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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e36283, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1103400

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar a influência das composições familiares na ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência. Método:estudo caso-controle, realizado com 74 gestantes adolescentes, grupo de casos, e 74 adultas jovens sem história pregressa de gravidez na adolescência, grupo controle, pareadas pela variável renda familiar. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas estruturadas realizadas no período deagosto a outubro de 2016 em Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, e em seguida analisados pelos métodos estatísticos descritivo e inferencial. Resultados: identificou-se associação entre a ocorrência do desfecho com pertencer a famílias não nucleares, não permanecer a mesma família durante a infância e adolescência, e a constituição de uma família própria no período da adolescência. Conclusão:verificou-se que adolescentes inseridas em famílias não nucleares estão mais expostas a fatores de risco para ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência, quando comparadas às jovensprovenientes de famílias com ambos os pais.


Objective: to analyze the influence of family compositions in the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence. Method:this is a case-control study performed with 74 pregnant adolescents, group of cases, and 74 young adults without background history of pregnancy during adolescence, group control, paired by family income. Data were collected through structured interviews conducted in the period from August to October 2016 in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, and then analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results:we identified an association between the occurrence of the outcome and the belonging to non-nuclear families, as well as the non-belonging to the same family during childhood and adolescence, besides the constitution of an own family in the period of adolescence. Conclusion: checked that adolescents inserted in nonnuclear families are more exposed to risk factors for the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence when compared to young people coming from families with both parents.


Objetivo: analizar la influencia de las composiciones familiares en la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente. Método: estudio caso-control efectuado con 74 adolescentes embarazadas, grupo de casos, y 74 jóvenes adultas sin historia anterior de embarazo en la adolescencia, grupo de control, agrupadas por sus ingresos familiares. Los datos se recopilaron mediante entrevistas estructuradas conducidas en el periodo de agosto a octubre de 2016 en Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, y posteriormente analizados por los métodos estadísticos descriptivo e inferencial. Resultados:se identificó una asociación entre la ocurrencia del desenlace y la pertenencia a las familias no nucleares, no permanencia en la misma familia durante niñez y adolescencia, y la constitución de una familia propia en el periodo de la adolescencia. Conclusion: comprobado eso que las adolescentes insertadas en familias no nucleares están más expuestas a los factores de riesgo para la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente en comparación con las jóvenes provenientes de familias con ambos padres biológicos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Embarazo en Adolescencia/psicología , Composición Familiar , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Brasil/epidemiología , Núcleo Familiar/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Relaciones Padre-Hijo , Relaciones Madre-Hijo
2.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 217, ago. 2020. ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103536

RESUMEN

Los primeros mil días de vida son parte del Curso de Vida, al tomar en consideración la Epigenética, término postulado por Waddington en 1942: modifica la expresión genética SIN cambiar la secuencia de las bases de ADN. El proyecto internacional llamado DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) u ODSE (Orígenes del Desarrollo de la Salud y Enfermedad), está inserto dentro de la Transición Alimentaria y Nutricional (TAN), que, en países en desarrollo­ocurre en forma muy rápida ­produce tanto la malnutrición por déficit como por exceso; es decir la doble carga nutricional. La TAN es producto en nuestro país, de una urbanización acelerada y anárquica, y de cambios socioculturales, como la incorporación de la mujer al mercado de trabajo con menos tiempo para cocinar; está acompañada de una transición epidemiológica con la emergencia y prevalencia de la obesidad y de las enfermedades crónicas como morbiletalidad. Esta doble carga nutricional se modificó, por la situación país, y prevalece más el déficit que el exceso. Se presenta el PROYECTO FUNDACIÓN BENGOA ­ SVPP ­ SOGV ­ CANIA, cuya meta es: Elaborar una agenda preventiva común contra la malnutrición tanto por déficit como por exceso y sus comorbilidades, bajo el enfoque de los primeros mil días de vida y su efecto sobre todo el curso de vida. Se realizó el diseño y aplicación de tres cuestionarios digitales, que se utilizaran para la elaboración de esta meta. Se consolidó un CONSENSO NACIONAL formado por profesionales de la salud involucrados en los primeros mil días de vida(AU)


