Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 19.579
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e25024, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655973

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: An irrational belief is the direct cause of negative emotions and behavioral disorders in patients with breast cancer. Thus, this article examines these patients' irrational beliefs, which helps improve the emotions and behavioral disorders of breast cancer patients. Chinese breast cancer patients have unique irrational beliefs due to the influence of Chinese traditional culture. To understand the irrational beliefs surrounding breast cancer diagnosis in young Chinese patients, we conducted an interpretative phenomenological study.Semi-structured interviews were conducted in young Chinese breast cancer patients. According to Colaizzi method modified by Edward and Welsh, transcribed interviews were analyzed to understand patients' irrational beliefs. Based on the theoretical framework, this study adopted interpretative phenomenology. Interpretive description was used to construct participants' experiences of irrational beliefs. Thematic sufficiency was confirmed after 17 interviews.Owing to the lack of knowledge about breast cancer, all participants were more susceptible to traditional Chinese culture, empiric theory, family reassurance, and healthcare providers' behaviors, leading to patients' irrational beliefs, negative emotions, and behavioral disorders.This research confirms that irrational beliefs in young Chinese breast cancer patients are profoundly influenced by traditional Chinese culture. Chinese healthcare providers can use this information to provide targeted nursing, supportive services, and research, and help women identify their beliefs and understand how these beliefs affect their health.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Cultura , Emociones/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Morbilidad/tendencias
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5577, 2021 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692417

RESUMEN

Covid-19 pandemics has fostered a pervasive use of facemasks all around the world. While they help in preventing infection, there are concerns related to the possible impact of facemasks on social communication. The present study investigates how emotion recognition, trust attribution and re-identification of faces differ when faces are seen without mask, with a standard medical facemask, and with a transparent facemask restoring visual access to the mouth region. Our results show that, in contrast to standard medical facemasks, transparent masks significantly spare the capability to recognize emotional expressions. Moreover, transparent masks spare the capability to infer trustworthiness from faces with respect to standard medical facemasks which, in turn, dampen the perceived untrustworthiness of faces. Remarkably, while transparent masks (unlike standard masks) do not impair emotion recognition and trust attribution, they seemingly do impair the subsequent re-identification of the same, unmasked, face (like standard masks). Taken together, this evidence supports a dissociation between mechanisms sustaining emotion and identity processing. This study represents a pivotal step in the much-needed analysis of face reading when the lower portion of the face is occluded by a facemask.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Máscaras/efectos adversos , Confianza/psicología , Adulto , Comunicación , Emociones/fisiología , Cara , Reconocimiento Facial/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Italia , Masculino , Máscaras/tendencias , Percepción Social/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e27078, 2021 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661755

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological stress experienced by the general public in various degrees worldwide. However, effective, tailored mental health services and interventions cannot be achieved until we understand the patterns of mental health issues emerging after a public health crisis, especially in the context of the rapid transmission of COVID-19. Understanding the public's emotions and needs and their distribution attributes are therefore critical for creating appropriate public policies and eventually responding to the health crisis effectively, efficiently, and equitably. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to detect the temporal patterns in emotional fluctuation, significant events during the COVID-19 pandemic that affected emotional changes and variations, and hourly variations of emotions within a single day by analyzing data from the Chinese social media platform Weibo. METHODS: Based on a longitudinal dataset of 816,556 posts published by 27,912 Weibo users in Wuhan, China, from December 31, 2019, to April 31, 2020, we processed general sentiment inclination rating and the type of sentiments of Weibo posts by using pandas and SnowNLP Python libraries. We also grouped the publication times into 5 time groups to measure changes in netizens' sentiments during different periods in a single day. RESULTS: Overall, negative emotions such as surprise, fear, and anger were the most salient emotions detected on Weibo. These emotions were triggered by certain milestone events such as the confirmation of human-to-human transmission of COVID-19. Emotions varied within a day. Although all emotions were more prevalent in the afternoon and night, fear and anger were more dominant in the morning and afternoon, whereas depression was more salient during the night. CONCLUSIONS: Various milestone events during the COVID-19 pandemic were the primary events that ignited netizens' emotions. In addition, Weibo users' emotions varied within a day. Our findings provide insights into providing better-tailored mental health services and interventions.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , /virología , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , /aislamiento & purificación
4.
Neural Netw ; 133: 40-56, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125917

