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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 675927, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604151

RESUMEN

Background: The incidence of chronic diseases has increased dramatically due to rapid aging and lifestyle changes of China in recent decades. The population aged more than 45 years is an important participant in the labor force market, and the health status directly affects their labor force participation decision. This study aims to explore the relationship between chronic diseases and the labor force participation among the elderly Chinese population aged more than 45 years. Method: We employ a multivariate probit (MVP) model to construct five structural equations for an analysis. The advantage of this model is that it can deal with the endogeneity of chronic diseases. Results: Firstly, compared with the elderly, younger people are more likely to participate in the labor force market; the influence of chronic diseases is the largest for presenile women in the decision-making of labor force participation; the impact of psychological problems on labor force participation cannot be ignored, especially for men aged more than 45 years. In addition, sociodemographic factors such as geographical location and marital status also have direct effects on the probability of labor force participation while the impact of both family wealth and family number is much smaller. Finally, unhealthy lifestyles through chronic diseases have negative and indirect marginal effects on labor force participation. Conclusions: This article proves that chronic diseases have a negative impact on the labor force participation for Chinese aged more than 45 years. The public should give more tolerance and opportunities to these groups. The population aged more than 45 years are more vulnerable and face more psychological problems, which will lead to a decline in labor force participation. Psychological health counseling and services are urgently needed. As the urban areas enjoy more social welfare, Chinese welfare policy needs to be tilted toward the rural elderly. For individuals, maintaining healthy lifestyles can help you stay away from chronic diseases and stay in the labor force market.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Empleo , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 5787355, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616445

RESUMEN

Scientific and reasonable forecast model of graduates' employment data can efficaciously embody the complex characteristics of graduates' employment data and embody the nonlinear dynamic interaction of influencing elements of graduates' employment situation. It has a strong and steady characteristic learning capability, thus selecting the main influence data that influence the change of graduates' employment data. In this paper, according to the situation embodied by students' employment, a data mining analysis model is set up by using the statistical method based on the model of cluster analysis technology to forecast the employment situation of graduates. In this paper, a forecast technique of graduates' employment situation based on the long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network is conceived, including network structure design, network training, and forecast process implementation algorithm. In addition, aiming at minimizing the forecasting error, an LSTM forecasting model parameter optimization algorithm based on multilayer grid search is conceived. It also verifies the applicability and correctness of the LSTM forecasting model and its parameter optimization algorithm in the analysis of graduates' employment situation.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Dinámicas no Lineales , Empleo , Humanos , Redes Neurales de la Computación
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257469, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543292

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have adverse effects on the economy through damage to migration and remittances. We use a unique monthly household panel dataset that covers the period both before and after the outbreak to examine the impacts of COVID-19 on a variety of household welfare outcomes in Tajikistan, where remittance inflows in recent years have exceeded a quarter of annual GDP. We provide several findings. First, after April 2020, the adverse effects of the pandemic on household welfare were significantly observed and were particularly pronounced in the second quarter of 2020. Second, in contrast to expectation, the pandemic had a sharp but only transitory effect on the stock of migrants working abroad in the spring. Some expected migrants were forced to remain in their home country during the border closures, while some incumbent migrants expecting to return were unable to do so and remained employed in their destination countries. Both departures and returns started to increase again from summer. Employment and remittances of the migrants quickly recovered to levels seen in previous years after a sharp decline in April and May. Third, regression analyses reveal that both migration and remittances have helped to mitigate the adverse economic outcomes at home during the "with-COVID-19" period, suggesting that they served as a form of insurance. Overall, the unfavorable effects of the COVID-19 pandemic were severe and temporary right after the outbreak, but households with migrants were more resilient against the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Composición Familiar , Migración Humana , Pandemias , Resiliencia Psicológica , Bienestar Social/psicología , COVID-19/virología , Empleo , Humanos , Análisis de Regresión , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Tayikistán/epidemiología
4.
R I Med J (2013) ; 104(8): 43-46, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582516