The first 1000 days of life is the new paradigm that determines health and nutrition during the life course, based on epidemiological models that incorporate the concept of Epigenetics, term introduced by Waddington, that refers to changes that affect the genetic expression without changing the DNA sequence, within the international program DOHaD/ODSE as well as the Food and Nutrition Transition(FNT). This FNT, product of an accelerated and anarchic urbanization that led to sedentary activities, plus the incorporation of women to the work media, with less time for cooking, with the substitution of the traditional diet for one much more practical and efficient in time and effort. It is accompanied by demographic and epidemiologic changes and transitions. The Double Burden of Nutrition in VENEZUELA has changed due to the effect of the recent crisis with a rise in malnutrition and a fall in obesity/overweight. The current project: Fundación Bengoa- Pediatric Society Venezuela (SVPP) ­ CANIA - Obstetric Society of Venezuela (SOGV) is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in Venezuela (DOHaD Venezuela): and by means of a national consensus of medical societies and institutions, its goal is "To elaborate a Preventive Agenda both for Malnutrition and for Overweight and Obesity and its comorbidities, considering the First 1000 Days of life and its effect over the life course"


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Características de la Población , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Mortalidad Materna , Epigenómica , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Epidemiología , Desnutrición , Transición Nutricional
3.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(6): 1-12, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730736

RESUMEN

Objectives-This report presents changes in state-specific birth rates for teenagers between 2017 and 2018 by race and Hispanic origin of mother. Methods-Data are from birth certificates of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (D.C.). Teen birth rates, the number of births to females aged 15-19 per 1,000 females aged 15-19, are shown by state for all births and for non-Hispanic single-race white, non-Hispanic single-race black, and Hispanic females for 2017 and 2018. Results-Birth rates for females aged 15-19 declined in 38 states between 2017 and 2018; nonsignificant declines were reported in eight additional states and D.C. Among non-Hispanic white teenagers, rates declined in 29 states between 2017 and 2018; nonsignificant declines were reported in 16 additional states. Teen birth rates for non-Hispanic black females declined in 10 states between 2017 and 2018; nonsignificant declines were seen in 21 additional states and D.C. For Hispanic teenagers, birth rates declined in 10 states between 2017 and 2018; nonsignificant declines were reported in 30 additional states and D.C. The magnitude of change between 2017 and 2018 varied by state for each race and Hispanic-origin group.


Asunto(s)
Tasa de Natalidad/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo en Adolescencia/etnología , Adolescente , Tasa de Natalidad/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690805

RESUMEN

Rates of sexual activity, pregnancies, and births among adolescents have continued to decline during the past decade to historic lows. Despite these positive trends, many adolescents remain at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This technical report discusses the new data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior and barrier protection use. Since 2017, STI rates have increased and use of barrier methods, specifically external condom use, has declined among adolescents and young adults. Interventions that increase availability of or accessibility to barrier methods are most efficacious when combined with additional individual, small-group, or community-level activities that include messages about safer sex. Continued research informs public health interventions for adolescents that increase the consistent and correct use of barrier methods and promote dual protection of barrier methods for STI prevention together with other effective methods of contraception.


Asunto(s)
Condones Femeninos , Condones , Conducta Sexual , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Condones Femeninos/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Anticonceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo no Planeado , Factores Raciales , Sexo Seguro , Autoimagen , Educación Sexual , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Apoyo Social
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690806

RESUMEN

Long-acting reversible contraceptives are the most effective methods to prevent pregnancy and also offer noncontraceptive benefits such as reducing menstrual blood flow and dysmenorrhea. The safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception are well established for adolescents, but the rate of use remains low for this population. The pediatrician can play a key role in increasing access to long-acting reversible contraception for adolescents by providing accurate patient-centered contraception counseling and by understanding and addressing the barriers to use.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción Reversible de Larga Duración , Adolescente , Amenorrea/inducido químicamente , Confidencialidad , Consejo , Personas con Discapacidad , Dismenorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Consentimiento Informado , Capacitación en Servicio , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Anticoncepción Reversible de Larga Duración/efectos adversos , Anticoncepción Reversible de Larga Duración/economía , Menorragia/tratamiento farmacológico , Pediatras/educación , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia/prevención & control , Estados Unidos
8.
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol ; 66: 107-118, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527659

