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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(7): 1566-1577, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843743

RESUMEN

In this study, the conditioning effect of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) with different charge densities on raw sludge (RS) and thermo-hydrolyzed sludge (HS) pretreated with or without ferric salt is studied through orthogonal experiments. In addition, this paper uses the principles of rheology and morphology to analyze and clarify the conditioning mechanism of RS and HS, and reveals the mechanism of thermal hydrolysis to improve the dewatering performance of sludge. Compared with the RS, the HS has smaller particle size, better filterability, stronger fluidity and more obvious thixotropy. However, due to the influence of filter pressing time, ferric salt should be added before conditioning. The orthogonal experiment shows that the optimal conditioner is CPAM with charge density of 60, and the specific resistance to filtration and capillary suction time of the adjusted thermo-hydrolyzed sludge are reduced to (1.11 ± 0.07) × 1012 m/kg and 16.1 ± 1.8 s; the particle size increased from 61.2 to 253.5 µm. The moisture content of the sludge cake is about 48%. The structural strength and thixotropy of HS are higher than those of the RS, and can be greatly improved by adding ferric salt. Morphological analysis confirms that thermal hydrolysis can lyse microbial cells in sludge, and the sludge treated with ferric salt will have more porous structure and stronger flocculation strength.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Agua , Resinas Acrílicas , Filtración , Floculación , Reología , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(7): 1619-1632, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843747

RESUMEN

The influences of influent surface organic loading rate (SOLR) and aeration mode on matrix oxygen, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus removal, greenhouse gases emission and functional gene abundances in lab-scale wastewater ecological soil infiltration systems (WESISs) were investigated. In WESISs, intermittent or continuous aeration improved oxygen supply at 50 cm depth and hardly changed anaerobic condition below 80 cm depth, which enhanced chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN) removal, the abundances of bacterial 16S rRNA, amoA, nxrA, narG, napA, nirK, nirS, qnorB, nosZ genes and reduced CH4, N2O conversion efficiencies with SOLR of 16.9 and 27.6 g BOD/(m2 d) compared with non-aeration. Increased SOLR resulted in high TN removal, low N2O emission in aeration WESIS, which was different from non-aeration WESIS. High average COD removal efficiency of 90.7%, NH4+-N removal efficiency of 87.0%, TN removal efficiency of 84.6%, total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency of 93.1% and low average N2O emission rate of 12.8 mg/(m2 d) were achieved with SOLR of 16.9 g BOD/(m2 d) in intermittent aeration WESIS. However, continuous aeration WESIS obtained high average removal efficiencies of 90.1% for COD, 87.5% for NH4+-N, 84.1% for TN, 92.9% for TP and low average emission rate of 13.1 mg/(m2 d) for N2O with SOLR of 27.6 g BOD/(m2 d). Aeration could be an optional strategy for WESISs to achieve high pollutants removal and low CH4, N2O emission when treating wastewater with high SOLR.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Desnitrificación , Nitrógeno , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Suelo , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(7): 1633-1648, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843748

RESUMEN

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are highly complicated and dynamic systems and so their appropriate operation, control, and accurate simulation are essential. The simulation of WWTPs according to the process complexity has become an important issue in growing environmental awareness. In recent decades, artificial intelligence approaches have been used as effective tools in order to investigate environmental engineering issues. In this study, the effluent quality of Tabriz WWTP was assessed using two intelligence models, namely support Vector Machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN). In this regard, several models were developed based on influent variables and tested via SVM and ANN methods. Three time scales, daily, weekly, and monthly, were investigated in the modeling process. On the other hand, since applied methods were sensitive to input variables, the Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis method was used to investigate the best-applied model dependability. It was found that both models had an acceptable degree of uncertainty in modeling the effluent quality of Tabriz WWTP. Next, ensemble approaches were applied to improve the prediction performance of Tabriz WWTP. The obtained results comparison showed that the ensemble methods represented better efficiency than single approaches in predicting the performance of Tabriz WWTP.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Purificación del Agua , Inteligencia Artificial , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Incertidumbre , Aguas Residuales
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(7): 1691-1702, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843752

