversive substance to several aquatic organisms, including fish. This study sought to assess the eugenol-induced behavioural alterations and its seizurogenic potential to fish. Moreover, a distinctive methodology for an in vivo evaluation of the brain activity was also presented. Prior to the evaluation of eugenol-induced responses, fish were exposed to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), to characterize any seizure-like patterns. Antagonizing responses to PTZ were assessed in fish receiving diazepam (BDZ) and subsequently exposed to PTZ. Tambaqui fish juveniles, Colossoma macropomum (15.8 ± 2.8 g) were used as models and assayed as follows: (i) fish exposed to PTZ (15 mM) and (ii) fish receiving a dose of BDZ (10 mg Kg-1) and later exposed to PTZ (15 mM) (BDZ-PTZ group). Thereafter, fish were evaluated throughout (iii) eugenol exposure at 65 µL L-1 (ethanolic solution) and recovery. Control fish and a vehicle control group (ethanol at 585 µL L-1) were also established. PTZ baths elicited body immobilization preceded by hyperactivity in a stereotyped seizure-like behaviour with increased EEG wave amplitude and frequency. PTZ effects in the brain were attenuated by a pre-administration of BDZ. Upon eugenol exposure, tambaqui had an intense neuronal excitability, showing a clonus-like seizure behaviour, also corroborated by the EEG patterns, which were consistent with a seizure-like response. Responses of eugenol-exposed fish resembled those of the PZT-exposed animals, with epileptiform discharges. EMG was in line with the EEG modulation, showing increased tracing oscillations and higher mean amplitudes in PTZ-exposed fish whereas in BDZ-PTZ group muscle contraction was less frequent and powerful. Fish exposed to eugenol showed initially some muscle activity followed by a loss of muscle tonus over time. In summary, our results showed that upon eugenol exposure, although a time-dependent body immobilization was attained, fish presented an intense neuronal excitability comparable to that evoked by PTZ. Eugenol failed to promote depression of the CNS and therefore may be not suitable to be used for general anaesthesia of C. macropomum. As eugenol could be implicated in seizurogenesis and be potentially toxic to the fish brain, protocols suggesting the broad use of eugenol for short-term anaesthesia or euthanasia of fish should be carefully revised, as it raises important concerns in terms of ethics and fish welfare.


Asunto(s)
Characiformes/fisiología , Eugenol/toxicidad , Inmovilización , Neuronas/patología , Animales , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Electrodos , Electroencefalografía , Electromiografía , Fenómenos Electrofisiológicos , Masculino , Músculos/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Pentilenotetrazol/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445601

RESUMEN

Motion intention detection is fundamental in the implementation of human-machine interfaces applied to assistive robots. In this paper, multiple machine learning techniques have been explored for creating upper limb motion prediction models, which generally depend on three factors: the signals collected from the user (such as kinematic or physiological), the extracted features and the selected algorithm. We explore the use of different features extracted from various signals when used to train multiple algorithms for the prediction of elbow flexion angle trajectories. The accuracy of the prediction was evaluated based on the mean velocity and peak amplitude of the trajectory, which are sufficient to fully define it. Results show that prediction accuracy when using solely physiological signals is low, however, when kinematic signals are included, it is largely improved. This suggests kinematic signals provide a reliable source of information for predicting elbow trajectories. Different models were trained using 10 algorithms. Regularization algorithms performed well in all conditions, whereas neural networks performed better when the most important features are selected. The extensive analysis provided in this study can be consulted to aid in the development of accurate upper limb motion intention detection models.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Codo/fisiología , Aprendizaje Automático , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Adulto , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Electromiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495192