RESUMEN

Conversational sentiment analysis is an emerging, yet challenging subtask of the sentiment analysis problem. It aims to discover the affective state and sentimental change in each person in a conversation based on their opinions. There exists a wealth of interaction information that affects speaker sentiment in conversations. However, existing sentiment analysis approaches are insufficient in dealing with this subtask due to two primary reasons: the lack of benchmark conversational sentiment datasets and the inability to model interactions between individuals. To address these issues, in this paper, we first present a new conversational dataset that we created and made publicly available, named ScenarioSA, to support the development of conversational sentiment analysis models. Then, we investigate how interaction dynamics are associated with conversations and study the multidimensional nature of interactions, which is understandability, credibility and influence. Finally, we propose an interactive long short-term memory (LSTM) network for conversational sentiment analysis to model interactions between speakers in a conversation by (1) adding a confidence gate before each LSTM hidden unit to estimate the credibility of the previous speakers and (2) combining the output gate with the learned influence scores to incorporate the influences of the previous speakers. Extensive experiments are conducted on ScenarioSA and IEMOCAP, and the results show that our model outperforms a wide range of strong baselines and achieves competitive results with the state-of-art approaches.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Memoria a Largo Plazo/fisiología , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Redes Neurales de la Computación , /fisiología , Comunicación , Humanos
5.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(1): 9-15, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382329

RESUMEN

Objective: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic represents an acute worldwide public health crisis causing an immediate disruption to every demographic group. One group significantly affected both educationally and psychosocially is college students, as they experienced an abrupt cancellation of in-person courses, were forced to leave their dormitories, and witnessed a loss of social activities. Method: This study utilizes survey data from college students in the throes of COVID-19-based home schooling collected for a Belgium-based international study including more than 134,000 participants from 28 countries around the world. Two hundred fifty-seven college students from a U.S. university participated in this study. Results: Results indicate that college students are affected by COVID-19 on several levels, including fear of themselves or others in their social network contracting the virus, apprehension about the changes in coursework delivery and unclear instructional parameters, overall loneliness, compromised motivation, and sleep disturbances, as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Analyses reveal a positive relationship between academic frustrations and mental health symptoms, the latter also negatively related to trust in the government regarding the preventive measures being implemented. Worries about becoming infected were positively related to mental health symptoms and negatively related to trust in the government. Results and implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico , Salud Mental , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Miedo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Motivación/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(6): 383-385, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198376

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The impact of animal death on surgeons during training in laparoscopic techniques is unknown. METHODS: Emotions and cognitive load were assessed depending on animal survival. RESULTS: Those exposed to animal death (n=14) had higher levels of sadness (1.3) and anxiety (2.4), and lower levels of happiness (6.1) on a one-to-ten scale, compared to the 56 that were non-exposed (1.0/2.0/7.5). Mean cognitive load was 68.21±12.865 in the exposed and 64.74±14.632 in the non-exposed (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Emotions and cognitive load among surgeons training in laparoscopic techniques were similar, regardless animal survival after the surgical procedure


INTRODUCCIÓN: Se desconoce el impacto de la muerte animal en los cirujanos durante el entrenamiento en técnicas laparoscópicas. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron emociones y carga cognitiva dependiendo de la exposición a la muerte del animal. RESULTADOS: Los 14 expuestos tuvieron niveles de tristeza (1,3) y ansiedad (2,4) más altos, y de felicidad más bajos (6,1), que los 56 no expuestos (1,0/2,0/7,5). La carga cognitiva fue 68,21±12,865 en los expuestos y 64,74±14,632 en los no expuestos. (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: Emociones y carga cognitiva de cirujanos durante el entrenamiento en técnicas laparoscópicas fueron similares independientemente de la supervivencia del animal


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Entrenamiento Simulado/métodos , Cognición/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Animales de Laboratorio , Laparoscopía/educación , Entrenamiento Simulado/normas , Evaluación Educacional , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244820, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382801