RESUMEN

In this study, spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) were fermented anaerobically at room temperature to gain liquid SMSs (LSMSs) that were used to remove nitrogen from the piggery wastewater with a low C/N ratio in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and solid SMSs (SSMSs) that were utilized to adsorb Pb2+ from Pb2+-containing wastewater in a fixed-bed reactor (FBR). After LSMSs supplement, the removal efficiency of both total nitrogen (TN) and NH+4-N increased from around 50% to 60-80%. High-throughput sequencing results presented an obvious change in microbial diversity, and some functional microorganisms like Zoogloea and Hydrogenophaga predominated to promote nitrogen removal. Pb2+ did not emerge from the effluent until 240 min with the corresponding concentration being less than 3 mg/L when using 30-day SSMSs as adsorbents, and it was demonstrated to be appropriate to use the Thomas model to predict Pb2+ sorption on SSMSs. Although various functional groups played a role in binding ions, the carboxyl group was proved to contribute most to Pb2+ adsorption. These results certified that the anaerobically fermented SMSs are decidedly suitable for wastewater treatment.


Asunto(s)
Agaricales , Nitrógeno , Adsorción , Reactores Biológicos , Desnitrificación , Plomo , Nitrógeno/análisis , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124897, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657501

RESUMEN

This study proposed a novel intermittent-aeration constructed wetland (CW) to resolve the vertical loss of oxygen in tertiary treatment. Compared to the non-aeration CW, the intermittent-aeration CW presented a better removal performance (90.8% chemical oxygen demand, 94.3% ammonia nitrogen, 91.5% total nitrogen and 94.1% total phosphorus) at a dissolved oxygen of 3 mg L-1 and hydraulic retention time of 2 days. It was mainly attributed to the higher abundance and greater diversity of bacterial community due to the oxygen supply. High-throughput sequencing indicated that high abundance of phyla Proteobacteria (35.34%) and Bacteroidetes (18.20%) in intermittent-aeration CW were responsible for simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Besides, the dominant families Burkholderiaceae (11.16%), Microtrichales (6.88%) and Saprospiraceae (6.50%) were also detected, which was vital to hydrolyze and utilize complex organic matters. In general, oxygen supply upregulated the metabolism pathways of amino acid and carbohydrate, bringing a greater biodegradation potential for removing contaminants.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno , Humedales , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Humanos , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124894, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662851

RESUMEN

The presence of (nano)microplastics in domestic wastewater and their subsequent release to the aquatic environment via the discharge of treated sewage has raised significant concerns. Previous studies have also identified their excessive accumulation in sewage sludge. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most used sludge stabilization methods in wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, understanding the potential effects of (nano)microplastics on anaerobic digestion has been receiving increasing attention from researchers. This article provides a comprehensive review of mechanisms underlying the impacts of (nano)microplastics on anaerobic digestion. Notably, this review covers mechanisms of inhibition/enhancement of anaerobic digestion by (nano)microplastics and their potential impacts on biochemical pathways, key enzymes, functional genes, and microbial communities investigated to date. Moreover, potential environmental risks of biosolids contaminated with (nano)microplastics were highlighted. Finally, knowledge gaps and future research needs were outlined. This review will guide more standardized studies in the future, covering both fundamental and engineering aspects.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Anaerobiosis , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124903, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662853

RESUMEN

Synchronous sludge reduction and nitrogen removal have attracted increasing attention, while the underlying mechanisms of diverse nitrogen metabolism within the complicated processes remain unclear. Four anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactors, three of which were upgraded by anaerobic side-stream reactors (ASSR) and carriers (APSSR-MBRs), were operated to determine effects of hydraulic retention time of ASSRs. APSSR-MBRs achieved more significant nitrogen removal and higher nitrate uptake rate because of more denitrifying bacteria and the supernumerary release of secondary substrates. Ammonia uptake rate showed the diverse Nitrospira preceded over anaerobic decay and sulfide inhibition in the ASSR, and made the reactor exhibit higher nitrification capacity. Metagenomic analysis indicated that APSSR-MBRs showed higher abundances of genes related to nitrogen consumption processes, and higher abundances on the carriers, confirming their pivotal roles in nitrogen metabolism. This study provided novel perspectives to build a bridge between process model and nitrogen metabolism in the sludge reduction system..


