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1.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 1-7, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162684

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how Bipolar Disorder (BD) affects employment is limited by cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal designs. The aims for this study are to examine condition-related and other clinical predictors of longitudinal employment status and stability in those with BD compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Participants were 358 individuals with BD and HC who were enrolled in the Heinz C. Prechter Longitudinal Study of BD. Participants completed self-report measurements of employment, symptoms, health, personality, life events, and neuropsychological tests at study enrollment, yearly and/or every two months. Repeated measures logistic regression was used to predict employment status and stability. RESULTS: Those with BD were less likely to be employed than HC. Significant predictors of unemployment in BD include having BD type I, younger age, less years with BD, higher depression, worse processing speed, and worse mental and physical health. Of those with BD, 64 % demonstrated greater employment instability compared to 37 % of HC. History of psychosis, worse memory, physical health, and greater disruption of negative life events significantly predicted employment instability. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this study include the generalizability of this sample, a large reliance of self-report measures, and a lack of employment-related factors such as job-type, functioning, performance, and satisfaction. Lastly, the effects of medication, treatment adherence, and treatment optimization were not assessed in this study. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight that different aspects of BD are important for being employed versus maintaining stable employment. These findings indicate the need for more effective treatment strategies beyond symptom management.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar , Humanos , Trastorno Bipolar/epidemiología , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Transversales , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Empleo/psicología
2.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116633, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419297

RESUMEN

This study deals with a novel perspective on how natural resource dependence (NRD) and natural resource abundance (NRA) moderate the effects of fiscal decentralization and financial inclusion on energy and carbon intensity. Our work develops on the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology framework, considering the selected seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development members as the investigative laboratory from 1995 through 2018. Employing a panel Method of Moments Quantile Regression with fixed effects, we find that fiscal decentralization is beneficial for environmental sustainability, especially across the countries with a higher level of energy and carbon intensity; however, enhanced financial inclusivity is detrimental to the environmental quality, with more visible effects in more energy-efficient economies. As per the direct effects, NRD and NRA mitigate energy and carbon efficiency, with more substantial contributions in less energy- and carbon-intensive countries. Concerning the indirect effects, NRD and NRA positively moderate the influence of fiscal decentralization and financial inclusion on energy and carbon intensities, displaying more substantial effects in more energy-efficient economies. Among other control variables, environmental innovation, renewable electricity, employment to population ratio, and economic progress enhance environmental sustainability. We suggest fiscal decentralization should be built on a more transparent and accountable subnational governmental setup to prevent rent-seeking and fragile environmental protection. We also recommend inclusive finance should enhance the access to and affordability of financial services to economic agents for green consumption and investment ventures to achieve environmental sustainability, among other Sustainable Development Goals.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Recursos Naturales , Electricidad , Empleo , Política
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277005, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378638

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 epidemic resulted in a dramatic contraction in employment in the U.S., but the effects of this contraction have been unevenly distributed. We examine differences in employment among foreign- and native-born workers by race/ethnicity during the course of the epidemic. We test individual fixed-effects models based on data from the monthly CPS panel from January 2020 to December 2021 adjusting for seasonality. Immigrant men and women experienced greater declines in employment than non-immigrants of the same race/ethnicity when both compared to native-born Whites, but their disadvantage were limited to the initial months of the epidemic. Ethnoracial and immigrant status disparities were substantially reduced by the fall of 2020, except for Hispanic immigrant men and women, who still experienced substantial employment gaps with their native-born White counterparts. Differences in family characteristics account for Hispanic immigrant women's lower employment rates during the epidemic but do not appear to account for differences between Black and Asian women and native-born Whites. Observed disparities in employment by race/ethnicity and immigrant status cannot be fully explained by differences in education, the concentration of minority and immigrant workers in industries and occupations that suffered steeper employment declines, or regional differences in the intensity of the epidemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Etnicidad , COVID-19/epidemiología , Hispánicos o Latinos , Empleo
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 999795, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408032

