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1.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 06 29.
Artículo en Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619245

RESUMEN

The Swedish strategy for dealing with covid-19 has been criticized for not accounting for difficulties of conducting voluntary social distancing in settings with household overcrowding, dependence on public transport and large proportion of service sector workers. In such neighbourhoods there is typically a larger proportion of immigrants. We compared all-cause-mortality data in Sweden by country of origin from 2020 and 2016-2019 and found large disparities. The number of deaths among persons born in countries from which many refugees have migrated to Sweden in the last decades was 220% higher in March-May 2020 compared to the mean in 2016-2019. In contrast, there was no increased mortality among persons aged 40-64 years and a 19% increased number of deaths of those aged above 65 years born in Sweden, EU or North America during these three months. These observations further illustrate the need for a dedicated and more diverse strategy in dealing with the covid-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , América del Norte , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Suecia/epidemiología
4.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(10)2020 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Noruego | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602316

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic in the spring of 2020 involved closure of schools and strict limitations on social contact. The study examines whether this had an effect on the life satisfaction and subjective well-being among adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHOD: An online survey among students in lower secondary schools in Oslo (N = 8 116, 46 % response rate) was conducted during the period with closed schools and strict infection control measures. The results were compared to equivalent surveys conducted in Oslo in 2018 (N = 13 790, 83 % response rate) and several other counties in 2020 before the COVID-19 restrictions were introduced (N = 19 799, 49 % response rate). Identical measurements were used for life satisfaction, subjective well-being and background factors. We used logistic regression analysis and corrected for sociodemographic differences. RESULTS: Among boys, the proportion reporting high life satisfaction (a score of 6 or higher on a scale from 0 to 10) declined markedly, from 88 % in 2018 and 92 % in 2020 before the COVID-19 restrictions to 71 % during the period of restrictions (p < 0.001). The equivalent figures for girls were 78 %, 81 % and 62 % (p < 0.001). The social inequality in life satisfaction was smaller during the restrictions than in other periods. Concerns about illness and infection were associated with lower life satisfaction. INTERPRETATION: The reduction in life satisfaction and subjective well-being can most likely be explained by the heavy restrictions placed on activities that promote well-being and by concerns about infection. The results also indicate that resourceful adolescents experienced an especially strong reduction in their life satisfaction.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Satisfacción Personal , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Éxito Académico , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Noruega/epidemiología , Pandemias , Instituciones Académicas , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578725

RESUMEN

In this study which is part of a research project on Chagas disease (CD) among Bolivian immigrants in Sao Paulo, we describe socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of CD and implications for acess to health care. We applied a structured questionnaire to a sample of 472 Bolivian adults (> 18 years) living in Sao Paulo and enrolled at the Barra Funda School Health Center. Participants' median age was 28.5 years, 75.0% were from the Bolivian department of La Paz, and >90% worked in the garment industry. Respondents had lived in Sao Paulo for a median of 5.8 years. Only 169 (35.8%) were familiar with CD, while roughly half (50.4%) had lived in natural materials houses in Bolivia, 225 (47.7%) indicated familiarity with the vector, 23.9% had seen the vector in their homes in Bolivia, and 6.4% reported having been bitten by a triatomine bug. Factors associated with awareness of CD were analyzed by chi square tests, and those with p values <0.25 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, having a relative with CD (OR=4.3, 95% CI=1.5-12.0), having lived in a house with mud or wood walls (OR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2-0.8), and having heard of the triatomine bug, or vinchuca, (OR=10.0, 95% CI=5.1-19.5) were significantly associated with awareness of CD. This study shows a low familiarity with CD among Bolivian migrants living in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Raising awareness of the disease through specific communication strategies should be an essential component of public health programs to reduce the burden of CD in this and other vulnerable populations.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Bolivia/etnología , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 57, 2020 06 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566486