RESUMEN

Since the beginning of the 20th century, electroencephalography (EEG) has been used in a wide variety of applications, both for medical needs and for the study of various cerebral processes. With the rapid development of the technique, more and more precise and advanced tools have emerged for research purposes. However, the main constraints of these devices have often been the high price and, for some devices the low transportability and the long set-up time. Nevertheless, a broad range of wireless EEG devices have emerged on the market without these constraints, but with a lower signal quality. The development of EEG recording on multiple participants simultaneously, and new technological solutions provides further possibilities to understand the cerebral emotional dynamics of a group. A great number of studies have compared and tested many mobile devices, but have provided contradictory results. It is therefore important to test the reliability of specific wireless devices in a specific research context before developing a large-scale study. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of two wireless devices (g.tech Nautilus SAHARA electrodes and Emotiv™ Epoc +) for the detection of musical emotions, in comparison with a gold standard EEG device. Sixteen participants reported feeling emotional pleasure (from low pleasure up to musical chills) when listening to their favorite chill-inducing musical excerpts. In terms of emotion detection, our results show statistically significant concordance between Epoc + and the gold standard device in the left prefrontal and left temporal areas in the alpha frequency band. We validated the use of the Emotiv™ Epoc + for research into musical emotion. We did not find any significant concordance between g.tech and the gold standard. This suggests that Emotiv Epoc is more appropriate for musical emotion investigations in natural settings.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Música/psicología , Placer , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 133, 2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308297

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Emotion regulation alters the trajectories of emotional responses and, when effective, transforms the emotional responses to help individuals adapt to their environment. Previous research has mainly focused on the efficiency of regulation strategies performed individually at a given time. Yet, in daily life, it is likely that several strategies are often combined. Thus, we question in this study the combinatorial efficiency of two emotion regulation strategies, Situation selection and Emotional suppression. METHODS: In a within-subject design, sixty-five participants were asked to implement either no strategy, Situation selection only, Emotional suppression only, or both strategies together (four conditions) while looking at various emotionally charged images. Experience, expressivity, and physiological arousal were recorded throughout the viewing. Repeated-measures ANOVAs and corrected post-hoc tests were used for analyzing the data. RESULTS: The results of the combined strategies showed that Emotional suppression canceled the beneficial impact of Situation selection on negative experience, while significantly increasing the impact on cardiac activity. The use of both strategies together had a greater effect on respiratory function with an enhanced decrease in respiratory rate and amplitude. CONCLUSIONS: The combinatorial effect of emotion regulation strategies is different according to the emotional response that the individual needs to regulate. The simultaneous use of Situation selection and Emotional suppression could be particularly beneficial to relieve physiological symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Regulación Emocional/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Ambiente , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244319, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347492

RESUMEN

Youth who self-harm report high levels of trait impulsivity and identify impulsive behaviour as a proximal factor directly preceding a self-harm act. Yet, impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and distinct impulsivity-related facets relate differentially to self-harm outcomes. Studies have yet to examine if and how a multidimensional account of impulsivity is meaningful to individual experiences and understandings of self-harm in youth. We explored the salience and context of multidimensional impulsivity within narratives of self-harm, and specifically in relation to the short-term build-up to a self-harm episode. Fifteen community-based adolescents (aged 16-22 years) attending Further Education (FE) colleges in the UK took part in individual face-to-face sessions (involving exploratory card-sort tasks and semi-structured interviews) which explored factors relating to self-harm, impulsivity and the broader emotional, developmental and cognitive context. Session data were analysed thematically. Two overarching themes, and associated subthemes, were identified: 'How I respond to strong negative emotions'; and 'Impulse versus deliberation- How much I think through what I'm doing before I do it'. Self-harm was typically a quick, impulsive act in the context of overwhelming emotion, underpinned by cognitive processing deficits. The dynamic tension between emotion-based impulsivity and controlled deliberation was articulated in the immediate moments before self-harm. However, impulsive responses were perceived as modifiable. Where self-harm patterns were established, these related to habitual behaviour and quick go-to responses. Young people identified with a multidimensional conception of impulsivity and described the impulsive context of a self-harm act as dynamic, contextual, and developmentally charged. Findings have implications for youth-focused work. Card-task frameworks are recommended to scaffold and facilitate discussion with young people, particularly where topics are sensitive, complex and multifactorial.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Adolescente , Trastornos del Conocimiento/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243929, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326458

RESUMEN

It has been widely accepted that moral violations that involve impurity (such as spitting in public) induce the emotion of disgust, but there has been a debate about whether moral violations that do not involve impurity (such as swearing in public) also induce the same emotion. The answer to this question may have implication for understanding where morality comes from and how people make moral judgments. This study aimed to compared the neural mechanisms underlying two kinds of moral violation by using an affective priming task to test the effect of sentences depicting moral violation behaviors with and without physical impurity on subsequent detection of disgusted faces in a visual search task. After reading each sentence, participants completed the face search task. Behavioral and electrophysiological (event-related potential, or ERP) indices of affective priming (P2, N400, LPP) and attention allocation (N2pc) were analyzed. Results of behavioral data and ERP data showed that moral violations both with and without impurity promoted the detection of disgusted faces (RT, N2pc); moral violations without impurity impeded the detection of neutral faces (N400). No priming effect was found on P2 and LPP. The results suggest both types of moral violation influenced the processing of disgusted faces and neutral faces, but the neural activity with temporal characteristics was different.