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Desnitrificación , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Aguas del Alcantarillado
8.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112229, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667821

RESUMEN

Up-flow anaerobic bioreactors are widely applied for high-rate digestion of industrial wastewaters and rely on formation, and retention, of methanogenic granules, comprising of dense, fast-settling, microbial aggregates (approx. 0.5-4.0 mm in diameter). Granule formation (granulation) mechanisms have been reasonably well hypothesized and documented. However, this study used laboratory-scale bioreactors, inoculated with size-separated granular sludge to follow new granule formation, maturation, disintegration and re-formation. Temporal size profiles, volatile solids content, settling velocity, and ultrastructure of granules were determined from each of four bioreactors inoculated only with small granules, four with only large granules, and four with a full complement of naturally-size-distributed granules. Constrained granule size profiles shifted toward the natural distribution, which was associated with maximal bioreactor performance. Distinct morphological features characterized different granule sizes and biofilm development stages, including 'young', 'juvenile', 'mature' and 'old'. The findings offer opportunities toward optimizing management of high-rate, anaerobic digesters by shedding light on the rates of granule growth, the role of flocculent sludge in granulation and how shifting size distributions should be considered when setting upflow velocities.


Asunto(s)
Euryarchaeota , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Aguas del Alcantarillado
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124904, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676354

RESUMEN

An integration of two processes, magnetic coagulation (MC) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR), coupled with a sequencing batch membrane bioreactor (SMBR) controlled by an automatic real-time control strategy (RTC), was developed to treat different characteristics of high strength wastewater. The treatment efficiency and microbial community-diversity of the proposed method was evaluated and investigated using swine wastewater and food waste (FW) digestate. The MC showed high removal of TSS (89.1 ± 1.5%, 92.21 ± 1.8%), turbidity (90.58 ± 2.1%, 95.1 ± 2.1%), TP (88.5 ± 1.9%, 92.1 ± 1.5%), phosphate (87.76 ± 1.6%, 91.22 ± 1.5%), and SMBR achieved stable and excellent removal of COD (96.05 ± 0.2%, 97.39 ± 0.2%), TN (97.30 ± 0.3%, 97.44 ± 0.3%) andNH4+-N (99.07 ± 0.2%, 98.54 ± 0.2%) for swine wastewater and FW digestate, respectively. The effluent COD andNH4+-N concentrations were found to meet their discharge standards. The microbial community comparison showed similar diversity and richness, and genus Diaphorobacter and Thaurea were dominant in denitritation, and Nitrosomonas was dominant in nitritation treating both swine wastewater and FW digestate.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Aguas Residuales , Animales , Reactores Biológicos , Desnitrificación , Alimentos , Fenómenos Magnéticos , Nitrógeno , Porcinos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124927, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706177

RESUMEN

The anaerobic digestion of leachate from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a long-standing challenge. A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) embedding three flat sheet membrane was therefore continuously operated for 63 days to investigate the materials flow and membrane performance. The results obtained show that approximately 90% COD was removed and 86% was converted into methane under an OLR of 5.6 kgCOD/m3·d corresponding to a HRT of 10 days. Under the high solid condition (34.5-61.1 g/L total solids in AnMBR) and flux of 5 and 6 LMH, the membranes was operated practically at constant trans-membrane pressure (TMP). When the membrane was operated at a high flux of 7 LMH the TMP rapid increase occurred in 22 h resulting in a non-recoverable permeability. A sustainable flux was thus identified. This study demonstrated the feasibility of AnMBR treating OFMSW leachate under high solid condition with high flux.


Asunto(s)
Membranas Artificiales , Residuos Sólidos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Metano , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
11.
Water Res ; 195: 116977, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684677