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Key elements of social integration of refugees overlap with the social determinants of health. Limited research exists about Syrian refugees' resettlement in Rhode Island (RI). METHODS: Case study life history method: Two Syrian women in RI were interviewed and observed longitudinally. Content analysis cycles led to emerging topics. Key informant interviews informed the question guide. RESULTS: Several themes emerged: (1) Interpreters, community health workers (CHWs), and patient navigators help access healthcare; (2) Education about healthcare maintenance is important; (3) Anti-refugee bias has compromised safety and psychosocial wellness; (4) Although hard work is prioritized, high hopes for education and employment conflict with reality; and (5) Syrian women have unique experiences during resettlement. CONCLUSIONS: RI leaders can address resettlement challenges through investment in CHW programs, peer-led health initiatives, English language education, interpreter services, psychosocial support, migrant rights education, social opportunities, and job training and matching.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Rhode Island , Siria
5.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00514, 2021 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465637

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the secondary attack rate (SAR) and its determinants to describe the clinical features and epidemiological aspects of patients and determine the risk factors of COVID-19 among household contacts in Hamadan Province, west of Iran. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study. METHODS: In this cohort study, a total of 323 index cases and 989 related close contacts ages more than 15 years old (family members, relatives, and co-workers) were enrolled using a manual contact tracing approach, and all participants were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. In this research, the frequency of symptoms was assessed, the SAR among contacts of index cases was calculated, and the risk factors of COVID-19 were evaluated by the logistic regression model. RESULTS: The secondary attack rate for total household members of index cases was estimated at 31.7% (95% CI: 28.8-34.7). It was found that among household contacts, the highest SARs were related to spouses 47.1% (95% CI: 38.7-55.7) and grandparents/parents 39.3% (95% CI: 29.4, 49.9) of index cases, who had also higher risks to become secondary cases (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=2.98, 95% CI: 1.31-6.75 and adjusted OR=2.76, 95% CI: 1.18-6.44, respectively). Considering the occupation of contacts, unemployed and retired people and housewives were most susceptible for transmission of COVID-19. It was revealed that cough was the most prevalent symptom among index and secondary cases. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that spouses and grandparents/parents of index cases were the most susceptible individuals for COVID-19 transmission. Prolonged exposure with index case before COVID-19 diagnosis raised the chance of infection among secondary cases.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/transmisión , Trazado de Contacto , Composición Familiar , Familia , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19 , Estudios de Cohortes , Tos/etiología , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125187, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581798

RESUMEN

Importance: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, has disproportionately affected Black and Hispanic communities in the US, which can be attributed to social factors including inconsistent public health messaging and suboptimal adoption of prevention efforts. Objectives: To identify behaviors and evaluate trends in COVID-19-mitigating practices in a predominantly Black and Hispanic population, to identify differences in practices by self-reported ethnicity, and to evaluate whether federal emergency financial assistance was associated with SARS-CoV-2 acquisition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study was conducted by telephone from July 1 through August 30, 2020, on a random sample of adults who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing at a safety-net health care system in Chicago during the surge in COVID-19 cases in the spring of 2020. Behaviors and receipt of a stimulus check were compared between participants testing positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2. Differences in behaviors and temporal trends were assessed by race and ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed using nasopharyngeal quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing. Mitigating behaviors and federal emergency financial assistance were assessed by survey. Race and ethnicity data were collected from electronic health records. Results: Of 750 randomly sampled individuals, 314 (41.9%) consented to participate (169 [53.8%] women). Of those, 159 (51%) self-reported as Hispanic and 155 (49%) as non-Hispanic (120 [38.2%] Black), of whom 133 (84%) and 76 (49%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, respectively. For all participants, consistent mask use (public transport: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.00; 95% CI, 0.00-0.34; social gatherings: aOR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.00-0.50; running errands: aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07-0.42; at work: aOR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.07-0.79) and hand sanitizer use (aOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.13-0.52) were associated with lower odds of infection. During 3 sampled weeks, mitigation practices were less frequent among Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic participants (eg, mask use while running errands: aOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.46). Hispanic participants were at high risk of infection (aOR, 5.52; 95% CI, 4.30-7.08) and more likely to work outside the home (aOR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.27-3.30) compared with non-Hispanic participants, possibly because of limited receipt of stimulus checks (aOR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.07) or unemployment benefits (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.74). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of adults in a large US city, public health messaging improved preventive behaviors over time but lagged among Hispanic participants; messaging tailored to Hispanic communities, especially for mask use, should be prioritized. Hispanic individuals were at higher risk for infection, more often worked outside the home, and were less likely to have received a stimulus check; this suggests larger studies are needed to evaluate the provision of economic support on SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in low-income populations.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Grupos Étnicos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos , Pandemias , Población Urbana , Adulto , COVID-19/economía , COVID-19/etnología , Chicago/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Empleo , Femenino , Donaciones , Desinfectantes para las Manos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Distanciamiento Físico , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(29-30): 509, 2021 07 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526216