Asunto(s)
Conducta/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Cara/fisiología , Principios Morales , Adulto , Atención/fisiología , Asco , Electroencefalografía , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Expresión Facial , Reconocimiento Facial/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Juicio Moral Retrospectivo , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241578, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362255

RESUMEN

This study investigated consumers' responses to fashion visual merchandising (VM) from a neuroscientific perspective. The brain activations of 20 subjects differently involved in fashion were recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in response to three different fashion VM types. According to the types of fashion VM, significant differences were observed, which were significantly higher for the creative VM. Moreover, highly fashion-involved subjects showed activation of the orbital frontal cortex region in response to the creative VM. Based on these results, it is suggested that marketing strategies should be devised explicitly for the brand's targeted audience and goals.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto , Mapeo Encefálico , Creatividad , Toma de Decisiones , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Lóbulo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240680, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373379

RESUMEN

Social ostracism triggers an increase in affiliative behaviours. One such behaviour is the rapid copying of others' facial expressions, called facial mimicry. Insofar, it remains unknown how individual differences in intrinsic affiliation motivation regulate responses to social ostracism during early development. We examined children's facial mimicry following ostracism as modulated by individual differences in the affiliation motivation, expressed in their attachment tendencies. Resistant and avoidant tendencies are characterized by high and low affiliation motivation, and were hypothesized to lead to facial mimicry enhancement or suppression towards an ostracizing partner, respectively. Following an ostracism manipulation in which children played a virtual game (Cyberball) with an includer and an excluder peer, mimicry of the two peers' happy and sad facial expressions was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Attachment was assessed via parent-report questionnaire. We found that 5-year-olds smiled to sad facial expressions of the excluder peer, while they showed no facial reactions for the includer peer. Neither resistant nor avoidant tendencies predicted facial mimicry to the excluder peer. Yet, securely attached children smiled towards the excluder peer, when sad facial expressions were displayed. In conclusion, these findings suggest a modulation of facial reactions following ostracism by early attachment.


Asunto(s)
Expresión Facial , Conducta Imitativa/fisiología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Apego a Objetos , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Preescolar , Electromiografía , Emociones/fisiología , Músculos Faciales/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Motivación , Grupo Paritario , Juegos de Video/psicología
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(47): e23185, 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217826

RESUMEN

This study investigates the effect of progressive muscle relaxation training on negative mood and sleep quality in Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19) patients.COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease, and there is still uncertainty about when the outbreak will be contained and the effectiveness of treatments. Considering that this disease is highly contagious, patients need to be treated in isolation. This may lead to psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression, and even sleep problems.This study is a clinical observation study.Participants included 79 COVID-19 patients admitted to a designated hospital for COVID-19 patients in Wuhan from February to March, 2020. Patients were selected and assigned to the control group and the observation group according to their wishes, with 40 and 39 cases in each group, respectively. The control group received routine treatment and nursing, and the observation group received progressive muscle relaxation training, in addition to the routine treatment and nursing. We compared scores of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) before and after the intervention.There was no significant difference in PSQI, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 scores between the control group and the observation group before the intervention (P > .05). After the intervention, the difference in scores of PSQI, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 in the 2 groups were statistically significant (P < .05).Progressive muscle relaxation training can significantly reduce anxiety and depression and improve sleep quality in COVID-19 patients during isolation treatment.Progressive muscle relaxation training was shown to improve the treatment effect of patients and is worthy of clinical promotion.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Entrenamiento Autogénico/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/terapia , Sueño/fisiología , Adulto , Trastornos de Ansiedad/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Depresión/virología , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0229316, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006966