RESUMEN

This article sets out the progress that has been made in reducing levels of adolescent childbearing and in meeting adolescent contraceptive needs, over the last 25 years, and also makes the public health, economic, and human rights rationale for continued attention to and investment in these areas. Using an analytic framework that covers the perspectives of both the use and the provision of contraception, it examines the factors that make it difficult for adolescents to obtain and use contraceptives to avoid unintended pregnancies, and outlines what could be done to address these factors, drawing from research evidence and programmatic experience. In doing this, the article provides concrete examples from low- and middle-countries that have made tangible progress in these areas.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva , Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Embarazo en Adolescencia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Servicios de Salud del Adolescente , Anticonceptivos/administración & dosificación , Anticonceptivos/provisión & distribución , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos , Femenino , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Embarazo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233985, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492055

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In sub-Saharan Mozambique, high adolescent fertility rates are a significant public health problem. Understanding the consequences of teenage pregnancies facilitates effective strategies for improving the quality of care of both mother and the newborn. AIMS: To identify the factors associated with adolescent motherhood in Tete (Mozambique). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 821 pregnant women (255 teenagers) admitted to the general maternity ward of the Provincial Hospital between March and October 2016. The survey included clinical data of the mother and newborn. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 31.8% (95% CI 27.9% - 34.2%). Multivariate analysis showed that independent factors associated with teenage motherhood were: number of pregnancies (OR 0.066; 95% CI 0.040-0.110), pregnancy follow-up (OR 0.29; CI 0.173-0.488) and previous abortions (OR 4.419; 95% CI 1.931-10.112). When the age of the mother was analysed as a continuous variable, positively associated factors were body mass index, arterial hypertension, HIV infection, previous abortions, pregnancy follow-up, and the weight of the newborn. Negatively associated factors were episiotomy and respiratory distress in the newborn. CONCLUSION: Teenage motherhood is a serious public health problem in Mozambique. Intensive sexual and reproductive health planning for adolescents is needed.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud del Lactante/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo en Adolescencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Aborto Inducido/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Servicios de Salud del Adolescente/organización & administración , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Número de Embarazos , Planificación en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Recién Nacido , Mortalidad Materna , Mozambique/epidemiología , Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 472-478, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578781

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the degree of knowledge of Brazilian adolescents regarding emergency contraception (EC) such as correct administration, frequency of use, efficacy, mechanism of action, adverse effects, and complications. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Adolescents aged 11-19 years answered a questionnaire containing questions about sexuality, knowledge, and use of EC. RESULTS: Out of 148 adolescents who were interviewed 8% did not know about the EC. Among the sexually active, 56.7% used EC at least once. The chance of obtaining EC information with friends triples between 15-19 years old [p=0.04; OR=3.18 (1.08-10.53)]. Most used single-dose EC. They said that EC prevents 80% of pregnancy and should be used within 72 hours after unprotected sex. Only 41.2% between 10-14 years old and 82.4% between 15-19 years old know that it prevents fertilization. As reasons for using they cited: rape and unprotected sex in 58.3% of those aged 10-14 years old and 79.6% between 15-19 years old. About side effects, 58.8% of 10-14 years old and 17.6% of those aged ≥15 years old could not answer, but 60.5% between 15-19 years old mentioned nausea and vomiting. A significant portion (17.6-41.2%) believes that EC causes abortion, cancer, infertility, and fetal malformations. Over 80% of the girls agree that it can cause menstrual irregularity. CONCLUSION: Knowledge regarding EC is not satisfactory, especially regarding its risks, regardless of the age and education of the groups evaluated. Improved knowledge may lead to greater adherence to EC and lead to a reduction in unplanned pregnancies.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción Postcoital , Anticoncepción Hormonal , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Adolescente , Brasil , Anticoncepción , Estudios Transversales , Urgencias Médicas , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231557, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287303