RESUMEN

A 42-year-old man from rural India presented with asymmetric progressive paraparesis mimicking compressive dorsal myelopathy, followed by distal upper limb, truncal and neck-flexor weakness, further complicated by acute urinary retention. His sensory deficits were marked by loss of joint position sense (JPS) and graded loss of vibration sense, along with a definite sensory level. Deep tendon jerks were hypo-to-areflexic, plantar was bilaterally extensor. He had become less attentive and occasionally failed to keep track with conversations. A syndromic diagnosis of myeloradiculoneuropathy with cognitive impairments was made. Further tailored investigations revealed vitamin B12 deficiency with positive anti-parietal cell antibody. Diagnosis of subacute combined cord degeneration (SACD) was confirmed. Neuro-imaging revealed intramedullary intensity changes only along lateral aspect of spinal cord instead of characteristic posterior involvement. Following parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation, patient started showing improvement in motor power and subjective sensory symptoms. His bladder symptoms persisted initially, however recovered finally after 6 months.


Asunto(s)
Médula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagen , Degeneración Combinada Subaguda/diagnóstico , Deficiencia de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Adulto , Disfunción Cognitiva/fisiopatología , Electrodiagnóstico , Electromiografía , Humanos , Inyecciones Subcutáneas , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Conducción Nerviosa , Polirradiculoneuropatía/fisiopatología , Cuadriplejía/fisiopatología , Enfermedades de la Médula Espinal/fisiopatología , Degeneración Combinada Subaguda/tratamiento farmacológico , Degeneración Combinada Subaguda/fisiopatología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Retención Urinaria/fisiopatología , Vitamina B 12/análogos & derivados , Vitamina B 12/uso terapéutico , Deficiencia de Vitamina B 12/tratamiento farmacológico , Deficiencia de Vitamina B 12/fisiopatología , Complejo Vitamínico B/uso terapéutico
6.
Arch Oral Biol ; 122: 105021, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348206

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the function of the palatal muscles in vivo by real-time wireless electromyography in rats. The effects of palatal wounding were also analyzed. METHODS: Microelectrodes were implanted six rats; in the masseter muscle (two-rats) for comparison, in the unwounded soft palate (two-rats) and the soft palate that received a surgical wound (two-rats). Two weeks after implantation, a wound was made in the soft palate using a 1 mm biopsy-punch. Electromyographic measurements and video-recordings were taken weekly to monitor train-duration and peak-amplitude during eating, grooming and drinking. RESULTS: The train-duration of the masseter muscle during eating was 0.49 ±â€¯0.11 s (rat-1) and 0.56 ±â€¯0.09 s (rat-2), which was higher than during grooming. In the unwounded soft palate the train-duration during eating was 0.63 ±â€¯0.12 s (rat-1) and 0.69 ±â€¯0.069 s (rat-2), which was higher than during grooming and drinking. The peak-amplitude for eating in the normal soft palate before surgery was 0.31 ±â€¯0.001 mV (rat-1) and 0.33 ±â€¯0.02 mV (rat-2). This decreased to 0.23 ±â€¯0.03 mV and 0.25 ±â€¯0.11 mV respectively, after surgery. For drinking the peak-amplitude was 0.30 ±â€¯0.01 mV (rat-1) and 0.39 ±â€¯0.01 mV (rat-2) before surgery, which decreased to 0.23 ±â€¯0.09 mV and 0.20 ±â€¯0.14 mV respectively, after surgery. CONCLUSION: The reduced peak-amplitude suggests impaired soft palate function after wounding. This is the first study into the in vivo function of the soft palate after surgical wounding. This model will contribute to develop strategies to improve soft palate function in patients.


Asunto(s)
Músculos Palatinos/fisiología , Paladar Blando/fisiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/fisiopatología , Animales , Electromiografía , Músculo Masetero/fisiología , Paladar Blando/lesiones , Ratas
7.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 38(1): 73-82, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220745

RESUMEN

To date, more than 150 surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of intractable nerve pain. However, owing to their technical complexity, as well as the lack of comparative studies in the literature, there is currently no consensus on the appropriate management of this often debilitating condition. Therefore, we present our surgical algorithm, based on Seddon's classification to differentiate the degree of nerve injury, and subsequent treatment course for the management of lower extremity neurogenic pain.