RESUMEN

The adverse policy environment in the United States (US) has made immigrant communities particularly vulnerable to uncontrolled community spread of COVID-19. Past and recent federal and state policy actions may exacerbate undetected community spread in immigrant communities and commensurate economic impact. Given the importance of immigrants to the US economy and society, and the human toll this pandemic is having on migrants worldwide, federal and state policies should pivot to find ways to improve access to healthcare for immigrants.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S225-S227, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478552

RESUMEN

In this article, we comment on the experience of the Kovler Center Child Trauma Program (KCCTP) following the March 21, 2020, shelter at home order in Chicago due to COVID-19. The KCCTP is a program of Heartland Alliance International that was founded in 2018 to provide community-based mental health and social services to immigrant and refugee youth and families who have experienced trauma. COVID-19 temporarily closed the doors of the center, suspending provision of in-person services in the community, and the program was forced to become remote overnight. The KCCTP rapidly transitioned to providing accessible information, active outreach, extensive case management, and flexible delivery of teletherapy and online psychosocial support, finding that attending to structural barriers and basic needs was crucial to family engagement and therapeutic success. Ongoing challenges include technological proficiency and access to computers, Internet, and private spaces. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Síntomas Conductuales/terapia , Manejo de Caso , Servicios Comunitarios de Salud Mental , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Refugiados , Apoyo Social , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Chicago , Niño , Servicios Comunitarios de Salud Mental/métodos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones
10.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(5): 461-464, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525390

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is linked to a rise in stigma and discrimination against Chinese and other Asians, which is likely to have a negative impact on mental health, especially when combined with additional outbreak-related stressors. We discuss the need to consider the potential harms of these anti-Asian sentiments during both the height of the pandemic and longer-term recovery through (a) research-examining how it affects mental health and recovery; (b) practice-implementing evidence-based stigma reduction initiatives; and (c) policy-coordinating federal response to anti-Asian racism including investment in mental health services and community-based efforts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Americanos Asiáticos , Investigación Biomédica , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Política de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Trauma Psicológico , Racismo , Estigma Social , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Mental , Trauma Psicológico/terapia
12.
Sante Publique ; 31(6): 751-759, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550657

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Present the results of a study of the experience of maternity in the context of a recent immigration to Quebec. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were carried out amongst mothers from different countries, having immigrated within the last five years. L'Écuyer's (1990) developmental analysis of the content was used to analyze the results. RESULTS: The data collected from 15 participants demonstrates that they perceive their motherly role as a great responsibility. During the postnatal phase, these women develop autonomy as mothers, but they also suffer from isolation and often only have their spouse to rely on. They experience a vast range of emotions such as happiness, anxiety, and sadness. Their level of distress depends on their representation of their maternity and immigration. To ensure their wellbeing, they keep in touch with their origins and use the professional services available. CONCLUSION: The transition into motherhood leads to a great disruption of these women's lives. Due to social isolation, their responsibilities as mothers seem even more intense. The partner, considered an ally, thus plays an important role by their side. They struggle with trusting Quebecers, however, some services are greatly appreciated: the in-home visit of nurses, the guide From Tiny Tot to Toddler and the Info-Santé telephone service. It would be relevant to conduct more studies on the reality of immigrant fathers and to consider increasing the number of in-home nurse or midwife visits for mothers who are less socially integrated and who perceive their immigration negatively.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Servicios de Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Partería , Madres/psicología , Distrés Psicológico , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Parto , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Quebec
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233084, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421735

