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1.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078851

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Homelessness, which is a severe social problem across Europe and on the rise over the past decade, is closely linked to organic and mental health problems. In front of the lack of diagnostic analysis studies in the Spanish territory, this research aimed to determine the sociodemographic characteristics of a sample of individuals experiencing homelessness (IEH), to determine the prevalence of diagnoses of substance use disorders, dual pathology and other mental disorders and to analyze the existence of diagnostic differences between IEH born in the country and immigrant IEH. METHODS: A transversal and observational study was carried out, based on the analysis of mental health diagnostics of the medical histories of a sample of 1,072 IEH (453 locals and 619 immigrants) assisted between 2008 and 2017 in mental health services in Girona, northeastern Spain. For the statistical analysis, Student's t test was used to compare means and the chi-squared test was used for the analysis of qualitative variables. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to establish the predictor variables for the diagnosis of drug addiction and dual pathology. RESULTS: IEH showed high rates of mental disorders, especially psychoactive substances (82.6% of diagnosed people). 43.9% of IEH showed alcohol dependence as the reason for their diagnosis, followed by cocaine addiction and opiates. Foreign born IEH had more diagnoses for alcohol dependence and less for opiates or dual pathology than spanish born IEH. IEH born in Spain showed a higher vulnerability and received more mental health diagnoses than immigrant IEH. CONCLUSIONS: Even though immigrant PESS show more diagnoses for alcohol dependence, PESS born in Spain show a higher vulnerability and receive more mental health diagnoses than immigrant PESS. The process of migrating seems to establish a difference in the kind of mental disorders and addictions the PESS collective is prone to.


Asunto(s)
Recesión Económica , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Personas sin Hogar/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Adulto , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigración e Inmigración/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , España/epidemiología
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1011, 2021 05 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051758

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We updated the indirect estimates for women and girls living with Female Genital Mutilation Cutting (FGM/C) in Switzerland, using data from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office of migrant women and girls born in one of the 30 high-prevalence FGM/C countries that are currently living in Switzerland. METHODS: We used Yoder and Van Baelen's "Extrapolation of FGM/C Countries' Prevalence Data" method, where we applied DHS and MICS prevalence figures from the 30 countries where FGM/C is practiced, and applied them to the immigrant women and girls living in Switzerland from the same 30 countries. RESULTS: In 2010, the estimated number of women and girls living with or at risk of FGM/C in Switzerland was 9059, whereas in 2018, we estimated that 21,706 women and girls were living with or at risk of FGM/C. CONCLUSION: Over the past decade, there have been significant increases in the number of estimated women and girls living with or at risk of FGM/C in Switzerland due to the increase in the total number of women and girls originally coming form the countries where the practice of FGM/C is traditional.


Asunto(s)
Circuncisión Femenina , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Migrantes , Circuncisión Femenina/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Prevalencia , Suiza/epidemiología
3.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 62, 2021 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952295

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Historically, immigration has been a significant population driver in Canada. In October 2020, immigration targets were raised to an unprecedented level to support economic recovery in response to COVID-19. In addition to the economic impact on Canada, the pandemic has created extraordinary challenges for the health sector and heightened the demand for healthcare professionals. It is therefore imperative to accelerate commensurate employment of internationally educated nurses (IENs) to strengthen and sustain the health workforce and provide care for an increasingly diverse population. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a project to help job-ready IENs in Ontario, Canada, overcome the hurdle of employment by matching them with healthcare employers that had available nursing positions. METHODS: A mixed methods design was used. Interviews were held with IENs seeking employment in the health sector. Secondary analysis was conducted of a job bank database between September 1 and November 30, 2019 to identify healthcare employers with the highest number of postings. Data obtained from the 2016 Canadian Census were used to create demographic profiles mapping the number and proportion of immigrants living in the communities served by these employers. The project team met with senior executives responsible for hiring and managing nurses for these employers. The executives were given the appropriate community immigrant demographic profile, a manual of strategic practices for hiring and integrating IENs, and the résumés and bios of IENs whose skills and experience matched the jobs posted. RESULTS: In total, 112 IENs were assessed for eligibility and 95 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one healthcare employers were identified, and the project team met with 54 senior executives representing these employers. Ninety-five IENs were subsequently matched with an employer. CONCLUSIONS: The project was successful in matching job-ready IENs with healthcare employers and increasing employer awareness of IENs' abilities and competencies, changing demographics, and the benefits of workforce diversity. The targeted activities implemented to support the project goal are applicable to sectors beyond healthcare. Future research should explore the long-term impact of accelerated employment integration of internationally educated professionals and approaches used by other countries.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal Profesional Extranjero/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Ontario
4.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1896659, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975531