Asunto(s)
Extremidad Inferior/cirugía , Neuralgia/cirugía , Traumatismos de los Nervios Periféricos/cirugía , Algoritmos , Desnervación , Electromiografía , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior/inervación , Transferencia de Nervios , Neuralgia/etiología , Examen Neurológico , Neuroma/cirugía , Manejo del Dolor , Traumatismos de los Nervios Periféricos/clasificación , Neoplasias del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/cirugía , Cuidados Posoperatorios
8.
Sports Health ; 13(1): 85-90, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940548

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suspension training systems, which use body weight resistance under unstable conditions, may be effective for muscle strengthening in persons with scapular dyskinesis or subacromial impingement syndrome. HYPOTHESIS: Greater arm, scapular, and trunk muscle recruitment will occur during horizontal abduction row exercises. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 5. METHODS: Surface electromyography data were collected from 28 participants (14 men, 14 women). A total of 13 right-sided muscles were studied at a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) were established. Participants completed 3 repetitions per exercise in random order. We compared muscle recruitment during 3 rowing exercises: low row, high row, and horizontal abduction row. Data were compared with repeated-measures analyses of variance and post hoc Bonferroni corrections. RESULTS: For high row and horizontal abduction row conditions, the upper, middle, and lower trapezius and posterior deltoid demonstrated >60% MVIC magnitudes of recruitment, and the upper erector spinae demonstrated 40% to 60% MVIC magnitudes of recruitment, respectively. In contrast, in the low row exercise, 40% to 60% MVIC magnitudes of recruitment were observed only in the middle trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and posterior deltoid. CONCLUSION: With the suspension system, high row and horizontal abduction row exercises promote muscle strengthening (>50% MVIC) in the upper, middle, and lower fibers of the trapezius, posterior deltoid, and upper erector spinae. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Rowing exercises performed with suspension straps may be recommended for muscle strengthening in patients with scapular dyskinesis and subacromial impingement syndrome as well as for healthy persons in need of enhanced scapular muscle performance.


Asunto(s)
Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Entrenamiento de Resistencia/métodos , Hombro/fisiología , Deportes Acuáticos/fisiología , Brazo/fisiología , Codo/fisiología , Electromiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Contracción Isométrica , Masculino , Entrenamiento de Resistencia/instrumentación , Escápula/fisiología , Escápula/fisiopatología , Síndrome de Abducción Dolorosa del Hombro/fisiopatología , Torso/fisiología , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243495, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320876

RESUMEN

The maintenance of postural balance can be influenced by the lifestyle of a population. This study aimed to determine the electromyographic activity of the masseter and temporalis muscles during mandibular tasks and habitual and non-habitual chewing in indigenous individuals to reveal the differences among white Brazilian individuals. Sixty Brazilians (18 and 28 years) were divided into two groups: 30 Xingu indigenous individuals and 30 white Brazilian individuals, with 20 men and 10 women in each group. The individuals were assessed using the normalized electromyographic activity of mandibular tasks (rest, protrusion, right and left laterality) and electromyographic activity of masticatory cycles in habitual (peanuts and raisins) and non-habitual (Parafilm M) chewing. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test (p < .05). Comparisons between the groups demonstrated significant differences. Indigenous individuals group presented a decrease in the normalized electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles during mandibular rest [right masseter (p = .002) and left masseter (p = .004) muscles]. There was increase in the normalized electromyographic activity during protrusion [left temporal (p = .03) muscle]. There was increase in the electromyographic activity during chewing: peanuts [right masseter (p = .001), left masseter (p = .001) and right temporal (p = .01) muscles], raisins [right masseter (p = .001), left masseter (p = .002), right temporal (p = .008), left temporal (p = .01) muscles] and Parafilm M [left masseter muscle (p = .05)]. From the findings of this study, we concluded that in the comparison between indigenous and white individuals, positive changes were observed in the electromyographic pattern of the masticatory muscles in the mandibular postural conditions, with greater masticatory efficiency in the indigenous group.