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Information on repeat adolescent birth remains scarce in sub-Sahara Africa. We investigated the prevalence and time trends in repeat adolescent birth in Uganda, and associated factors. METHODS: We analyzed Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data of women age 20-24 years collected on 6 surveys (1988/89-2016) to estimate repeat adolescent birth (first live birth <18 years of age followed by another live birth(s) <20 years). Further, we estimated the wantedness of the second order birth and the prevalence of short birth intervals birth (<13 months) between the first and second such birth. On the 2016 survey, we examined factors associated with repeat adolescent birth using bivariate and multivariate modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: At the 1988/89 survey, 58.9% of women with first birth <18 years reported a repeat adolescent birth. This percentage increased to 66.8% in 2006 (+7.9 percentage points [pp], p = 0.010) and thereafter declined to 55.6% by 2016 (-11.2 pp, p<0.001), nevertheless, no change occurred between 1988/89 and 2016 (-3.3pp, p = 0.251). Among women with repeat adolescent births, the mean number of live births by exact age 20 years (2.2 births) and prevalence of short birth intervals (3.5% in 1988/89, 5.4% in 2016) (+1.9pp, p = 0.245) did not change. Increasingly more women with repeat adolescent births preferred to have had the second child later, 22.5% in 1995 and 43.1% in 2016 (+20.6pp, p = <0.001). On the 2016 survey, women from poorer households and those of younger age at first birth were significantly more likely to report repeat adolescent birth. CONCLUSION: Following a first birth <18 years, more than half of the women report a repeat adolescent birth (<20 years), with no decline observed in 30 years. Increasingly more women wanted the second adolescent pregnancy later, highlighting the need to support adolescents with improved family planning services at each contact.


Asunto(s)
Paridad , Embarazo en Adolescencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Orden de Nacimiento/psicología , Tasa de Natalidad/tendencias , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/tendencias , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Edad Materna , Parto/psicología , Embarazo , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(2): 150-155, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285856

RESUMEN

Globally, adolescent pregnancy constitutes a serious public health problem of a multifactorial nature. Specifically for women, it entails various educational, economic and social implications that affect their life project and widen the social gaps in this age group. Furthermore, adolescent girls are more vulnerable because of the health risk involved with pregnancy at a younger age. According to the World Health Organization, "the probability of maternal death is twice as high in adolescents in comparison with women aged between 20 and 30 years, and for those younger than 15 years, the risks are five times higher". In general, adolescents are in great need for education on sexual and reproductive health issues, which should be aimed at increasing information and knowledge about correct use and access to modern contraceptive methods, as well as at demystifying fears and beliefs around their possible side effects. Ensuring proper counseling with trained personnel is equally vital. Public institutions have a social responsibility to support efforts aimed at preventing adolescent pregnancy, based on relevant lines of action and health policies.


Asunto(s)
Embarazo en Adolescencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepción , Femenino , Humanos , México , Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
15.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(4): 277-288, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301650

RESUMEN

The impact of adolecent motherhood on child development in preschool children- identification of maternal risk factors Abstract. Objective: This longitudinal study aims to identify relevant risk factors in adolescent mothers which might impact their child's cognitive and speech development as well as behavior problems at preschool age. Based on earlier findings, maternal sensitivity (EA), socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological stress were identified as potentially influencing factors. Method: N = 31 adolescent and N = 47 adult mothers with their children aged 3;0 to 5;9 (M = 3;55) participated in this study. Child variables included cognitive development (WPPSI-III), language development (SSV), and behavioral problems (SDQ). Maternal factors were EA, SES, and mental health problems (BSI-18). Results: Children of adolescent mothers performed worse on cognitive and speech development and are described by their mothers as exhibiting more behavioral problems compared to children of adult mothers. Mediation analyses revealed that the effect of maternal age on children's cognitive development is occurs through reduced maternal sensitivity of adolescent mothers. Further, higher psychological stress of adolescent mothers mediated the effect of maternal age on children's behavior problems. Conclusion: Preschool children of adolescent mothers showed poorer developmental outcomes compared to children of adult mothers. This is partly explained by lower maternal sensitivity and higher rates of psychological stress among adolescent mothers.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Madres/psicología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Embarazo , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico
16.
AIDS Care ; 32(sup2): 193-197, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193964