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Immigrant populations experience diverse barriers to access healthcare services in the host countries. Among them, undocumented immigrants have more restricted legal access conditions and higher risk of having poorer health. Likewise, women are more likely to seek healthcare and face gender-based factors that hinder their access. OBJECTIVE: This thesis analysed the access of undocumented immigrants and immigrant women to public healthcare services in the Basque Country (Spain). METHODS: The thesis contained three sub-studies, carried out with qualitative and quantitative methods. For the quantitative approach, the trend in the number of consultations in a free clinic for undocumented immigrants was analysed before and after the launch of a new law, using a negative binomial regression analysis (n = 9,272). For the qualitative approach, qualitative content analysis was applied to 25 in-depth interviews with 14 immigrant women and 11 free clinic healthcare professionals. RESULTS: No clear relationship was found between the application of more restrictive legal conditions for immigrants to access public healthcare services and the trend of attendance of undocumented immigrants to a free clinic. Access of undocumented immigrants and immigrant women to healthcare services was subject to barriers dependent on their characteristics, health system functioning, legal requirements and a stereotyped and poor social consideration of immigrants, shared by professionals at the health centres. Meanwhile, provision of legal information and support by individual professionals, social organizations and personal networks represented main facilitators for accessing. CONCLUSIONS: For the access of undocumented immigrants and immigrant women, structural and individual barriers based on their social vulnerability were found. Among others, gender-based violence reduced women's possibility to access healthcare services and being undocumented led to restricted access entitlement and to fear rejection at health centres. Therefore, besides ensuring immigrants' legal entitlement, there is need of promoting rights-based attention to get more inclusive health systems.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Inmigrantes Indocumentados , Femenino , Servicios de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , España
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e046766, 2021 05 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039575

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Canada has one of the highest rates of problematic opiate and alcohol use in the world. Globally, Canada was the second country that legalized marijuana for non-medical use. As Canada is an immigrant-receiving country, newcomers and immigrants contend with a substance use landscape that was likely absent in their countries of origin. Although immigrants have lower rates of substance use than the host population, the risk of substance use, especially among youth, increases with acculturation and peer pressure. While parents are best placed to mitigate the risks for substance use among their youth, immigrant parents often do not have the knowledge and skills to do so. Therefore, culturally adaptable family based interventions need be explored to build immigrant parents' capacities to mitigate substance use risks. AIM AND PURPOSE: The aim of this scoping review is to explore family based substance use prevention interventions for immigrant youth, which will be guided by two questions:What is known about family based interventions for preventing immigrant adolescents' substance use?What are the features and study results of these intervention protocols? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will apply Arksey and O'Malley's procedure for reporting scoping review and report study findings based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for scoping reviews. DISCUSSION: We hope that the knowledge translation emanating from this review will increase immigrant parents' knowledge of substance use and enable them to effectively intervene to prevent substance use among their youth. We also hope that this work can inform policy development on best practices for substance use prevention and for the creation of culturally sensitive programmes and services for immigrant youth.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Aculturación , Adolescente , Canadá , Humanos , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
6.
Rev Clin Esp (Barc) ; 221(5): 264-273, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998512