Asunto(s)
Electromiografía , Músculo Masetero/fisiología , Músculo Temporal/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Pueblos Indígenas , Masculino , Masticación/fisiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352879

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to compare soleus, lateral, and medial gastrocnemius muscles activation during leg press and calf raise exercises in trained men. The study involved 22 trained men (27.1 ± 3.6 years, 82.7 ± 6.6 kg, 177.5 ± 5.2 cm, 3.6 ± 1.4 experience years) who performed one set of each exercise using a 10-repetition maximum (10RM) load in a counterbalanced randomized order and separated by 10 min of rest. The electromyographic signal was measured for the three major plantar flexors: soleus, medial, and lateral gastrocnemius. A comparison between exercises showed that the mean adjusted by peak values during the leg press were 49.20% for the gastrocnemius lateralis, 51.31% for the gastrocnemius medialis, and 50.76% for the soleus. Values for calf raise were 50.70%, 52.19%, and 51.34% for the lateral, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus, respectively. There were no significant differences between exercises for any muscle (lateral gastrocnemius (p = 0.230), medial gastrocnemius (p = 0.668), and soleus (p = 0.535)). The present findings suggest that both leg press and calf raises can be used with the purpose to recruit triceps surae muscles. This bring the suggestion that one can chose between exercises based on personal preferences and practical aspects, without any negative impact on muscle activation.


Asunto(s)
Músculo Esquelético , Entrenamiento de Resistencia , Electromiografía , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Pierna , Masculino
11.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 1045-1055, 2020 Dec 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369344

RESUMEN

In order to solve the problems of insufficient stimulation channels and lack of stimulation effect feedback in the current electrical stimulation system, a functional array electrode electrical stimulation system with surface electromyography (sEMG) feedback was designed in this paper. Firstly, the effectiveness of the system was verified through in vitro and human experiments. Then it was confirmed that there were differences in the number of amperage needed to achieve the same stimulation stage among individuals, and the number of amperage required by men was generally less than that of women. Finally, it was verified that the current required for square wave stimulation was smaller than that for differential wave stimulation if the same stimulation stage was reached. This system combined the array electrode and sEMG feedback to improve the accuracy of electrical stimulation and performed the whole process recording of feedback sEMG signal in the process of electrical stimulation, and the electrical stimulation parameters could change with the change of the sEMG signal. The electrical stimulation system and sEMG feedback worked together to form a closed-loop electrical stimulation working system, so as to improve the efficiency of electrical stimulation rehabilitation treatment. In conclusion, the functional array electrode electrical stimulation system with sEMG feedback developed in this paper has the advantages of simple operation, small size and low power consumption, which lays a foundation for the introduction of electrical stimulation rehabilitation treatment equipment into the family, and also provides certain reference for the development of similar products in the future.


Asunto(s)
Neurorretroalimentación , Estimulación Eléctrica , Electrodos , Electromiografía , Retroalimentación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 1056-1064, 2020 Dec 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369345

RESUMEN

In the process of lower limb rehabilitation training, fatigue estimation is of great significance to improve the accuracy of intention recognition and avoid secondary injury. However, most of the existing methods only consider surface electromyography (sEMG) features but ignore electrocardiogram (ECG) features when performing in fatigue estimation, which leads to the low and unstable recognition efficiency. Aiming at this problem, a method that uses the fusion features of ECG and sEMG signal to estimate the fatigue during lower limb rehabilitation was proposed, and an improved particle swarm optimization-support vector machine classifier (improved PSO-SVM) was proposed and used to identify the fusion feature vector. Finally, the accurate recognition of the three states of relax, transition and fatigue was achieved, and the recognition rates were 98.5%, 93.5%, and 95.5%, respectively. Comparative experiments showed that the average recognition rate of this method was 4.50% higher than that of sEMG features alone, and 13.66% higher than that of the combined features of ECG and sEMG without feature fusion. It is proved that the feature fusion of ECG and sEMG signals in the process of lower limb rehabilitation training can be used for recognizing fatigue more accurately.