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer associated with high risk-human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is becoming the one of the most common female cancer in many sub-Saharan African countries. First-generation immigrant African women living in Europe are at-risk for cervical cancer, in a context of social vulnerability, with frequent lack of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to address immunologically the issue of catch-up prophylactic HPV vaccination in first-generation African immigrant women living in France. METHODS: IgG immune responses and cross-reactivities to α7 (HPV-18, -45 and -68) and α9 (HPV-16, -31, -33, -35, -52 and -58) HPV types, including 7 HR-HPV targeted by the Gardasil-9® prophylactic vaccine, were evaluated in paired serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) by HPV L1-virus-like particles-based ELISA. Genital HPV were detected by multiplex real time PCR (Seegene, Seoul, South Korea). RESULTS: Fifty-one immigrant women (mean age, 41.7 years; 72.5% HIV-infected) were prospectively included. More than two-third (68.6%) of them carried genital HPV (group I) while 31.4% were negative (group II). The majority (90.2%) exhibited serum IgG to at least one α7/α9 HR-HPV. Serum HPV-specific IgG were more frequently detected in group I than group II (100% versus 68.7%; P = 0.002). The distribution of serum and genital HPV-specific IgG was similar, but mean number of IgG reactivities to α7/α9 HR-HPV was higher in serum than CVS (5.6 IgG per woman in serum versus 3.2 in CVS; P<0.001). Rates of IgG cross-reactivities against HPV different from detected cervicovaginal HPV were higher in serum and CVS in group I than group II. Finally, the majority of groups I and II women (68.6% and 68.7%, respectively) exhibited serum or cervicovaginal IgG to Gardasil-9® HR-HPV, with higher mean rates in group I than group II (6.1 Gardasil-9® HR-HPV per woman versus 1.4; P<0.01). One-third (31.2%) of group II women did not show any serum and genital HPV-specific IgG. CONCLUSIONS: Around two-third of first-generation African immigrant women living in France showed frequent ongoing genital HPV infection and high rates of circulating and genital IgG to α7/α9 HPV, generally cross-reacting, avoiding the possibility of catch-up vaccination. Nevertheless, about one-third of women had no evidence of previous HPV infection, or showed only low levels of genital and circulating HR-HPV-specific IgG and could therefore be eligible for catch-up vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/metabolismo , Vacuna Tetravalente Recombinante contra el Virus del Papiloma Humano Tipos 6, 11 , 16, 18/inmunología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/etnología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Cuello del Útero/inmunología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Francia/etnología , Papillomavirus Humano 16/inmunología , Papillomavirus Humano 18/inmunología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/inmunología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/inmunología , Vagina/inmunología
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003118, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401775

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Between 2,000 and 19,000 Special Immigrant Visa (SIV) holders (SIVH) from Iraq and Afghanistan resettle in the United States annually. Despite the increase in SIV admissions to the US over recent years, little is known about the health conditions in SIV populations. We assessed the burden of select communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in SIV adults to guide recommendations to clinicians in the US. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed overseas medical exam data in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Electronic Disease Notification system (EDN) for 19,167 SIV Iraqi and Afghan adults who resettled to the US from April 2009 through December 2017 in this cross-sectional analysis. We describe demographic characteristics, tuberculosis screening results, self-reported NCDs, and risk factors for NCDs (such as obesity and tobacco use). In our data set, most SIVH were male (Iraqi: 59.7%; Afghan: 54.7%) and aged 18-44 (Iraqi: 86.3%; Afghan: 95.6%). About 2.3% of Afghan SIVH and 1.1% of Iraqi SIVH had a tuberculosis condition. About 0.3% of all SIVH reported having chronic hepatitis. Among all SIVH, 56.5% were overweight or had obesity, 2.4% reported hypertension, 1.1% reported diabetes, and 19.4% reported current or previous tobacco use. Iraqi SIVH were 3.7 times more likely to have obesity (95% CI: 3.4-4.0), 2.5 times more likely to report diabetes (95% CI: 1.7-3.5), and 2.5 times more likely to be current or former smokers (95% CI: 2.3-2.7) than Afghan SIVH. Limitations include the inability to obtain all SIVH records, self-reported medical history of NCDs, and the underdiagnosis of NCDs such as hypertension and diabetes because formal laboratory testing for NCDs is not used during overseas medical exams. CONCLUSION: In this analysis, we found that 56.5% of all SIVH were overweight or had obesity, 2.4% reported hypertension, 1.1% reported diabetes, and 19.4% reported current or previous tobacco use. In general, Iraqi SIVH were more likely to have obesity, diabetes, and be current or former smokers than Afghan SIVH. State public health agencies and clinicians doing domestic screening examinations of SIVH should consider screening for obesity-as per the CDC's Guidelines for the US Domestic Medical Examination for Newly Arriving Refugees-and smoking and, if appropriate, referral to weight management and smoking cessation services. US clinicians can consider screening for other NCDs at the domestic screening examination. Future studies can explore the health profile of SIV populations, including the prevalence of mental health conditions, after integration into the US.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afganistán , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 345, 2020 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410628