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known regarding the relevance of racial/ethnic background to the risk for COVID-19 infection, particularly in Europe. We evaluated the risk of COVID-19 among migrants from different areas of the world within the context of universal free access to medical care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort analysis of the cumulative incidence of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 among adult residents of Alcorcon (Spain) in the first wave of the disease up to April 25, 2020. RESULTS: The crude cumulative incidence among migrants (n = 20419) was higher than among Spaniards (n = 131599): 8.81 and 6.51 and per 1000 inhabitants, respectively (p <  .001), but differed by region of origin. As per a negative binomial regression adjusted for age and sex, relative risk (RR) for COVID-19 for individuals from Europe, Asia, or North Africa was not significantly different from Spaniards. In contrast, a markedly increased risk was found in people from Sub-Saharan Africa (RR 3.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-9.41, p =  .007), the Caribbean (RR 6.35, 95% CI 3.83-10.55, p <  .001), and Latin America (RR 6.92, 95% CI 4.49-10.67, p <  .001). CONCLUSIONS: Migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Latin America exhibited increased risk for COVID-19 as compared to Spaniards or migrants from Europe, North Africa, or Asia. Our data suggest ethnic background may play a role in risk for COVID-19. Migrants from some areas of the world may merit closer attention for both clinical and epidemiological reasons.


Asunto(s)
/etnología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Migrantes , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , España/epidemiología
7.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945680

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of management of the COVID-19 epidemic in a French immigration detention center. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: During containment in France because of COVID-19, the judicial authorities had to deal with the risk of contamination within immigration detention centers (IDC). In the Paris IDC, which can usually receive up to 240 individuals, measures have been taken to limit the risk of contamination by releasing individuals without prior judicial conviction and testing the others by a nasal swab. FINDINGS: The test was done for all the present individuals (48), except two who refused. Eight tests (17.4%) were positive and only one was symptomatic. Individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were transferred into COVID-centers specially created during this health crisis. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Management of the COVID-19 epidemic in this French IDC illustrates the necessity of good cooperation between judicial authorities and medical teams in charge of those centers and the difficulty of balancing public health actions with state security.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Pública , Adulto , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 920, 2021 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985461

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) in early and late life has been associated with lower late-life cognition. Less is known about how changes in SES from childhood to late life are associated with late-life cognition, especially among diverse populations of older adults. METHODS: In a multi-ethnic sample (n = 1353) of older adults, we used linear regression to test associations of change in comprehensive measures of SES (financial, cultural, and social domains) from childhood to late life with semantic memory, episodic memory, and executive function. We tested whether the association between SES trajectory and late-life cognition differed by populations who resided in the U.S. during childhood or immigrated to the U.S. as adults. RESULTS: Participants with low childhood/high late-life financial capital had better semantic memory (ß = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) versus those with low financial capital in both childhood and late life, regardless of childhood residence. We observed a significant interaction in the association of verbal episodic memory and cultural capital by childhood residence (p = 0.08). Participants with a foreign childhood residence had higher verbal episodic memory if they had low childhood/high late-life cultural capital (ß = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.63), but lower verbal episodic memory if they had high childhood/low late-life cultural capital (ß = - 0.40; 95% CI: - 0.94, 0.13). Having high lifecourse social capital was associated with better verbal episodic memory scores among those with a U.S. childhood (ß = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.55), but lower verbal episodic memory among those with a foreign childhood (ß = - 0.10; 95% CI: - 0.51, 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: High financial and cultural capital in late life is associated with better cognition, regardless of early childhood SES or childhood residence.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Anciano , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 189, 2021 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957910

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many factors influence the menopausal transition and the complexity of this transition increases with the addition of immigration transition. This review aims to identify the factors that influence the menopausal transition for immigrant women based on ecosocial theory. METHODS: A scoping review of English publications was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines using CINAHL, AgeLine, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Database, PsycARTICLES, Sociology Database, and Education Research Complete. Thirty-seven papers were included for this review. RESULTS: The factors which influence the menopausal transition for immigrant women were grouped into three categories: (a) personal factors, (b) familial factors, and (c) community and societal factors. Personal factors include income and employment, physical and psychological health, perceptions of menopause, and acculturation. Familial factors include partner support, relationships with children, and balancing family, work, and personal duties. Community and societal factors encompassed social network, social support, healthcare services, traditional cultural expectations, and discrimination in host countries. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions addressing the menopausal transition for immigrant women should be designed considering different psychosocial factors and actively work to address systemic barriers that negatively impact their transition.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Emigración e Inmigración , Niño , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Menopausia , Apoyo Social
11.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 190, 2021 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962572