Asunto(s)
Fatiga , Extremidad Inferior , Algoritmos , Electrocardiografía , Electromiografía , Fatiga/diagnóstico , Humanos , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371343

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was functional evaluation of soft tissue mobilization in patients with temporomandibular disorder-myofascial pain with referral. The study group consisted of 50 individuals-37 females and 13 males. The average age was 23.36 ± 2.14 years. All subjects were diagnosed with myofascial pain with referral (diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders). Soft tissue mobilization was applied three times. Electromyography of selected masticatory muscles was performed six times-before and after the treatment. After each mobilization, a decreasing tendency of muscular activity was observed in the entire study group. The Friedman test indicated that mobilization altered the activity of the right temporal muscle (p = 0.00010), both masseters (p = 0.0000), right sternocleidomastoid (p = 0.00251), left sternocleidomastoid (p = 0.00033), and right and left digastric muscles (p = 0.00045 and p = 0.00000, respectively). With respect to symmetry a statistically significant difference was noted in the case of the sternocleidomastoid muscles (p = 0.00729). In conclusion, soft tissue mobilization seems to be effective in the relaxation of masticatory muscles in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Our findings proved that soft tissue mobilization does not improve the symmetry and synergy of the masticatory muscles limited by dental occlusion.


Asunto(s)
Síndromes del Dolor Miofascial , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular , Adulto , Electromiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Masticadores , Síndromes del Dolor Miofascial/diagnóstico , Síndromes del Dolor Miofascial/terapia , Dolor , Derivación y Consulta , Adulto Joven
14.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 57(4): 428-433, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331476

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Electrogastrography (EGG) is a noninvasive technique for the assessment of gastric myoelectrical activity using electrodes placed on the abdominal surface. Changes in gastric myoelectrical activity may be associated with diseases such as gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia, nausea, and recurrent vomiting. In Brazil, no studies to date have assessed gastric myoelectrical activity using multichannel EGG in healthy individuals. OBJECTIVE: To establish normal values of transcutaneous multichannel EGG in healthy Brazilian individuals. METHODS: This was a prospective study including 20 healthy individuals who underwent EGG. Recording was performed during two periods: a preprandial recording was performed for 30 minutes, and a postprandial recording was performed for 30 minutes after a soft-solid meal of 400 kcal (20 grams of proteins, 60 grams of carbohydrates, and 9 grams of fat). RESULTS: We assessed dominant frequency (DF) parameters, %DF distribution, the instability coefficient, and the power ratio (PR). A total of 20 individuals (11 women and 9 men) with a mean age of 39.5±7.4 years were included. Mean DF (95%CI) ranged from 2.4 to 3.1 cpm in the resting phase and 2.6 to 3.2 cpm in the postprandial period. The %DF in normogastria range was >70% in all healthy individuals. We identified that only one individual did not present a positive response to the test meal, and the other 19 individuals showed a PR greater than 1. The instability coefficient did not change significantly with meal intake. CONCLUSION: Multichannel EGG may be applied in future studies to evaluate gastric motility disorders in the Brazilian population.