RESUMEN

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an essential process in wastewater treatment plants as it can reduce the amount of waste activated sludge (WAS) for disposal, and also enables the recovery of bioenergy (i.e. methane). Here, a new pretreatment method to enhance anaerobic digestion was achieved by treating thickened WAS (TWAS) with ferric (as FeCl3) and nitrite simultaneously for 24-hour at room temperature. Biochemical methane potential tests showed markedly improved degradability in the pretreated TWAS, with a relative increase in hydrolysis rate by 30%. A comparative experiment with the operation of two continuous-flow anaerobic digesters further demonstrated the improvement in biogas quantity and quality, digestate disposal, and phosphorus recovery in the experimental digester. The dosed FeCl3 (i.e. ~6 mM) decreased the pH of TWAS to ~5, which led to the formation of free nitrous acid (FNA, HNO2) at parts per million levels (i.e. ~6 mg N/L), after dosing nitrite at 250 mg NO2--N/L. This FNA treatment caused a 26% increase in methane yield and volatile solids destruction, 55% reduction in the viscosity of sludge in digester, and 24% less polymer required in further digestate dewatering. In addition, the dosed Fe(III) was reduced to Fe(II) which precipitated sulfide and phosphorus, leading to decreased hydrogen sulfide concentration in biogas, and increased percentage of vivianite in the total crystalline iron species in digested sludge. Our study experimentally demonstrated that combined dosing of FeCl3 and nitrite is a useful pretreatment strategy for improving anaerobic digestion of WAS.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Compuestos Férricos , Metano
12.
Water Res ; 195: 116982, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706214

RESUMEN

Adhesion is one of the main features of sewage sludge. This paper aims at reducing sludge-to-wall adhesion through formation of a water layer induced by boundary electro-osmotic pulse (BEOP) which is characterized by distributing anodes and cathodes on one surface and exerting a pulsating current. The effects of the related parameters, including current intensity, exerting time, frequency, duty cycle (DTC), and the ratio of cathodic surface area to anodic surface area (C/A), on the adhesive stress of sewage sludge with different moisture content were thoroughly studied. The results indicated that, under the optimal conditions of BEOP, the adhesive stress of sludge with moisture content of 35%, 45%, 60% and 70% was reduced by 40.4%, 54.5%, 31%, and 24.4%, respectively. The migrations of water, ions and organic matters were also investigated to explore the functional mechanism of BEOP. The results showed that the water migrated from the anode side to the cathode side, whereas the organic matters migrated in the opposite direction. The increment of the sludge moisture content on the cathode surface was reduced with the increase of distance away from the anode. Based on theoretical modeling, the distributions of current density and temperature in sludge cake were obtained. The current flowed from anode to cathode and decayed quickly with the increase of the flowing distance, which well explained the moisture content distribution in sludge cake.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Electrodos , Aguas Residuales , Agua
13.
Water Res ; 195: 116992, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714012

RESUMEN

The aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process is an effective wastewater treatment technology for organic matter and nutrient removal that has been introduced in the market rapidly. Until now, limited information is available on AGS regarding the removal of bacterial and viral pathogenic organisms present in sewage. This study focussed on determining the relation between reactor operational conditions (plug flow feeding, turbulent aeration and settling) and physical and biological mechanisms on removing two faecal surrogates, Escherichia coli and MS2 bacteriophages. Two AGS laboratory-scale systems were separately fed with influent spiked with 1.0 × 106 CFU/100 mL of E. coli and 1.3 × 108 PFU/100 mL of MS2 bacteriophages and followed during the different operational phases. The reactors contained only granular sludge and no flocculent sludge. Both systems showed reductions in the liquid phase of 0.3 Log10 during anaerobic feeding caused by a dilution factor and attachment of the organisms on the granules. Higher removal efficiencies were achieved during aeration, approximately 1 Log10 for E. coli and 0.6 Log10 for the MS2 bacteriophages caused mainly by predation. The 18S sequencing analysis revealed high operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of free-living protozoa genera Rhogostoma and Telotrochidium concerning the whole eukaryotic community. Attached ciliates propagated after the addition of the E. coli, an active contribution of the genera Epistylis, Vorticella, and Pseudovorticella was found when the reactor reached stability. In contrast, no significant growth of predators occurred when spiking the system with MS2 bacteriophages, indicating a low contribution of protozoa on the phage removal. Settling did not contribute to the removal of the studied bacterial and viral surrogates.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Purificación del Agua , Aerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Escherichia coli , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
14.
Water Res ; 195: 116996, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721673