RESUMEN

The prevalence of criticism in everyday social situations, and its empirically demonstrated association with psychopathology, highlight the importance of understanding neural mechanisms underlying the perception and response of individuals to criticism. However, neuroimaging studies to date have been limited largely to maternal criticism. The present study aims to investigate neural responses to observing criticism occurring in the context of three different relationship types: romantic partners, friends, and parents-from a third-party perspective. 49 participants were recruited and asked to rate the perceived criticism for these relationships. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure changes in oxygenated haemoglobin levels in the prefrontal cortex when participants read vignettes describing three different scenarios of criticism. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 groups where the given description of the relationship of the protagonist to the source of criticism for each vignette was randomised. A significant interaction between relationship type and perceived criticism ratings for mothers was found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Compared to low perceived criticism, high perceived criticism individuals showed increased activation reading vignettes describing criticism from romantic partners and parents but decreased activation for those from friends. Findings contribute to understanding neural responses to criticism as observed from a third-party perspective. Future studies can look into differentiating neural responses of personalised experiences of criticism and third-party observations.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Amigos/psicología , Padres/psicología , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Neuroimagen , Distribución Aleatoria , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239753, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052921

RESUMEN

Globally, burnout in medical doctors (MDs) is concerning, with higher rates reported in studies conducted in South Africa (SA). This psychological syndrome leads to serious health consequences, and jeopardises patient care. Despite this, there is no data pertaining to these potential adverse mental health outcomes in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, SA, where it is overshadowed by the fight against priorities such as HIV and AIDS/TB. This study therefore aimed to establish the nature and extent of burnout, anxiety and depressive symptoms and their associations among public sector MDs in KZN. A cross sectional study was conducted among MDs at five KZN public sector training hospitals to investigate their associations with practitioner (individual) and organisational factors using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Of the 150 participants, 88 (59.0%) screened positive for burnout, as indicated by high scores on the emotional exhaustion or depersonalisation subscales in the MBI-HSS. One fifth screened positive for anxiety (n = 30) and depressive symptoms (n = 32). Burnout was significantly associated with individual factors of anxiety (p<0.01) and depressive (p<0.01) symptoms based on adjusted logistic regression models. Organisational factors, such as lack of clinical supervisor support (p<0.01) and hospital resources (p<0.01), were significantly associated with burnout based on the bivariate analyses. Burnout, anxiety and depressive symptoms in MDs are highly prevalent and intertwined in resource constrained KZN public training hospitals. Addressing burnout at individual and organisational levels is important to mitigate its adverse effects.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Médicos/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Despersonalización/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Femenino , Gobierno , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Recursos en Salud , Hospitales , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Prevalencia , Sudáfrica , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Exp Psychol ; 67(4): 237-245, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111656

RESUMEN

Concealing memories and emotions associated with a traumatic event seems to have negative effects on health. Re-enacting those events through writing is an opportunity to disclose such memories and emotions, and especially for emotion regulation. To study this, 57 university students were randomly assigned to one of two groups. They either completed an expressive writing or a neutral writing task. Real-time writing and psychophysiological data were recorded throughout the experiment to examine writing dynamics associated with emotion regulation and its psychophysiological correlates (electrodermal activity and electrocardiography measures). The results showed that the expressive group (EG) paused for longer than the control group (CG) denoting a positive and medium effect size ( η p 2 = .10 ) . Furthermore, during and after writing, the EG showed a higher low frequency/high frequency ratio than the CG, evidencing a positive and large effect size ( η p 2 = .22 ) . These real-time findings are interpreted as signs of emotion regulation happening during writing.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Psicofisiología/métodos , Escritura , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239712, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112883

RESUMEN

Relationship dissolution can cause declines in emotional well-being, particularly if there are children involved. Individuals' capacity to cope with the pragmatics of the situation, such as agreeing childcare arrangements, can be impaired. Before now, there has been no psychometric test to evaluate individuals' emotional readiness to cope with these demands. This paper presents a model of emotional adaptation in the context of relationship dissolution and its key assumptions, and validates the Emotional Adaptation to Relationship Dissolution Assessment (EARDA). In Study 1 (Sample 1, n = 573 separated parents, Sample 2, n = 199 mix of parents and non-parents), factor analyses support the EARDA as a unidimensional scale with good reliability. In Study 2 (using Sample 1, and Sample 3, n = 156 separated parents) the convergent, discriminant, concurrent criterion-related, and incremental validity of the EARDA were supported by tests of association with stress, distress, attachment style, and co-parenting communication and conflict. In Study 3, the nomological network of emotional adaptation to relationship dissolution was explored in Sample 2 using cluster analysis and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS). Emotional adaptation clustered with positive traits and an outward focus, and was negatively associated with negative traits and an inward focus. Emotional adaptation was conceptually located in close proximity to active and adaptive coping, and furthest away from maladaptive coping. In Study 4 (n = 30 separated parents embarking on mediation), high, medium, and low emotional adaptation to relationship dissolution categories correlated highly with mediators' professional judgement, offering triangulated face validity. Finally, in Study 5, EARDA scores were found to mediate between separation characteristics (time since break up, whether it was a shock, and who initiated the break up) and co-parenting conflict in Sample 1, supporting the proposed model. The theoretical innovation of this work is the introduction of a new construct that bridges the gap between relationship dissolution and co-parenting. Practical implications include the use of the measure proposed to triage levels of support in a family law setting.