RESUMEN

Women, and specifically, adolescents, are at high risk of HIV and STIs during the postpartum period. Biological and behavioral factors contribute to adolescents' susceptibility. However, the influence of behavioral factors, like intimate partner violence (IPV), on postpartum STI acquisition has been understudied. The study's purpose is to determine whether IPV victimization during pregnancy predicts incident STIs in the first 6 months postpartum. Adolescent mothers (14-19 years) were recruited at a township hospital's maternity ward near Durban. Adolescent mothers who were HIV-negative and had no laboratory-diagnosed STIs at baseline (6 weeks postpartum) were included in the analysis (n = 61). We used a modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors to assess differences in postpartum STI risk by IPV victimization during pregnancy controlling for covariates. At baseline, 25 (41%) adolescent mothers reported IPV victimization during pregnancy. Adolescent mothers who reported IPV during pregnancy were at higher risk of receiving an STI diagnoses at 6 months postpartum (aRR: 4.43; 95% CI: 1.31-14.97). Our findings heighten understanding of HIV risk among a vulnerable subset of adolescent girls: adolescent mothers. Non-combined interventions that help young mothers and their partners navigate partnership dynamics to reduce IPV and STIs are needed to reduce HIV risk.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Madres/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/psicología , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 366, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancy has been a persistent area of interest and concern in the field of public health. The debate about adolescents' sexual risk behaviour has also gained prominence due to findings that have demonstrated that adolescent girls between 15 and 19 years of age give birth to 16 million infants and account for 62% of new HIV infections in the Caribbean and African regions. Health compromising behaviours often develop in adolescence, yet the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent mothers is often marginalised in the healthcare field. The aim of this study was to explore adolescent mothers' understanding of sexual risk behaviour. METHODS: The study employed a descriptive qualitative design. To collect the data, four focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent mothers aged 16-19 years. The eighteen adolescent mothers were recruited using purposive sampling technique from a hospital in the Ugu district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The study revealed that decisions to engage in risky sexual behaviour is influenced by peer pressure, drugs and alcohol, sexual experimentation, myths about contraception, the media, poor parental supervision and power gender dynamics, poverty leading to transactional sex, the vulnerability of young girls, and the fear of partner rejection. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will contribute to a better understanding of adolescent mothers' perspectives of sexual risk behaviour. In the subject matter of sexual and reproductive health, adolescents' autonomy with respect to cultural and social recommendations should not be sidelined. Due to their vulnerability, adolescent women are exposed to transactional sex, and it is particularly due to poverty that adolescent women are driven into sexual relations with older men as a means of survival. Moreover, interventions to curb postpartum sexual risk behaviour are important to protect adolescent women and mothers against HIV/AIDS. The sexual and reproductive education of adolescent women should focus on resilience, negotiating skills, and protective decision making. Collaborative efforts to curb sexual risk taking by young women should be encouraged and should involve relevant agents from the educational, social and clinical fields.


Asunto(s)
Madres/psicología , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adolescente , Condones , Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Investigación Cualitativa , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143390

RESUMEN

Background: 21 million girls get pregnant every year. Many initiatives are empowering girls. Various studies have looked at girl empowerment, however, there is contradicting evidence, and even less literature from developing countries. Methods: We searched articles published between January 2000 to January 2019. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and registered our protocol on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (CRD42019117414). Nine articles were selected for review. Quality appraisal was done using separate tools for qualitative studies, cohort and cross-sectional studies and randomized control trials. Results: Eight studies included educational empowerment, four studies included community empowerment, three studies included economic empowerment, while two studies discussed policy empowerment. Three studies were of fair quality; two qualitative and one cross-sectional study were of high quality, while three studies had low quality. Discussion. Studies showed a favorable impact of girl empowerment on adolescent pregnancies and risky sexual behaviors. Education empowerment came through formal education or health systems such as in family planning clinics. Community empowerment was seen as crucial in girls' development, from interactions with parents to cultural practices. Economic empowerment was direct like cash transfer programs or indirect through benefits of economic growth. Policies such as contraceptive availability or compulsory school helped reduce pregnancies.