RESUMEN

To investigate the role of granular activated carbon (GAC) on nitrogen removal performance of elemental sulfur-based constructed wetlands (S0-based CWs), three systems were constructed according to the different configurations in the functional layer, namely S-CW (S0 added in the functional layer), CSC-CW (GAC, S0 and GAC placed in layers in the functional layer) and SC-CW (S0 and GAC mixed evenly in the functional layer). In CSC-CW and SC-CW, the volumetric ratio of S0:GAC was 9:1. Three CWs were operated under four different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranged from 48 h to 6 h. Over the experiment, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal rates of the three CWs were 3.1 - 23.6 g m-2 d-1, 3.5 - 24.1 g m-2 d-1 and 3.4 - 11.5 g m-2 d-1, respectively; CSC-CW remained high TIN removal efficiency (from 74.7 ± 20.2 % to 93.4 ± 1.9 %) while SC-CW had significant lower values when HRT = 6 h (29.8 ± 30.1 %). Mass balance and high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that mixotrophic denitrification at the sulfur layer and simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) at the rhizosphere played the major role in N removal from CSC-CW (> 95 %). GAC addition facilitated the growth of Iris pseudacorus with the final fresh weight increased from 33.9 gFW ind-1 to 82.3 gFW ind-1 in CSC-CW and 82.7 gFW ind-1 in SC-CW. This study optimizes the practical application of S0-based CWs amended with GAC for N removal from carbon-limited wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno , Humedales , Carbón Orgánico , Desnitrificación , Azufre , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
15.
Waste Manag ; 125: 293-302, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721702

RESUMEN

The recovery of valuable materials from waste fits the principle of circular economy and sustainable use of resources, but contaminants in the waste are still a major obstacle. This works proposes a novel approach to recover high-purity phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from digestate of municipal solid waste based on the combination of two independent membrane processes: electrodialytic (ED) process to extract P, and gas permeable membranes (GPM) for N extraction. A laboratory ED cell was adapted to accommodate a GPM. The length of waste compartment (10 cm; 15 cm), current intensity (50 mA; 75 mA) and operation time (9 days; 12 days) were the variables tested. 81% of P in the waste was successfully extracted to the anolyte when an electric current of 75 mA was applied for 9 days, and 74% of NH4+ was extracted into an acid-trapping solution. The two purified nutrient solutions were subsequently used in the synthesis of a biofertilizer (secondary struvite) through precipitation, achieving an efficiency of 99.5%. The properties of the secondary struvite synthesized using N and P recovered from the waste were similar to secondary struvite formed using synthetic chemicals but the costs were higher due to the need to neutralize the acid-trapping solution, highlighting the need to further tune the process and make it economically more competitive. The high recycling rates of P and N achieved are encouraging and widen the possibility of replacing synthetic fertilizers, manufactured from finite sources, by secondary biofertilizers produced using nutrients extracted from wastes.


Asunto(s)
Fósforo , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Nitrógeno , Nutrientes , Fosfatos , Estruvita , Aguas Residuales
16.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(6): 1315-1326, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767038

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to provide technical means and data support for enhancing the filtration pretreatment capacity of a recirculating aquaculture system. A continuous flow electrocoagulation (EC)-filtration system was designed and its application in the pretreatment of marine aquaculture wastewater was studied. The influences of anode combination modes, hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of the EC reactor and filter pore sizes on the water treatment capacity were investigated. Results showed that EC could significantly enhance the treatment efficiency of the filtration equipment used in subsequent steps. Al-Fe electrodes used as anode led to better processing capacity of this system, and the optimum anode was 3Al + Fe. With the increase of HRT and decrease of filter pore size, the enhanced effect of the EC process on the filter was more obvious. When the current density was 19.22 A/m2, the anode was 3Al + Fe, the HRT was 4.5 min and the filter pore size was 45 µm, the removal efficiency of the system for Vibrio, chemical oxygen demand, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and total nitrogen was 69.55 ± 0.93%, 48.99 ± 1.42%, 57.06 ± 1.28%, 34.09 ± 2.27%, 18.47 ± 1.88% and 55.26 ± 1.42%, respectively, and the energy consumption was (26.25 ± 4.95) × 10-3kWh/m3.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Purificación del Agua , Acuicultura , Electrocoagulación , Electrodos , Filtración , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(6): 1327-1334, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767039