Asunto(s)
Empleo , Humanos
8.
Work ; 70(1): 125-134, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487010

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with mental illness may have difficulties related to work and employment, especially if they experience additional difficult life situations. OBJECTIVE: To explore how subgroups with mental illness and additional adversities perceived their situation with respect to work and employment prospects. METHODS: Three subgroups were included, exposed to an additional difficult life situation: i) psychosis interrupting their career development at young age (n = 46), ii) having a history of substance use disorder (SUD) (= 57) or iii) having recently immigrated (n = 39). They responded to questionnaires addressing sociodemographics, work-related factors, everyday activity, and well-being. A professional assessed their level of functioning and symptom severity. RESULTS: The young people with psychosis had a low education level, little work experience, the poorest worker role resources, and a low level of functioning, but a high quality of life. The SUD group had the fewest work experiences, were the least satisfied with work experiences, and had the lowest activity level, but had the least severe psychiatric symptoms. The immigrant group had severe psychiatric symptoms, but high ratings on work experiences, work resources, and activity level. CONCLUSIONS: Each group presented unique assets and limitations pertaining to work and employment, suggesting that they also needed unique support measures.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Trastornos Psicóticos , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Empleo , Humanos , Trastornos Psicóticos/complicaciones , Calidad de Vida
9.
Work ; 70(1): 263-270, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511529

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Paramedic work has periods of intermittent high physical demand, a risk of workplace injury, may be confounded by inherent fitness of the paramedic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the nature of workplace musculoskeletal injury, and determine if there was a relationship between pre-employment physical capacity testing (PEPCT) scores and risk of workplace musculoskeletal injury within the paramedic industry. METHODS: A retrospective case review using PEPCT scores and workplace injury (WI) manual handling data collected from 2008 to 2015 by an Australian pre-hospital emergency care provider (Ambulance Victoria), enabled comparison and analysis of two distinct data sets. RESULTS: A total of 538 paramedics were included for analysis with 34 paramedics reporting a workplace musculoskeletal injury from manual handling. The mean time to injury from commencement of employment was 395.4 days (SD 516.2). Female paramedics represented 53.0%and male paramedics represented 47%of the sample. Mean total PEPCT score for the entire sample was 19.1 (SD 2.9) with a range from 16.2-22, while for those reporting injuries it was 18.3 (SD 2.6) with a range from 15.7-20.9. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal injury amongst Victorian paramedics is more prevalent where the paramedic is female, and/or within three years of commencement of employment. The PEPCT score did not differentiate those at risk of subsequent injury.


Asunto(s)
Técnicos Medios en Salud , Auxiliares de Urgencia , Australia/epidemiología , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12273, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520073

