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1.
Science ; 367(6482): 1105-1112, 2020 03 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139538

RESUMEN

The mechanism by which psychological stress elicits various physiological responses is unknown. We discovered a central master neural pathway in rats that drives autonomic and behavioral stress responses by connecting the corticolimbic stress circuits to the hypothalamus. Psychosocial stress signals from emotion-related forebrain regions activated a VGLUT1-positive glutamatergic pathway from the dorsal peduncular cortex and dorsal tenia tecta (DP/DTT), an unexplored prefrontal cortical area, to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a hypothalamic autonomic center. Genetic ablation and optogenetics revealed that the DP/DTT→DMH pathway drives thermogenic, hyperthermic, and cardiovascular sympathetic responses to psychosocial stress without contributing to basal homeostasis. This pathway also mediates avoidance behavior from psychosocial stressors. Given the variety of stress responses driven by the DP/DTT→DMH pathway, the DP/DTT can be a potential target for treating psychosomatic disorders.


Asunto(s)
Núcleo Hipotalámico Dorsomedial/metabolismo , Conducta Social , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Transporte Vesicular de Glutamato/metabolismo , Animales , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Ácido Glutámico/metabolismo , Homeostasis , Masculino , Neuronas/metabolismo , Corteza Prefrontal/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/terapia , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas LEC , Ratas Wistar , Transducción de Señal
2.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 271-278, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037379

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) significantly reduces recurrence and mortality in women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Adherence to AET is about 50-60% for 5 years, and while numerous studies have identified barriers to AET adherence, few have identified the role of social support as a facilitator. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the role of social support during the ongoing management of AET. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with breast cancer survivors (n = 22) who filled a prescription for AET in the previous 12 months. Women were recruited from Los Angeles, California, and Houston, Texas, between 2014 and 2015. Interview questions prompted discussion about AET and how social support affects AET adherence. We analyzed interview transcripts with a grounded theory approach and grouped social support into four categories (emotional, informational, instrumental, and appraisal), then used a thematic content analysis to identify the sources and delivery of support. RESULTS: Women described that informational support was provided by medical providers who explained the purpose, benefits, and management of AET. Emotional support in the form of reassurance, communication, and empathy was provided by family, survivorship groups, medical providers, and spirituality/religiosity. Women identified several organizations and exercises that provided them with instrumental and appraisal support in the form of physical and emotional benefits, which was also provided by family, friends, and medical providers. CONCLUSION: We identified that social support delivered to breast cancer survivors provided women with educational, physical, and emotional benefits that may play an important role in their continuation of AET.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Hormonales/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/prevención & control , Apoyo Social , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Terapia Combinada , Emociones/fisiología , Ejercicio/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Texas/epidemiología
3.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12873, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144771

RESUMEN

Body movements, as well as faces, communicate emotions. Research in adults has shown that the perception of action kinematics has a crucial role in understanding others' emotional experiences. Still, little is known about infants' sensitivity to body emotional expressions, since most of the research in infancy focused on faces. While there is some first evidence that infants can recognize emotions conveyed in whole-body postures, it is still an open question whether they can extract emotional information from action kinematics. We measured electromyographic (EMG) activity over the muscles involved in happy (zygomaticus major, ZM), angry (corrugator supercilii, CS) and fearful (frontalis, F) facial expressions, while 11-month-old infants observed the same action performed with either happy or angry kinematics. Results demonstrate that infants responded to angry and happy kinematics with matching facial reactions. In particular, ZM activity increased while CS activity decreased in response to happy kinematics and vice versa for angry kinematics. Our results show for the first time that infants can rely on kinematic information to pick up on the emotional content of an action. Thus, from very early in life, action kinematics represent a fundamental and powerful source of information in revealing others' emotional state.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Biomecánicos/fisiología , Electromiografía/métodos , Emociones/fisiología , Expresión Facial , Adulto , Ira , Músculos Faciales , Miedo , Femenino , Felicidad , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 202: 102983, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864214