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Immigrant women in Taiwan experience a variety of acculturative and marital problems that result in a mental-health problems. We examined the mediational effect of marital adjustment on the relationship between acculturation and depressive symptoms in immigrant women in Taiwan. METHODS: All participants (N = 127) were interviewed to collect data regarding their basic sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, acculturation (using language proficiency and years in Taiwan as indicators), and marital adjustment. We used a Sobel test to examine how marital adjustment mediates the relationship between acculturation and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Our results indicated that an increased length of residency exacerbated depressive symptoms (ß = 0.62, p = 0.03) and that this relationship contributed, in part, to the mediational effect of marital adjustment. That is, marital adjustment deteriorated with the length of residency (ß = - 0.26, p = 0.0013), resulting in the development of depressive symptoms (ß = - 0.95, p = 0.0013). CONCLUSION: Although the duration of residency may be useful as a proxy for acculturation in the assessment of some health outcomes, our findings imply that it is better to conceptualize it as a cumulative stress when considering the mental health of immigrant women. Marital maladjustment acts as a mediator in this relationship. As such, it is important to provide immigrant families with programs and resources to assist them in adapting to their marriages and to improve the mental health of immigrant women.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Internado y Residencia , Aculturación , Depresión , Femenino , Humanos , Taiwán
12.
J Couns Psychol ; 68(3): 271-285, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043374

RESUMEN

While counseling psychologists made substantial proposals to advance qualitative research since the special issue on related methods was published 15-years ago (Haverkamp, Morrow, & Ponterotto, 2005), the field continues to demonstrate an overreliance on quantitative methods. Though important for producing knowledge we can depend on, excessive use of these methods poses a barrier for counseling psychologists to address the needs of the communities that are at the core of our discipline's values-those who are marginalized and underserved in society. In alignment with our values of social justice, advocacy, and empowerment, we propose counseling psychologists adopt a methodology within a critical paradigm to better address issues of inequality and inequity when working with underrepresented communities, such as digital storytelling. Rooted in a movement to increase access to art for marginalized communities in the 1970s and 1980s, digital storytelling is an arts-based research methodology that captures first-person narrated accounts of peoples' lives through the use of stories, photos, and videos, and empowers communities to be a part of research to create social change. We provide recommendations for using digital storytelling in counseling psychology research as outlined through 5 phases, including Phase I) digital storytelling's critical paradigm, Phase II) project development, Phase III) implementation, Phase IV) data analysis, and Phase V) dissemination. While doing so, we draw on examples from 2 digital storytelling projects we are familiar with, Immigrant Stories and OrigiNatives, providing a framework for a digital frontier in counseling psychology research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Consejo , Narración , Psicología , Proyectos de Investigación , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Justicia Social
13.
J Psychosom Res ; 146: 110504, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965676