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how many workplace COVID-19 preventive measures were maintained during repeated outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate a longitudinal change of implementation of workplace preventive measures responding to COVID-19 in Japan. METHODS: An online longitudinal study was conducted using a cohort of full-time employees in Japan, starting in March 2020 (T1), with follow-up surveys in May (T2), August (T3), and November (T4) 2020. A repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to compare the difference among the four surveys in the mean number of 23 predetermined items of the measures implemented. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 800 employees. The mean number of the implemented measures increased from T1 to T2, but did not change from T2 to T3, then decreased from T3 to T4. The number of workplace preventive measures significantly increased from T1 to T2 for 21 items (P < .001), and significantly decreased from T3 to T4 for 14 items (P < .001 to P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: While the preventive measures responding to COVID-19 in the workplace were well-implemented during the earlier phase of the outbreak, they seem to have been relaxed after a huge outbreak (T3 to T4: August to November 2020). Workplaces should be encouraged to continue the preventive measures over repeated outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Implementación de Plan de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Japón , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/virología , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
11.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211042177, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465251

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Postnatal hospital stay is decreased by 30% during COVID-19 in developed countries. However, there is paucity of data in developing countries. Hence, this study aims to assess the prevalence of early postnatal discharge during COVID-19 in Jimma Health Centers. METHODS: Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 February to 30 March 2021. Sample was calculated using single population proportion formula and allocated proportionally to the health centers. Data were interred into Epidata version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 22.0 for analysis. Multivariable regression was done to identify associating factors at p < 0.05. RESULT: Three hundred ninety women were included into study making a response rate of 96.8%. Early discharge prevalence was 316 (81.0%). Attending elementary school adjusted odds ratio = 0.26 (confidence interval = 0.087-0.798), plan for postnatal care within a week adjusted odds ratio = 0.410 (confidence interval = 0.221-0.760), knowing postnatal maternal danger sign adjusted odds ratio = 0.258 (confidence interval = 0.141-0.473), women adjusted odds ratio = 0.421 (confidence interval = 0.211-0.838), or husband adjusted odds ratio = 0.051 (confidence interval = 0.014-0.186) made decision of discharge were negatively and distance on foot <30 min adjusted odds ratio = 3 (confidence interval = 1.121-8.058) was positively associated with early discharge significantly. CONCLUSION: This study has identified early postnatal discharge is high which can contribute to reduce the risk of acquiring COVID-19. However, the authors recommend further study to differentiate whether early discharge is due to COVID-19 or other reasons.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Posnatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Empleo , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20190042, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495194

RESUMEN

Issue under consideration: existing legal resources to support gender equality in the workplace. We systematised the provisions of Kazakhstan labour law, which should guarantee the prohibition of discrimination based on sex. The analysis resulted in five themes: "Characteristics of women's labour", "Analysis of labour laws differentiation", "Evaluation of labour rights discrimination" and "Characteristics of the new labour legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan", "Characteristics of workers with a special social status". We analysed the essence of the method of differentiation of labour legislation, which affects the establishment of special working conditions for women and workers with family responsibilities. We suggested a correlation between the content of legal norms and the level of guarantees of gender equality in the labour market. The results show that family circumstances, gender equality are factors influencing the formation of labour legislation, state policy in the field of wage labour. The creation of a favourable environment for labour relations of the considered categories of workers should be carried out through labour contracts, acts of the employer, social partnership agreements, collective agreements. However, priority should be given to normative acts of national action. Ensuring gender equality in fact always requires the implementation of special measures by the employer, which must be guaranteed by a coercive state mechanism. At least this thesis is true for the conditions of Kazakhstan, a country with a transition economy, when business does not have high social activity, and state power is in a period of transformation. Importance should be given to the monitoring and implementation of international obligations in the field of ensuring the prohibition of discrimination, the implementation of best practices and standards. The post-Soviet law of Kazakhstan recognises the priority of international law over national law, and this channel should be maximally used to promote the value of gender equality.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Equidad de Género , Femenino , Humanos , Kazajstán , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 361-370, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202559