RESUMEN

It is unclear whether the effects of emotional state on working memory (WM) are valence-based or motivation-based since the type of emotions used in previous research differed on both dimensions of emotion. Especially, effects of anger, which is a negative but approach-related emotional state, were mostly overlooked. To distinguish between valence vs. motivation accounts, two experiments were conducted in which participants were induced one of four emotional states to create approach-positive (happiness), avoidance-negative (fear), approach-negative (anger), and control (neutral) conditions, followed by Self-ordered Pointing Task (Experiment 1) or N-Back task (Experiment 2) as WM measures. The main effect of emotion on WM accuracy was not significant in neither experiment. In the second experiment, however, reaction times (RTs) in the avoidance-related emotion condition were significantly faster compared to those in approach-related conditions, without compromising accuracy. Together the two experiments suggest that the motivational dimension of emotional state is more effective on WM than the valence dimension, especially on the RTs, indicating working memory updating efficiency.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Motivación/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Adulto , Ira/fisiología , Miedo/fisiología , Miedo/psicología , Femenino , Felicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
5.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880767

RESUMEN

The paper presents a review of the literature data reflecting the relevance and current views on the problem of facial feedback. It considers the relationship between the bioelectric activity of facial muscles and neuropsychic stress. The modern issues dedicated to the study of the correlation between the indicators assessing the tonic activity of facial muscles and psycho-emotional stress are highlighted. Particular emphasis is placed on the scientific concept of emotional proprioception, according to which facial muscle activity through the trigeminal and facial nerves affects the emotional centers of the brain, by improving or worsening the emotional state. The currently known methods for the correction of psychoemotional states, which are based on the feedback mechanism, are analyzed. The possibilities of using neuromuscular relaxation of the facial muscles to correct psychoemotional conditions are considered.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Músculos Faciales/fisiología , Retroalimentación Psicológica/fisiología , Humanos , Propiocepción/fisiología , Estrés Psicológico/fisiopatología
6.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(6): 824-832, 2019 Dec 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879737

RESUMEN

Drugs of abuse leads to adaptive changes in the brain stress system, and produces negative affective states including aversion and anxiety after drug use is terminated. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the main transmitter in control of response to stressors and is neuronal enriched in the central amygdala (CeA), a sub-region of the extended amygdala playing an important role in integrating emotional information and modulating stress response. The effect of CRH neurons in CeA on the negative emotions on morphine naïve and withdrawal mice is unclear. Thus, we utilized CRH-Cre transgenic mice injected with AAV-mediated Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated By Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to chemogenetically manipulate CRH neurons in CeA. And methods of behavior analysis, including conditioned place aversion (CPA), elevated plus maze and locomotor activity tests, were used to investigate morphine withdrawal-induced negative emotions in mice. The results showed that, inhibiting CRH neurons of CeA decreased the formation of morphine withdrawal-induced CPA, as well as the anxiety level of CRH-Cre mice. Furthermore, specifically activating CRH neurons in CeA evoked CPA and anxiety of morphine naïve mice. Neither inhibiting nor activating CRH neurons had effects on their locomotor activity. These results suggest that CRH neurons in CeA are involved in the mediation of morphine withdrawal-induced negative emotion in mice, providing a theoretical basis for drug addiction and relapse mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Núcleo Amigdalino Central , Emociones , Morfina , Neuronas , Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica , Animales , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/metabolismo , Emociones/fisiología , Ratones , Morfina/metabolismo , Neuronas/metabolismo
7.
Exp Psychol ; 66(5): 368-376, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696794