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to provide information on changes in mental health among disadvantaged immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area and their level of information about Covid-19. METHODS: Prior to the Covid-19 epidemic, the Makasi community-based cohort followed 850 immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area. Between the 1st of April and the 7th of June 2020, all participants scheduled for a follow-up survey were systematically included into an additional COVID-19-related wave of data collection (N = 100). We compared participants' type of housing, level of food insecurity, work and mental health (PHQ9) before and during the first COVID-19-related lockdown, using paired-Mc Nemar chi-2 tests. We next described their level of information on Covid-19 and policy measures, broken down by sex. RESULTS: Among the 100 participants, 68% had no legal residence permit. Food insecurity was more often reported during lockdown than before (62% vs 52%). 9% of participants had a score indicative of severe depression (PHQ9) before lockdown and 17% afterwards (p = 0.17). Only 51% knew about the possibility of asymptomatic transmission of the COVID-19 virus. CONCLUSIONS: This study brings original information on a hard-to-reach population group. Our results suggest that the lockdown had a detrimental impact on various economic and mental health aspects among disadvantaged migrants residing in the Greater Paris area.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Información de Salud al Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/etnología , Estudios de Cohortes , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Paris/epidemiología , Cuarentena/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
14.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(6)2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés, Noruego | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876615
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 291, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the experiences, beliefs, feelings, and challenges faced by Pakistani migrant doctors working in the United Kingdom in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. The qualitative study aims to explore the lived experiences, beliefs, feelings, and challenges faced by Pakistani migrant physicians working in the United Kingdom during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An exploratory phenomenological approach was used to collate data on experiences expressed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Purposive and snowball sampling was used to target participants, which were doctors of Pakistani origin involved in the direct care and management of COVID-19 patients in different NHS hospitals of the United Kingdom. Semi-structured, in-depth telephonic interviews were conducted with study participants in May 2020. Data analysis was done parallel with data collection by using an inductive qualitative approach. RESULTS: We recruited ten frontline physicians. Four theme categories emerged from the data analysis: 1) Working across borders and cultures, 2) Role of beliefs for coping with stress and fear, 3) Passion and profession, and 4) Scaffolding the Pakistani health system. Overall, the results show that the participants received limited professional support, in terms of counseling and psychological rehabilitation. Instead, they had to use self-management strategies to cope with the situation. CONCLUSION: The intensive work exhausted participants physically and emotionally. They were holding a lot of grief and hurt inside, but still, healthcare professionals showed the spirit of professional dedication to overcome difficulties. Although currently coping with their emotional problems, comprehensive professional support should be made available to cater to the wellbeing of frontline physicians.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Médicos/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Pakistán , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal , Investigación Cualitativa , Reino Unido
16.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 59, 2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892817

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Three out of ten children in Germany have immigrant backgrounds and this proportion is expected to further increase in subsequent years. While immigrant youth have been found more vulnerable to developing symptoms of depression and anxiety, the underlying mechanisms of how such disparities unfold during youth development are still understudied. Some previous research has found that immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing a less positive self-concept compared to non-immigrant youth. We investigated whether the self-concept mediates mental health disparities and explored variability in such associations from middle childhood to late adolescence. METHODS: Overall 1839 children and adolescents aged 6-21 years (M = 14.05 years, SD = 3.03, 49.8% female, n = 782 with immigrant status) participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey in classroom settings using scales from the Beck Youth Inventories II (Beck et al. in Beck Youth Inventories - Second Edition, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, 2005) to assess self-concept and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Links between immigrant status, age, self-concept and symptom levels of depression as well as anxiety were examined using hierarchical regression and moderated mediation models. RESULTS: Immigrant youth reported higher symptom levels of depression and anxiety than their non-immigrant peers but did not differ in their self-concepts. Hypothesized moderated mediation models were not fully supported and self-concept neither mediated the link between immigrant status and depression nor immigrant status and anxiety. However, self-concept was a significant predictor for symptom levels of depression as well as anxiety, with stronger associations in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Our study substantiates previous findings that immigrant youth in Germany have overall increased symptom levels of depression and anxiety compared to non-immigrant youth. Our study however does not support that immigrant youth have a more negative self-concept and that the self-concept mediates such internalizing mental health disparities. Findings match previous evidence that developing a positive attitude towards the self is linked to better mental health. Beyond that, our findings suggest that mental health interventions addressing the self-concept could be especially relevant when targeting adolescents. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of the mediating processes between migration status and mental health variables.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800663

RESUMEN

Migration is a growing phenomenon around the world, including within the African continent. Many migrants, especially African children, face challenges related to health and social inclusion and can face increased health risks. A systematic scoping review of available literature on the health of African migrant children across the globe was conducted to offer insight into these health risks. The review was conducted over a 15-month period from January 2019 to April 2020, yielding 6602 articles once duplicates were removed. This search included electronic databases, reference lists of articles reviewed, and searches of libraries of relevant organisations. A total of 187 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 159 were quantitative, 22 were qualitative, and 6 used mixed methods. The findings reveal decreased health in this population in areas of nutrition, infectious diseases, mental health, birth outcomes, sexual and reproductive health, physical and developmental health, parasitic infections, oral health, respiratory health, preventative health, endocrine disorders, health care services, and haematological conditions. The findings offer insights into factors influencing the health of African immigrant and refugee children. Further studies, especially qualitative studies, are needed to determine barriers to service access after migration and to investigate other underexplored and overlooked health concerns of African migrant children, including pneumonia and child maltreatment.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Refugiados , Niño , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Salud Reproductiva , Conducta Sexual
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804810