Asunto(s)
Electromiografía , Adulto , Brasil , Dispepsia , Femenino , Vaciamiento Gástrico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estómago
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243860, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370320

RESUMEN

Engaging in facial emotion mimicry during social interactions encourages empathy and functions as a catalyst for interpersonal bonding. Decreased reflexive mirroring of facial expressions has been observed in individuals with different non-psychotic disorders, relative to healthy controls. Given reports of interpersonal relationship difficulties experienced by those who engage in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), it is of interest to explore facial emotion mimicry in individuals with a history of this behaviour (HNSSI). Among other things, this will enable us to better understand their emotion regulation and social interaction challenges. Surface facial electromyography (fEMG) was used to record the reflexive facial mimicry of 30 HNSSI and 30 controls while they passively observed a series of dynamic facial stimuli showing various facial expressions of emotion. Beginning with a neutral expression, the stimuli quickly morphed to one of 6 prototypic emotional expressions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, or sadness). Mimicry was assessed by affixing surface electrodes to facial muscles known to exhibit a high degree of electrical activity in response to positive and negative emotions: the corrugator supercilii and the zygomaticus major. HNSSI participants, relative to controls, exhibited significantly less electrical activity in the corrugator muscle in response to viewing angry stimuli, and significantly less of an expected relaxation in muscle activity in response to viewing happy stimuli. Mirroring these results, greater endorsement of social influence as a motivator for engaging in NSSI was associated with less mimicry, and greater endorsement of emotion regulation as a motivator was associated with greater incongruent muscle response when viewing happy faces. These findings lend support to the theory that social interaction difficulties in HNSSI might be related to implicit violations of expected social rules exhibited through facial mimicry nonconformity.


Asunto(s)
Electromiografía , Emociones , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Adolescente , Análisis de Varianza , Electrodos , Cara , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23607, 2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327330

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is an uncommon neurological disorder with autoimmune features. Here, we report a 60-year-old man with SPS associated with critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP). CIP was diagnosed during an episode of acute respiratory failure secondary to muscular rigidity and spasms, which has rarely been reported in this condition. The overlapping of CIP and SPS complicated the case. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old man presented with gradual onset of cramps, stiffness, and rigidity in his lower limbs 1 year before admission, which eventually led to inability to stand and walk. The persistent nature of his symptoms progressed to frequent acute episodes of dyspnea and he was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). DIAGNOSIS: SPS had been diagnosed after 2 tests of electromyography (EMG) and the detection of an elevated anti-GAD65 antibody titer. During the first EMG, low or absent compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) were shown. Therefore, the diagnosis of SPS coexisting with CIP was made. INTERVENTIONS: Symptomatic treatment was initiated with oral clonazepam (0.5 mg Bid) and baclofen (5 mg Bid). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (0.4 g/kg/d) was administered for the patient for 5 days after admission. We observed a significant clinical improvement during the administration period, and the patient became ambulatory. OUTCOMES: On follow-up, the patient reported complete relief of his pain and rigidity. LESSONS: We report this special case to address the varied clinical features of SPS. Electrophysiological testing is an important diagnostic approach. Accurate recognition of the disease ensures that the patients can be given appropriate treatment without delay.


Asunto(s)
Polineuropatías/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Síndrome de la Persona Rígida/diagnóstico , Baclofeno/administración & dosificación , Baclofeno/uso terapéutico , Clonazepam/administración & dosificación , Clonazepam/uso terapéutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Electromiografía , Humanos , Inmunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administración & dosificación , Inmunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Relajantes Musculares Centrales/administración & dosificación , Relajantes Musculares Centrales/uso terapéutico , Polineuropatías/complicaciones , Síndrome de la Persona Rígida/complicaciones
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240680, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373379

RESUMEN

Social ostracism triggers an increase in affiliative behaviours. One such behaviour is the rapid copying of others' facial expressions, called facial mimicry. Insofar, it remains unknown how individual differences in intrinsic affiliation motivation regulate responses to social ostracism during early development. We examined children's facial mimicry following ostracism as modulated by individual differences in the affiliation motivation, expressed in their attachment tendencies. Resistant and avoidant tendencies are characterized by high and low affiliation motivation, and were hypothesized to lead to facial mimicry enhancement or suppression towards an ostracizing partner, respectively. Following an ostracism manipulation in which children played a virtual game (Cyberball) with an includer and an excluder peer, mimicry of the two peers' happy and sad facial expressions was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Attachment was assessed via parent-report questionnaire. We found that 5-year-olds smiled to sad facial expressions of the excluder peer, while they showed no facial reactions for the includer peer. Neither resistant nor avoidant tendencies predicted facial mimicry to the excluder peer. Yet, securely attached children smiled towards the excluder peer, when sad facial expressions were displayed. In conclusion, these findings suggest a modulation of facial reactions following ostracism by early attachment.