RESUMEN

The goal of the present study was to test whether and how emotions influence arithmetic performance. Participants had to verify arithmetic problems. True problems were either easier or harder problems. False problems were parity-match or parity-mismatch problems. The odd/even status of proposed and correct answers was the same in parity-match problems (e.g., 19 × 7 = 131) and different in parity-mismatch problems (e.g., 17 × 9 = 152). Before each problem, participants saw a positive (e.g., smiling baby), negative (e.g., mutilations), or neutral pictures (e.g., neutral face) selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). They had to decide whether each picture includes a person or not before verifying each arithmetic problem. Results showed different effects of emotion on true- and false problem verification. Participants' performance on true problems showed decreased problem-difficulty after processing negative pictures and increased difficulty effects after processing positive pictures. On false problems, we found smaller parity-violation effects after negative pictures (i.e., decreased performance on parity-mismatch problems), together with larger parity-violation effects after positive pictures (i.e., decreased performance on parity-match problems). These findings suggest that emotions influence arithmetic performance via which strategy is used and how each strategy is executed on each problem. They have important implications for understanding the role of emotions on arithmetic performance, and more generally on how emotions influence cognition.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Matemática/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 201: 102950, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698171

RESUMEN

Considering object identification and recognition as well as human interaction with objects, texture as a surface property plays a crucial role. A deeper understanding of tactile aesthetics can be useful in the applied field such as in product designs that appeal more to our senses and that are more effective in eliciting certain emotional responses from a potential consumer. In the present study, behavioral experiments were performed using unfamiliar custom-made dot pattern stimuli under two complementary questionings. The first question focused on the tactile perceptive attributes related to topographical characteristics of the textures exhibited by the material surfaces. The second question focused on the texture pleasantness related both to the perceptive attributes and to the topographical characteristics of the textures. The perspective of this work opens on complementary fields of research such as neurosciences to determine the brain mechanisms in the processing of the pleasantness of tactile stimuli.


Asunto(s)
Estética/psicología , Odio , Percepción del Tacto/fisiología , Tacto/fisiología , Vibración , Adulto , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , /fisiología
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102949, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675619

RESUMEN

Music generates manifold experiences in humans, some perceptual and some hedonic. Are these qualia governed by the same principles in processing? In particular, do the loudness and timbre of melodies combine to produce perception and likeability by the same rules of integration? In Experiment 1, we tested selective attention to loudness and timbre by applying Garner's speeded classification paradigm and found both to be perceptually integral dimensions. In Experiment 2, we tested liking for the same music by applying Norman Anderson's functional measurement model and found loudness and timbre to combine by an adding-type rule. In Experiment 3, we applied functional measurement for perception and found loudness and timbre to interact as in Experiment 1. These results show that people cannot or do not attend selectively or perceive separately any one music component, but that they nonetheless can isolate the components when they enjoy (or disenjoy) listening to music. We conclude that perception of the constituent components of a musical piece and the processing of the same components for liking are governed by different rules.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Acústica/psicología , Atención/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Música/psicología , Placer/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102941, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677428

RESUMEN

The ability to extract correct emotional information from facial and bodily expressions is fundamental for the development of social skills. Previous studies have shown that bodily expressions affect the recognition of basic facial expressions dramatically. However, few studies have considered the view that facial expressions may influence the recognition of bodily expressions. Further, previous studies have failed to consider a comprehensive set of emotional categories. The present study sought to examine whether facial expressions would impact the recognition of bodily expressions asynchronously, using four basic emotions. Participants performed an affective priming task, in which the priming stimuli included four facial expressions (happy, sad, fearful, and angry), and the target stimuli were bodily expressions matching the same emotions. The results indicated that the perception of affective facial expressions significantly influenced the accuracy and reaction time for body-based emotion categorization, particularly for bodily expression of happiness. The recognition accuracy of congruent expressions was higher, relative to that of incongruent expressions. The findings show that facial expressions influence the recognition of bodily expressions, despite the asynchrony.