RESUMEN

El enfoque psicológico en torno a la actividad emprendedora contribuye a explicar por qué las personas deciden o no emprender. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora, así como identificar las variables de personalidad que puedan explicar el convertirse en trabajador por cuenta propia. Empleando una muestra de 586 participantes (Medad= 39,31; DTedad = 14,66), se analizaron diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora mediante técnicas de análisis de perfiles latentes. Además, se analizó si había diferencias en otras variables psicológicas en función del perfil de personalidad emprendedora. Finalmente, se estudió, mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, si la responsabilidad, el autocontrol, el grit y la personalidad emprendedora ayudan a explicar que las personas se conviertan en trabajadores por cuenta propia. Los resultados apoyan la existencia de tres perfiles latentes de personalidad emprendedora (baja, media y alta), siendo el perfil alta personalidad emprendedora el que muestra mayores puntuaciones en otras variables psicológicas, así como mayor proporción de trabajadores por cuenta propia. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales planteado explica un 2,6% de la varianza de la variable ser trabajador autónomo, por lo que las variables de personalidad ayudan a explicar una pequeña parte de la actividad emprendedora


The psychological approach to entrepreneurial activity helps to explain why people decide or not to undertake. The objective of this study is to analyze different entrepreneurial personality profiles, as well as to identify the personality variables that can explain becoming a self-employed. Using a sample of 586 participants (Mage = 39.31; SDage = 14.66), different entrepreneurial personality profiles were analyzed using la-tent profile analysis techniques. In addition, it was analyzed whether there were differences in other psychological variables based on the entrepreneurial personality profile. Finally, it was studied, using a structural equation model, if conscientiousness, self-control, grit and entrepreneurial personality help to explain why people become self-employed. The results support the existence of three latent profiles of entrepreneurial personality (low, medium and high), being high entrepreneurial personality the one profile that shows higher scores in other psychological variables, as well as a higher proportion of self-employed. The proposed structural equation model explains 2.6% of the variance of the variable being self-employed, so the personality variables help to explain a small part of entrepreneurial activity


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Emprendimiento , Concienciación , Autocontrol/psicología , Motivación , Empleo/psicología , Inventario de Personalidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Valores de Referencia
14.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 55: 103172, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461461

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim was to explore the experiences of new graduate nurses who provide support to breastfeeding women in neonatal care settings. The objective of this study was to explore the enablers and barriers that influenced new graduate nurses' self-efficacy. BACKGROUND: Nurses have important roles in promoting and educating breastfeeding women in neonatal care settings. Although there are many studies that focused on nursing students and registered nurses' experiences in supporting breastfeeding women, there is limited research about the experiences of new graduate nurses during their transition from universities to neonatal care settings as a registered nurse where they learn how to educate and support breastfeeding women. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHODS: Nine new graduate nurses who support breastfeeding women in neonatal care settings within Australia were recruited. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews via videoconference or telephone. Braun & Clarke's thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: This study found four themes: Preparedness, Emotions, Ongoing Learning, and Confidence. Barriers and enablers included support, time, consistency of information, and impact of stereotyping. The new graduate nurses did not initially feel prepared to support breastfeeding women due to their lack of knowledge. Participants' self-efficacy enhancing strategies to help build knowledge and confidence supporting breastfeeding women included: a) frequent practice, b) having role models and seeking support, c) receiving encouragement and positive feedback, and d) interpreting their emotional feelings as a normal reaction to the learning process. CONCLUSION: Additional education should be provided during pre-registration education and on commencement of employment in neonatal settings to improve new graduate nurses'knowledge supporting breastfeeding women. Self-efficacy enhancing strategies can be used in partnerships between educational institutions and hospitals to support new graduate nurses to feel more confident providing breastfeeding support in neonatal care settings.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado en Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Lactancia Materna , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Investigación Cualitativa
15.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021055, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412445

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study explored the effect of employment status on mortality over a 13-year period in Korean men. METHODS: Data were used from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study from 1999 to 2012. This study started with 2,737 subjects and included employed men in good health, aged 30-69 years. Deaths were tracked for 13 years from 2000 to 2012. Employment status classifications were: (1) regular employees, (2) precarious employees, (3) petty bourgeoisie, and (4) employers. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model, and were adjusted for age, education, income, and occupation, with regular employees as the reference category. To examine the effect of employment status and include employment history, the risk ratios of mortality were measured using the Poisson regression model, considering the duration of each employment and using 0 years as the reference category. RESULTS: Over the course of the 13-year study, being a precarious employee (HR, 1.84) or petty bourgeoisie (HR, 1.87) at a particular point in time had a negative effect on mortality when compared with regular employees. Furthermore, working as precarious employees or petty bourgeoisie had no positive effect on mortality. A positive effect was observed, however, on the overall mortality risk for regular employees. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a healthy social policy is needed for precarious employees and petty bourgeoisie to avoid disadvantages in the workplace and the social safety net.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Mortalidad/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
16.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(10): 1998-2002, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418376