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV/HCV/HBV/ Treponema pallidum is an essential health issue in China. However, there are few studies focused on foreigners living in China. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic distribution of HIV, HBV, HCV, and T. pallidum among foreigners in Guangzhou in the period of 2010-2017. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to screen serological samples of 40,935 foreigners from 2010 to 2017 at the Guangdong International Travel Health Care Center in Guangzhou. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, syphilis antibody (anti-TPPA) and anti-HIV 1 and 2. We collected secondary data from laboratory records and used multiple logistic regression analyses to verify the association between different factors and the seroprevalence of HIV/HBV/HCV/ T. pallidum. RESULTS: The prevalence of HBV/HCV/HIV/ T. pallidum was 2.30, 0.42, 0.02, and 0.60%, respectively, and fluctuated slightly for 7 years. The results of multiple logistic regression showed that males were less susceptible to HBV than females (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.89). Participants under the age of 20 had a lower risk of HBV (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18-0.35), HCV (OR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.02-0.18), and T. pallidum (OR = 0. 10, 95% CI: 0.05-0.20) than participants over the age of 50. Participants with an education level below high school were more likely to have HBV (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.89-4.70) than others, and businessmen (OR = 3.02, 95% CI: 2.03-4.49), and designers (OR = 3.83, 95% CI: 2.49-5.90) had a higher risk of T. pallidum than others. Co-infection involved 58 (4.20%) total cases, and the highest co-infection rate was observed for HBV and T. pallidum (2.60%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV/HCV/HIV/ T. pallidum was low among foreigners in Guangzhou. Region, gender, age, educational level, and occupation were risk factors for positive infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Sífilis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Coinfección/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Femenino , VIH-1/inmunología , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
18.
Eur Respir J ; 56(1)2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457198
19.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 65-66, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366172

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought to light significant health inequities that have existed in our society for decades. Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and immigrants are the populations most likely to experience disparities related to burden of disease, health care, and health outcomes. Increasingly, national and state statistics on COVID-19 report disproportionately higher mortality rates in blacks. There has never been a more pressing time for us to enact progressive and far-reaching changes in social, economic, and political policies that will shape programs aimed at improving the health of all people living in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Grupos Minoritarios , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/etnología , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 8836-8844, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253307

RESUMEN

Deportation has become more commonplace in the United States since the mid-2000s. Latin American noncitizens-encompassing undocumented and documented immigrants-are targeted for deportation. Deportation's threat also reaches naturalized and US-born citizens of Latino descent who are largely immune to deportation but whose loved ones or communities are deportable. Drawing on 6 y of data from the National Survey of Latinos, this article examines whether and how Latinos' deportation fears vary by citizenship and legal status and over time. Compared with Latino noncitizens, Latino US citizens report lower average deportation fears. However, a more complex story emerges when examining this divide over time: Deportation fears are high but stable among Latino noncitizens, whereas deportation fears have increased substantially among Latino US citizens. These trends reflect a growing national awareness of-rather than observable changes to-deportation policy and practice since the 2016 US presidential election. The article highlights how deportation or its consequences affects a racial group that the US immigration regime targets disproportionately.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Emigración e Inmigración/legislación & jurisprudencia , Miedo , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigración e Inmigración/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
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