RESUMEN

Food environments play a role in immigrants' dietary acculturation, but little is known about the directionality of the relationship. The objective was to explore the interaction between the food environment and food procurement behaviors in the process of dietary acculturation. A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and a mapping exercise was conducted. The immigrant group studied used a variety of factors to select which foods to procure. Traditional foods were readily available, shifting the determining factors to a combination of affordability, acceptability and accessibility. The food environment is dynamic and responds to shifting market demands. Policies regarding food procurement behaviors should consider these upstream effects and be aware of the availability of traditional foods for immigrant groups.


Asunto(s)
Aculturación , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Dieta , Alimentos , Humanos , Países Bajos
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799637

RESUMEN

There is a gap between the preferences of immigrant patients and their experiences with intercultural communication. This study aims to explore the experiences and perspectives of long-stay immigrants on intercultural communication in encounters with primary care (PC) nurses. Participants were selected by purposive sampling at the Maresme Primary Care Center. A focus group and five in-depth interviews with long-stay immigrants from eight countries were carried out. Data collection was guided by a script previously validated by a group of experts. We conducted a qualitative analysis following Charmaz's approach, and data saturation was reached with 11 patients (one focus group and five interviews). Long-stay immigrants would like closer and more personalized communication exchanges with greater humanity, as well as polite and respectful manners as they perceive signs of an asymmetrical care relationship. Those who had negative communication experiences tried to justify some of the behaviors as a result of having free access to public health services. This is one of the few existing studies from the point of view of long-stay immigrants. Achieving effective intercultural communication requires a process of self-reflection, awareness-raising and commitment, both on a personal and institutional level, to eliminate the asymmetry in the nurse-patient relationship. Nurses should be trained in person-centered intercultural communication.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Enfermería de Atención Primaria , Comunicación , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803358

RESUMEN

Background: As more and more people are travelling abroad, there are also increasing numbers who fall ill or have accidents in foreign countries. Some patients must be repatriated. While it has been reported that the number of repatriations is rising steadily, little is known about patients' characteristics, calling for in depth investigations of this patient group. Methods: We have conducted a retrospective study including 447 patients repatriated to the Emergency Department at the University Hospital (Inselspital) in Bern, Switzerland from 2013-2018. Results: Between 2013 and 2018, the number of repatriated patients increased by 42.6%, from 54 to 77 cases. In total, 59% of these patients were male and the median age was 60 years. Overall, 79% of patients were repatriated from European countries, with the top five countries being Italy, France, Spain, Germany and Austria. About half the cases (51.9%) were caused by illness, the other half by accidents. In total, 127 patients had to undergo surgical intervention abroad; another 194 patients underwent surgery after repatriation. The hospitalization rate was 81.4%, with a median length of in-hospital stay of 9 days (IQR 5-14) at the Inselspital. The mortality rate of at the Inselspital hospitalized patients was 4.4%, with 16 patients dying within the first 30 days after repatriation. The median cost per case was 12,005.79 CHF (IQR 4717.66-24,462.79). A multiple regression analysis showed a significant association of total costs with hospitalization (p = 0.001), surgical intervention (p = 0.001), as well as treatment in the intensive care unit (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The number of repatriations has been continuously increasing in recent years and reached a mean value of more than one case per week at the Inselspital (77 cases per year in 2018). The 30 day-mortality rate of 4.4% and the median cost per case are relatively high, demonstrating a neglected Public Health concern. These findings may provide impetus-not only for further research into repatriations but also for Public Health Promotion strategies.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Austria , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Francia , Alemania , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , España , Suiza/epidemiología
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