Asunto(s)
Ajuste Emocional/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238699, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is literature scarcity relating to burnout and other work stresses in relation to Chinese nursing-workforce performance. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between self-esteem versus burnout; and effort-reward ratio versus favorability to the work environment, among Chinese nurses. METHODS: We employed four validated questionnaires in the assessment burnout, self-esteem, effort-reward ratio, and favorability of nursing workplace; Maslach-Burnout Inventory (MBI), Rosenberg's self-esteem (RS), Effort-Reward imbalance (ERI) and Work-Environment Scale questionnaires (WES). Linear and ordinal regression models were utilized to assess the relationships between the variables. Analyses were conducted by using SPSS at a 95% level of significance. RESULTS: We assessed 487 (Mean age: 38.8±7.1 years) nurses from three hospitals. Higher self-esteem was associated with a lower level of emotional exhaustion (Unstandardized coefficient: -0.579, p-Value<0.001); and a lower level of depersonalization (Unstandardized coefficient: -0.212, p-Value = 0.001). The relationship between self-esteem and personal achievement did not reach statistical significance. A higher effort-reward ratio was associated with less likelihood that nurses would consider their work environment favorable (Logit estimate of -0.832, p-Value = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Lower self-esteem is associated with increased burnout. A higher effort-reward ratio is associated with an enhanced perception work environment as unfavorable. We recommend psychosocial intervention programs and amendments in nursing policies to improve effort-reward imbalance among Chinese nurses.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Hospitales , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Adulto , China , Estudios Transversales , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239204, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997703

RESUMEN

Informal learning environments provide the opportunity to study guests' experiences as they engage with exhibits specifically designed to invoke the emotional experience of awe. The current paper presents insight gained by using both traditional survey measures and innovative mobile eye-tracking technology to examine guests' experiences of awe in a science museum. We present results for guests' visual attention in two exhibit spaces, one chosen for its potential to evoke positive awe and one for negative awe, and examine associations between visual attention and survey responses with regard to different facets of awe. In this exploratory study, we find relationships between how guests attend to features within an exhibit space (e.g., signage) and their feelings of awe. We discuss implications of using both methods concurrently to shed new light on exhibit design, and more generally for working in transdisciplinary multimethod teams to move scientific knowledge and application forward.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Emociones/fisiología , Movimientos Oculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Conocimiento , Masculino , Museos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238378, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898184

RESUMEN

Current research examined the differential effects of pills' shape (angular vs. curvy) on the perceived efficacy of the medicine, evoked bodily sensations and emotions. We investigated these effects by using different types of angular vs. curved stimuli: abstract drawn shapes (Study 1), 3D-printed mockup pills (Study 2) and photographs of the existing pills (Study 3). Participants were asked to imagine 'taking' angular and curved pills. They had to focus on the bodily sensations and report the evoked activations/deactivations in different body parts. Across three studies, we found that the angular pills evoke overall more activations in the body compared to curvy pills. We further reported differences in the topography of angular vs. curved pills'-triggered sensations in different body parts. Our results also revealed that angularity is linked with an energizing effect while roundness is associated with a calming effect. The shape effects were demonstrated not only in self-reported energized vs. calm subjective feelings but also in performance on a timed cognitive test. Compared to incongruent designs, pill designs (angular vs. curved) congruent with proposed drug benefits (energizing vs. calming) were perceived as more effective. Moreover, we found differences in emotions triggered by pills of different shapes. The present research provided new findings on angularity vs. curvature perception that may be valuable for cognitive psychology, marketing, pharmaceutical and supplements industry, and other applied fields.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Percepción de Forma/fisiología , Sensación/fisiología , Comprimidos/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoinforme , Comprimidos/administración & dosificación , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...