RESUMEN

The rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination uptake by US nursing home staff remains low despite the increased risks of viral transmission and related morbidity and mortality in this setting. This study describes vaccine uptake activities including a COVID-19 vaccination condition of employment (COE) policy in one community nursing home. This case study summarizes the timeline of vaccination uptake activities, staff vaccination rates over time, and stakeholder perspectives around the implementation of a COVID-19 vaccination COE. Organizational data were used to calculate vaccination rates from January 1, 2021 until May 1, 2021 among all nursing home staff. Interviews were held with the executive leadership team, human resources leadership, and nursing home staff to understand the process of implementation. During a 4-month period, nursing home leaders provided 8 written handouts about COVID-19 to all staff, hosted 5 on-site vaccination clinics in partnership with area pharmacies, conducted 2 virtual presentations for staff in addition to individual outreach and internal communications. Fewer than one-half of the staff were vaccinated prior to the decision to pursue a vaccine COE on February 9, 2021. The decision to pursue a COVID-19 vaccination COE was supported by executive leadership and nursing home staff to protect the health and safety of each other and their residents. By May 1, 2021 a total of 221 of the 246 (89.8%) nursing home staff members received a COVID-19 vaccination. The facility reached 100% compliance with the vaccination COE policy with 18 people who chose to resign and 7 people who were exempt or on a leave of absence. In combination with frequent, personalized outreach, a COVID-19 vaccination COE resulted in high staff vaccination rates and minimal staff turnover. This case study provides a detailed summary of vaccination uptake activities within an organizational context to inform efforts at other healthcare facilities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Empleo , Humanos , Casas de Salud , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
17.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 673-688, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410742

RESUMEN

Model minority stereotypes of Asian Americans as high educational and occupational achievers are perpetuated by conceptual and methodological issues in career development research that aggregate across Asian ethnicities and oversample high achievers. These issues render those marginalized, such as working-class immigrants with limited English proficiency, as well as their children, as invisible within research, practice, and policy. A new theoretical framework, entitled the Asian American Intergenerational Model of Psychology of Working (AAIM), questions the mainstream career development assumptions of linearity, stability, and upward mobility that reveal inherent classism. Building on the Psychology of Working Theory (Duffy et al., 2016); the AAIM broadens the scope and definition of work beyond career, and acknowledges the significance of structural and cultural forces on people's work and life. An expanded qualitative analysis of interviews with 17 low-income, working-class, Chinese immigrant parents (Tu et al., 2019) provides an empirical illustration of the intergenerational and coethnic dynamics of vocational experiences central to the AAIM. The working-class immigrants relied on coethnic networks to secure employment within a narrow range of options, many straddling helplessly between arduous manual labor and family demands. Though they had immigrated primarily to provide a better future for their children, many parents struggled to participate meaningfully in their children's development. These findings highlight the need to expand Asian American psychology of working to incorporate systems and social justice perspectives. Research, practice, and policy implications of AAIM advocate for maximal inclusivity and offer directions to address invisibility of the most marginalized and disenfranchised Asian American workers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Logro , Americanos Asiáticos/psicología , Empleo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Clase Social , Justicia Social , Marginación Social , Estereotipo , Adulto Joven
18.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(8): 1103-1117, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423997