RESUMEN

Three carbon sources, namely sodium acetate, sewage and effluent, were used to simulate the process of phosphorus release in an actual sewage treatment plant, in order to explore the phosphorus release performance of the sludge, the relationship between phosphorus release and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage, and the stability of phosphorus-rich sludge. The results showed that the type and concentration of carbon sources had significant effects on the rate of phosphorus release, reaction equilibrium time and phosphorus release amount. When sodium acetate was used as the carbon source, the phosphorus release rate reached 12.54 mg P (g VSS·h)-1, and tended to be stable at 4.0 hours. The phosphorus release amount in the first 2.5 hours accounted for 36.88% of the total phosphorus in the sludge. When sewage was used as the carbon source, the phosphorus release rate did not reach equilibrium even at 5.0 hours, and the phosphorus release amount increased by 1.0 mg L-1 for every 10.5 mg L-1 increase sewage COD within a certain range. When effluent was used as the carbon source, the visual phosphorus release amount was only 0.83 mg L-1 after standing for 24 hours and the actual phosphorus release amount was 17.98 mg L-1. These conclusions can provide technical support for the optimization of phosphorus removal in sewage treatment plants.


Asunto(s)
Fósforo , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Carbono , Nitrógeno , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(6): 1335-1346, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767040

RESUMEN

This study highlights the need to increase our understanding of the interplay between sensor drift and the performance of the automatic control system. The impact from biased sensors on the automatic control systems is rarely considered when different control strategies are assessed in water resource recovery facilities. Still, the harsh measurement environment with negative effects on sensor data quality is widely acknowledged. Simulations were used to show how sensor bias in an ammonium cascade feedback controller impacts aeration energy efficiency and total nitrogen removal in an activated sludge process. Response surface methodology was used to reduce the required number of simulations, and to consider the combined effect of two simultaneously biased sensors. The effects from flow variations, and negatively biased ammonium (-1 mg/L) and suspended solids sensors (-500 mg/L) reduced the nitrification aeration energy efficiency by between 7 and 25%. Less impact was seen on total nitrogen removal. There were no added non-linear effects from the two simultaneously biased sensors, apart from an interaction between a biased ammonium sensor and dissolved oxygen sensor located in the last aerated zone. Negative effects from sensor bias can partly be limited if the expected bias direction is considered when the controller setpoint-limits are defined.


Asunto(s)
Oxígeno , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Reactores Biológicos , Nitrificación , Nitrógeno , Oxígeno/análisis , Aguas del Alcantarillado
19.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(6): 1418-1428, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767047

RESUMEN

Mathematical modelling was used to investigate the possibility to use membrane aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) in a largely anoxic suspended growth bioreactor to produce the nitrate-nitrogen required for heterotrophic denitrification and the growth of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs). The results indicate that such a process can be used to achieve a variety of process objectives. The capture of influent biodegradable organic matter while also achieving significant total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal can be achieved with or without use of primary treatment by operation at a relatively short suspended growth solids residence time (SRT). Low effluent TIN concentrations can also be achieved, irrespective of the influent wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total nitrogen (TN) ratio, with somewhat larger suspended growth SRT. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal can also be effectively achieved. Further experimental work is needed to confirm these modelling results.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Biopelículas , Reactores Biológicos , Desnitrificación , Nitrógeno , Nutrientes , Fósforo
20.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(6): 1446-1458, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767049

RESUMEN

Low-level alkalinity (pH 9-10) coupled with ultrasonic or mechanical cutting with different energy input for obtaining carbon sources were tested for sludge pretreatment process before anaerobic sludge digestion. The differences between the primary sludge (PS) and waste activated sludge (WAS)-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) species were evaluated for their bioavailability and affinity (in the form of amino acids) to the bio-nutrient removal (BNR) biomass. Soluble microbial by-product-like substances as the predominant DOM components in the raw PS and WAS increased by 23 and 22%, respectively, after low-level alkaline treatment (pH 9-10) and ultrasonication. In addition, the protein components were degraded further as free amino acids (FAAs). The sludge-derived aspartate, glutamate, followed by arginine were the most commonly used FAAs by the BNR biomass. The pattern of recovering this special sludge-derived carbon source to enhance P removal and recovery in the BNR process is depicted.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Disponibilidad Biológica , Ultrasonido , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
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