Asunto(s)
Expresión Facial , Cinésica , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , /fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e18091, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764845

RESUMEN

The second derivative of photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) is used as an arterial stiffness marker. This study aimed to examine the associations between SDPTG indices and age, in addition to hemodynamic, autonomic, adiposity, and emotional factors.This study had a cross-sectional chart review design, and electronic medical records of 262 women outpatients (mean ±â€ŠSD,|38.57| ±â€Š|11.64 years) were reviewed. Among SDPTG measurements, b/a, c/a, d/a, and (b-c-d)/a were considered. Hemodynamic measurements included systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and cardiac output. Autonomic measurements included low and high frequency (LF and HF) values of the heart rate variability. Adiposity measurements included body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Tension, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion, and vigor scores using the Profile of the Mood States were included as emotional markers. All data were normalized through the Box-Cox transformation, and 4 hierarchical regression models were constructed.Age was independently predictive of SDPTG, hemodynamic, autonomic, and adiposity factors (ß; 0.143-0.648).After the adjustment for age, SBP and DBP showed negative correlations with d/a (r = -0.201, -0.262), whereas BMI, WHR, LF, and HF showed positive correlations with c/a (r = 0.126, 0.131, 0.151, 0.234). In the hierarchical regression modeling, age and hemodynamic factors were directly predictive of SDPTG indices (ß; 0.103-0.626). Age had moderating effects between diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, depression scores, and SDPTG indices (ß; 0.104-0.176).In conclusion, age, hemodynamic, adiposity, and autonomic factors may be independently associated with SDPTG indices for women. As age has moderating effects between hemodynamic, emotional factors, and SDPTG indices, its moderating effects should be considered when assessing arterial stiffness using SDPTG indices.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Hemodinámica/fisiología , Fotopletismografía , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Adiposidad , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Conceptos Matemáticos
12.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 38(1): 15, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779708

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although emotion-specific autonomic responses based on the discrete theory of emotion have been widely studied, studies on the reliability of physiological responses to emotional stimuli are limited. In this study, we aimed to assess the reliability of physiological changes induced by the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise) that were measured during 10 weekly repeated experiments. METHODS: Twelve college students participated, and in each experiment, physiological signals were collected before and while participants were watching emotion-provoking film clips. Additionally, the participants self-evaluated the emotions that they experienced during the film presentation at the end of each emotional stimulus. To avoid adaptation of participants to identical stimuli during repeated measurements, we used 10 different film clips for each emotion, and thus a total of 60 film clips over 10 weeks were used. Physiological features, such as skin conductance level (SCL), fingertip temperature (FT), heart rate (HR), and blood volume pulse (BVP), were extracted from the physiological signals. Two reliability indices, Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient, were calculated from the physiological features to assess internal consistency and interrater reliability, respectively. RESULTS: We found that SCL, HR, and BVP measured during the emotion-provoking phase over the 10 weekly sessions were more reliable than those assessed at baseline. Furthermore, SCL, HR, and BVP from the emotion-provoking phase exhibited excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that these features can be used as reliable physiological indices in emotion studies. The results also support the significance of physiological signals as meaningful indicators for emotion recognition in HCI (human computer interface) area.


Asunto(s)
Antropología Física/normas , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Psicofisiología/normas , Adulto , Antropología Física/métodos , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Femenino , Respuesta Galvánica de la Piel/fisiología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Psicofisiología/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 545-564, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705513

RESUMEN

Recently, noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) methodologies, including TMS and tDCS, have been considered as efficacious, safe, and innovative treatments and alternatives to conventional therapies for some psychiatric disorders. Developing evidence suggests that applying rTMS and tDCS over the cognitive control network (CCN), particularly the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), may improve core symptoms in various psychiatric disorders via direct impact on the cognitive control processes involved in emotion regulation. Therefore, neuromodulation of brain regions involved in the cognitive control of emotion by NIBS approaches could contribute to a paradigm shift in psychiatry. The available evidence suggests that development of effective treatment alternatives to enhance cognition is critical for patients with psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this chapter is to review the cognition-enhancing properties of tDCS and TMS and the impact of these treatments on cognitive control processes, especially those related to emotion regulation in psychiatric disorders.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Terapia por Estimulación Eléctrica/métodos , Emociones/fisiología , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiopatología , Estimulación Transcraneal de Corriente Directa/métodos , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal/métodos , Humanos
14.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(8): 710-720, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657594