Asunto(s)
Empoderamiento , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
20.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(1): 3-11, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093924

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: En el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo no se han caracterizado las adolescentes maternas ingresadas en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Objetivo: Caracterizar la morbilidad materna en adolescentes ingresadas en la UCI del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo durante el año 2019. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, prospectivo y transversal, con todas las maternas adolescentes ingresadas en dicha unidad durante el 2019. En cada una se analizó la edad, antecedentes patológicos, estado al egreso, modo de terminar el embarazo, realización de tratamiento quirúrgico, enfermedades relacionadas o no con el embarazo, complicaciones y si se trataron con ventilación mecánica. Resultados: El 18,2 % de las maternas ingresadas fueron adolescentes (3,2 del total de ingresos en la unidad). El 9,7 % recibió ventilación artificial. El 64,7 % tenía entre 18 y 19 años de edad y todas egresaron vivas. El 23,5 % era asmática, el 70,7 % era puérpera e ingresó por enfermedad obstétrica, al 41,2 % se les realizó tratamiento quirúrgico, el más común fue la histerectomía (41,2 %). La preclampsia grave - eclampsia (23,4 %) y la atonía uterina (25,9 %) fueron las enfermedades más comunes. El choque hipovolémico por atonía uterina (23,4 %) determinó el criterio de morbilidad materna severa. El 52,9 % de las pacientes presentó complicaciones. Conclusiones: La morbilidad materna en adolescentes ingresadas en esta UCI reveló que en esta etapa de la vida fue elevada la morbilidad por complicaciones del embarazo, el parto y el puerperio, lo que es un problema de salud no resuelto en la provincia de Guantánamo.


ABSTRACT Introduction: In the General Teaching Hospital "Dr. Agostinho Neto" of Guantanamo have not characterized the maternal adolescents admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Objective: To characterize maternal morbidity in adolescents admitted to the ICU of the General Teaching Hospital "Dr. Agostinho Neto"of Guantanamo during the year 2019. Method: An observational, prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out, with all adolescent mothers admitted to said unit during 2019. In each one, age, pathological history, state at discharge, were analyzed. way of terminating pregnancy, performing surgical treatment, diseases related or not to pregnancy, complications and whether they were treated with mechanical ventilation. Results: 18.2% of the mothers admitted were adolescents (3.2 of the total income in the unit). 9.7% received artificial ventilation. 64.7% were between 18 and 19 years old and all graduated alive. 23.5% were asthmatic, 70.7% were poor and admitted for obstetric disease, 41.2% underwent surgical treatment, the most common was hysterectomy (41.2%). Severe preclampsia-eclampsia (23.4%) and uterine atony (25.9%) were the most common diseases. Hypovolemic shock due to uterine atony (23.4%) determined the criterion of severe maternal morbidity. 52.9% of the patients presented complications. Conclusions: Maternal morbidity in adolescents admitted to this ICU revealed that morbidity due to complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium was elevated at this stage of life, which is an unresolved health problem in the province of Guantanamo.


RESUMO Introdução: No Hospital Geral de Ensino "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo não foram caracterizadas as adolescentes maternas internadas na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Objetivo: Caracterizar a morbidade materna em adolescentes internadas na UTI do Hospital Geral de Ensino "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo durante o ano de 2019. Método: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, prospectivo e transversal, com todas as mães adolescentes internadas nessa unidade durante o ano de 2019. Em cada uma, foram analisadas a idade, história patológica, estado de alta, maneira de interromper a gravidez, realizar tratamento cirúrgico, doenças relacionadas ou não à gravidez, complicações e se foram tratadas com ventilação mecânica. Resultados: 18,2% das mães admitidas eram adolescentes (3,2 da renda total da unidade). 9,7% receberam ventilação artificial. 64,7% tinham entre 18 e 19 anos e todos se formaram vivos. 23,5% eram asmáticos, 70,7% eram pobres e admitidos por doença obstétrica; 41,2% foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico; o mais comum foi a histerectomia (41,2%). Pré-eclâmpsia-eclâmpsia grave (23,4%) e atonia uterina (25,9%) foram as doenças mais comuns. O choque hipovolêmico por atonia uterina (23,4%) determinou o critério de morbidade materna grave. 52,9% dos pacientes apresentaram complicações. Conclusões: A morbidade materna em adolescentes internadas nesta UTI revelou que a morbidade por complicações na gravidez, parto e puerpério estava elevada nesta fase da vida, que é um problema de saúde não resolvido na província de Guantánamo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Embarazo , Adolescente , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Mortalidad Materna , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudio Observacional
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