RESUMEN

Employers have increasingly turned to virtual interviews to facilitate online, socially distanced selection processes in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is little understanding about the experience of job candidates in these virtual interview contexts. We draw from Event System Theory (Morgeson et al., 2015) to advance and test a conceptual model that focuses on a high-stress, high-stakes setting and integrates literatures on workplace stress with literatures on applicant reactions. We predict that when applicants ruminate about COVID-19 during an interview and have higher levels of COVID-19 exhaustion, they will have higher levels of anxiety during virtual interviews, which in turn relates to reduced interview performance, lower perceptions of fairness, and reduced intentions to recommend the organization. Further, we predict that three factors capturing COVID-19 as an enduring and impactful event (COVID-19 duration, COVID-19 cases, COVID-19 deaths) will be positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. We tested our propositions with 8,343 job applicants across 373 companies and 93 countries/regions. Consistent with predictions, we found a positive relationship between COVID-19 rumination and interview anxiety, and this relationship was stronger for applicants who experienced higher (vs. lower) levels of COVID-19 exhaustion. In turn, interview anxiety was negatively related to interview performance, fairness perceptions, and recommendation intentions. Moreover, using a relevant subset of the data (n = 6,136), we found that COVID-19 duration and deaths were positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. This research offers several insights for understanding the virtual interview experience embedded in the pandemic and advances the literature on applicant reactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , COVID-19 , Empleo/psicología , Entrevistas como Asunto , Adulto , Aspiraciones Psicológicas , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444937

RESUMEN

Breakfast skipping and nighttime snacking have been identified as risk factors for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of irregularity of meal timing on health and daily quality of life are still unclear. In this study, a web-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted involving 4490 workers (73.3% males; average age = 47.4 ± 0.1 years) in Japan to investigate the association between meal habits, health, and social relationships. This study identified that irregular meal timing was correlated with higher neuroticism (one of the Big Five personality traits), lower physical activity levels, and higher productivity loss. Irregular meal timing was also associated with a higher incidence of sleep problems and lower subjective health conditions. Among health outcomes, a high correlation of irregular meal timing with mental health factors was observed. This study showed that irregularity of meal timing can be explained by unbalanced diets, frequent breakfast skipping, increased snacking frequency, and insufficient latency from the last meal to sleep onset. Finally, logistic regression analysis was conducted, and a significant contribution of meal timing irregularity to subjective mental health was found under adjustment for other confounding factors. These results suggest that irregular meal timing is a good marker of subjective mental health issues.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Comidas , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Desayuno , Relojes Circadianos , Dieta/métodos , Empleo , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Sueño , Bocadillos , Conducta Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26818, 2021 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397841

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Hypertension is the leading cause of increased morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Despite adherence to therapies is the important determinant of treatment success to reduce apparent resistant hypertension, maintaining good adherence to antihypertensive medications remained the most serious challenge. Thus, this study aimed to assess adherence to antihypertensive medications among adult hypertensive patients in Dessie Referral Hospital.A cross-sectional study design was conducted among hypertensive patients during May and June 2020. The study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. The collected data were entered into EpiData version 4.4 and exported to SPSS version 25.0 software for data cleaning and analysis. Data were analyzed using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression at a 95% confidence interval (CI). A variable that has a P-value < .05 was declared as statistically significant. Hosmer-Lemeshow test was used to test goodness-of-fit and multicollinearity was tested.The overall good adherence to antihypertensive medications was 51.9%; 95% CI: (46.8-58.3%) and poor adherence was 48.1%. Factors associated with good adherence were: sex-female adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 1.31; 95% CI (1.06-2.52), occupational status-employed AOR = 2.24; 95% CI (1.33-3.72), good knowledge of the disease AOR = 2.20; 95% CI (1.34-3.72) and good self-efficacy AOR = 1.38; 95% CI (1.20-2.13).This study revealed that almost half of the hypertensive patients in Dessie Referral Hospital had good antihypertensive medication adherence. Sex, occupational status, knowledge, and self-efficacy were factors associated with good adherence. Therefore, health education should be given to patients on the importance of complying with medication and patients should be monitored by health extension workers.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Adulto , Causalidad , Indicadores de Enfermedades Crónicas , Estudios Transversales , Empleo , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/psicología , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Centros de Atención Secundaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoeficacia , Factores Sexuales
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