RESUMEN

It is unclear whether nicotine and perceived nicotine exposure can influence automatic evaluations of cigarette stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nicotine dose and instructed dose on motivational responses to smoking cues. Forty overnight nicotine-deprived smokers completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) at each of the four laboratory sessions in a balanced-placebo design that crossed nicotine dose (Given-NIC [given nicotine] vs. Given-DENIC [given denicotinized]) with instructed dose expectancy (Told-NIC [told-nicotine] vs. Told-DENIC. [told-denicotinized]). We measured participants' behavioral performance, including reaction time (RT) and accuracy rate, and the early posterior negativity (EPN) component using the event-related potential (ERP) technique to the target pictures. During congruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or unpleasant, smokers had greater classification accuracy, shorter RT latency, and greater EPN amplitudes compared to the incongruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or pleasant. The Given-NIC condition was associated with increased classification accuracy, longer RT latency, and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Given-DENIC condition. Similarly, the Told-NIC condition was associated with increased accuracy and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Told-DENIC condition, but with shorter RT latency. Cigarette-related pictures produced greater EPN amplitudes than neutral pictures. Both behavioral and ERP results suggest that smokers have negative implicit attitudes toward smoking. While both nicotine dose and expected dose facilitated stimulus categorization, there was no evidence that either factor altered smokers' negative attitudes toward smoking cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Actitud , Señales (Psicología) , Potenciales Evocados/efectos de los fármacos , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Fumadores/psicología , Adulto , Afecto/efectos de los fármacos , Afecto/fisiología , Atención/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Electroencefalografía , Emociones/efectos de los fármacos , Emociones/fisiología , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación/efectos de los fármacos , Motivación/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/efectos de los fármacos , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Fumar/fisiopatología , Fumar/psicología
15.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 163: 147-164, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590727

RESUMEN

The frontal lobes contain a complex set of diverse anatomic regions that form multiple distinct, complex networks with cortical and subcortical regions. Damage to these cortical-subcortical networks can have dramatic behavioral consequences, ranging from apathy to impairments in executive functioning. This chapter provides a brief overview of the common syndromes caused by damage to the mediodorsal and dorsolateral prefrontal circuits, followed by a more detailed review of the syndrome-sometimes referred to as pseudopsychopathy or acquired sociopathy-associated with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal circuit.


Asunto(s)
Agnosia/fisiopatología , Emociones/fisiología , Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiopatología , Demencia Frontotemporal/fisiopatología , Red Nerviosa/fisiopatología , Apatía/fisiología , Humanos , Motivación/fisiología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
16.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 163: 257-280, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590734

RESUMEN

Being able to flexibly regulate one's emotions is critical for adaptive functioning across the life span. The importance of emotion regulation for human cognition has been reflected in the marked increase in the amount of psychologic research on emotion and its regulation in the past two decades. In this chapter, we review theoretical and empirical advances in this research, with a particular focus on the neural bases of emotion regulation. We begin with a brief overview of the field at present and provide a general primer on the behavioral and neuroimaging methods used to study emotion regulation. We then outline the brain regions involved in both triggering and modulating affect, and how they may change throughout development and into old age. Finally, we conclude with a roadmap for the future study of emotion regulation, in particular focusing on how to integrate measures with high ecologic validity (e.g., experience sampling, social emotion regulation) with neuroimaging techniques.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Mapeo Encefálico , Emociones/fisiología , Lóbulo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Neuroimagen
17.
Psychol Aging ; 34(7): 991-1004, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647260