Asunto(s)
Expresión Facial , Conducta Imitativa/fisiología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Apego a Objetos , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Preescolar , Electromiografía , Emociones/fisiología , Músculos Faciales/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Motivación , Grupo Paritario , Juegos de Video/psicología
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310829

RESUMEN

Thoracic radiculopathy is a rare cause of thoracic-abdominal or abdominal pain in subjects with poorly controlled diabetes. We present a case of a young woman with type I diabetes and a severe abdominal pain in both lower quadrants. An extensive diagnostic gastroenterological and gynaecological workup did not disclose abnormalities. Electromyography revealed an initial polyneuropathy and significant neurogenic abnormalities in the T10-T12 paravertebral muscles. Following the hypothesis that the radiculopathy-related abdominal pain might have an immuno-mediated pathogenesis, the patient underwent a complex trial of immunotherapy, which was accompanied by a sustained improvement over months to full recovery. This report would support the hypothesis that immune-mediated mechanisms are still active even months after onset of symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicaciones , Inmunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administración & dosificación , Radiculopatía/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Adulto , Electromiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Músculos/inervación , Radiculopatía/diagnóstico , Radiculopatía/fisiopatología , Vértebras Torácicas/fisiopatología , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334741

RESUMEN

A 23-year-old woman diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus in 2011 came to our outpatient office because of an inability to walk correctly. She was under a basal bolus insulin regimen. In the summer of 2016, she experienced a rapid improvement in her glycaemic control. A few weeks later, she started to complain of a severe burning pain in the soles of her feet (pain score 10/10). Neither macrovascular nor microvascular complications were detected. The patient was forced to walk barefoot due to an intense pain using shoes or socks and used to soak her feet in water for several hours daily. She also developed severe intolerance to environmental heat, both indoors and outdoors. A diagnosis of treatment-induced diabetic neuropathy was made. The patient was admitted to a general ward to start pain therapy. After a 6-month course of different neuropathic pain drugs, the patient was able to walk autonomously again.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamiento farmacológico , Neuropatías Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Insulina/efectos adversos , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicaciones , Neuropatías Diabéticas/inducido químicamente , Neuropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Dibenzazepinas/administración & dosificación , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Electromiografía , Femenino , Pie , Gabapentina/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Neuralgia/inducido químicamente , Neuralgia/tratamiento farmacológico , Tramadol/administración & dosificación , Resultado del Tratamiento , Prueba de Paso , Adulto Joven
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370939

RESUMEN

Slowly progressing unilateral upper limb weakness in a previously healthy child can occur due to number of causes which requires a thorough history, physical examination followed by radiological examination, electromyography and so on. Among the various aetiologies, a rare condition such as Hirayama disease is one of the differentials to be considered. There has been a wealth of literature reported on this disease and our case is a learning lesson for all paediatricians to be aware of Hirayama disease and its current concepts.


Asunto(s)
Tirantes , Debilidad Muscular/etiología , Médula Espinal/patología , Atrofias Musculares Espinales de la Infancia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Vértebras Cervicales/diagnóstico por imagen , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Electromiografía , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Debilidad Muscular/diagnóstico , Debilidad Muscular/terapia , Músculo Esquelético/inervación , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatología , Cuello , Médula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagen , Atrofias Musculares Espinales de la Infancia/complicaciones , Atrofias Musculares Espinales de la Infancia/terapia , Extremidad Superior/inervación
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