RESUMEN

Facial expressions of emotion allow us to predict other people's intentions and behaviors. However, we often overextend these predictions to also make inferences about other people's underlying tendencies and dispositions. People with happy expressions are perceived to have stable positive traits whereas people with sad expressions are perceived to have stable negative traits. In these studies, we tested whether this extends to inferences about younger and older adults' abilities to complete fundamental activities of independent living, such as independently getting dressed, preparing food, and remembering directions. Our results showed that both younger and older adult targets were perceived to have greater everyday competence in completing activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and memory tasks when they displayed happy or neutral expressions rather than sad expressions. This pattern did not vary based upon either the target's gender or the participant's age. However, for the ADL and IADL ratings, the overgeneralization of emotions to ratings of everyday competence was greater for the older adult targets than for the younger adult targets. Drawing from the ecological approach to social perception, these results suggests that spontaneous trait inferences are most likely to occur when the age-trait association is strong. Given that perceptions of competence are also associated with behavioral ramifications, such as being subjected to patronizing behavior, having lower employment opportunities, and being seen as low in social status, our results also suggest that older adults whose facial expressions appear sad may be especially prone to these adverse outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Expresión Facial , Percepción Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623200

RESUMEN

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to enjoy themselves and be engaged when interacting with computers, as these interactions occur in a safe and trustworthy environment. In this paper, we present a systematic literature review on the state of the research on the use of technology to teach people with ASD. We reviewed 94 studies that show how the use of technology in educational contexts helps people with ASD develop several skills, how these approaches consider aspects of user experience, usability and accessibility, and how game elements are used to enrich learning environments. This systematic literature review shows that the development and evaluation of systems and applications for users with ASD is very promising. The use of technological advancements such as virtual agents, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and augmented reality undoubtedly provides a comfortable environment that promotes constant learning for people with ASD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Emociones/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Tecnología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/fisiopatología , Humanos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Realidad Virtual
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623279

RESUMEN

Recently, researchers in the area of biosensor based human emotion recognition have used different types of machine learning models for recognizing human emotions. However, most of them still lack the ability to recognize human emotions with higher classification accuracy incorporating a limited number of bio-sensors. In the domain of machine learning, ensemble learning methods have been successfully applied to solve different types of real-world machine learning problems which require improved classification accuracies. Emphasising on that, this research suggests an ensemble learning approach for developing a machine learning model that can recognize four major human emotions namely: anger; sadness; joy; and pleasure incorporating electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. As feature extraction methods, this analysis combines four ECG signal based techniques, namely: heart rate variability; empirical mode decomposition; with-in beat analysis; and frequency spectrum analysis. The first three feature extraction methods are well-known ECG based feature extraction techniques mentioned in the literature, and the fourth technique is a novel method proposed in this study. The machine learning procedure of this investigation evaluates the performance of a set of well-known ensemble learners for emotion classification and further improves the classification results using feature selection as a prior step to ensemble model training. Compared to the best performing single biosensor based model in the literature, the developed ensemble learner has the accuracy gain of 10.77%. Furthermore, the developed model outperforms most of the multiple biosensor based emotion recognition models with a significantly higher classification accuracy gain.


Asunto(s)
Electrocardiografía , Emociones/fisiología , Aprendizaje Automático , Algoritmos , Electroencefalografía , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte
20.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 29-32, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603840

RESUMEN

Recent studies have demonstrated that while we are sleeping, our brain is very busy processing all information we have acquired along the day. Lack of sleep has shown to produce deficits in memory consolidation and plays an important role in brain development and brain plasticity in the several developmental stages of the human brain. At the cellular level, circadian cycles coordinate complex mechanism that "turn on and off" genes and cellular structures regulating individual cell functions to impact global organ and systems physiological activities. At the end a perfect and coordinated equilibrium in the mental, emotional and physiological is the goal of this complex process. Sleep impacts memory, learning, mood, behavior, immunological responses, metabolism, hormone levels, digestive process and many more physiological functions. We present a review of three basic aspects related with sleep: a. brain electrical activity during the sleep and neuroanatomic correlation with mechanism related with memory and learning; b. circadian cycles and impact in several physiological systems; c some examples of clinical disorders associated with sleep disorders and impact in learning and memory.


Asunto(s)
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Memoria/fisiología , Plasticidad Neuronal/fisiología , Sueño/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Humanos , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/fisiopatología
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