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study explores the inter-relationship between emotional distress in adults and gender, quarantine experiences, pandemic duration, and employment. Methods: An online cross-sectional online survey comprised 943 Israelis. The link to the survey was distributed via different personal and academic social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter). The survey was administered using the online survey portal Google Forms. Participants addressed questions about their socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, family status, employment, and quarantine experiences) and ranked their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression using the Hebrew version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-DASS-21. Results: The majority of the respondents (72%) were women, 39% experienced quarantine, and 55% were unemployed. About 42% experienced a short-term pandemic (one lockdown), and the rest experienced a continuous pandemic (two lockdowns). The MANCOVA results, controlling for family status, indicated that women and unemployed participants reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression levels than men and employed participants. Participants who experienced individual quarantine reported higher anxiety and depression. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between gender, employment, and pandemic duration. The experience of individual quarantine intensified the stress, anxiety, and depression for both employed and unemployed women. Conversely, the quarantine intensified stress, anxiety, and depression only for unemployed men, whereas the quarantine did not affect stress, anxiety, and depression among employed men. Conclusions: Employment is a critical factor regarding men's emotional state during such stressful situations as the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, individual quarantine and long-term pandemics are associated with opposite outcomes regarding individual mental health. The individual quarantine is associated with increased anxiety and depression, while a long-term, continuous pandemic is associated with decreased stress.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Adulto , Femenino , Masculino , Cuarentena , COVID-19/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Empleo
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277757, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395155

RESUMEN

Grounded in an ecodevelopment perspective, in the current study we examined unique and moderating effects of daily COVID-19 prevalence (social contexts) on effects of COVID-19 related risk and protective factors such as emotional distress (individual contexts) and employment (working from home and unemployment status; family contexts) on family functioning among 160 recent immigrant families in Israel. In general, results indicate several unique effects of COVID-19 related factors (such as COVID-19 emotional distress, unemployment, and remote work arrangements) on both parents' and adolescents' reports of family functioning. However, results indicated that there were more significant associations between COVID-19 factors (e.g., emotional distress and COVID-19 prevalence) and family functioning indicators with adolescents, than with parents. The effects of COVID-19 factors (e.g., emotional distress and remote work arrangements) were moderated by daily COVID-19 prevalence (new cases and deaths). We discuss ways in which interventionists can contribute to pandemic-related research to promote optimal family functioning among immigrant families.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Distrés Psicológico , Adolescente , Humanos , Prevalencia , COVID-19/epidemiología , Israel/epidemiología , Empleo , Brotes de Enfermedades
9.
JAAPA ; 35(12): 45-49, 2022 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350301

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The contribution of physician assistants (PAs) to the German healthcare workforce has increased significantly since their introduction in 2005. From five training programs, the number has increased to the current 18, with 560 PAs awarded the PA bachelor of science degree as of 2020. Despite the growth, researchers lack systemic and reliable empirical data that provide insight into the German PA educational and professional profile. The German University Association Physician Assistant (DHPA) undertook the first nationwide cross-sectional survey on PAs in Germany to understand the German PA movement. This survey aimed to describe German PAs' entry into the profession and PA educational and job satisfaction. METHODS: PA alumni of all universities affiliated with the DHPA and all subscribers of the Facebook online social media platform PA Blog were invited to complete an online questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 282 PAs who completed the survey, 77% were female and under age 25 years. Almost all (94%) were employed, predominantly as PAs (91%, 241 of 265), although some held other positions. Most worked full time (87%), with some citing child-care needs as reasons for part-time employment (n = 21). Few reported unemployment (1.4%, 4 of 282). Eighty-two percent said they would probably or very likely choose the same course of study again. Most employed participants found the inclusion of frequent rotations between didactic and clinical training in PA programs beneficial. However, a small number of participants (26.8%) agreed that German PA programs' didactic and clinical teaching objectives were well aligned. CONCLUSIONS: German PAs have a high level of satisfaction with their profession and report low unemployment. Improvement in the alignment of didactic and clinical educational objectives to improve academic qualifications and satisfaction emerged as an area of research.


Asunto(s)
Asistentes Médicos , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Asistentes Médicos/educación , Recursos Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Empleo
10.
Prog Transplant ; 32(4): 274-282, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367716

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The growing practice of living liver donation requires comprehensive understanding of the financial implications for living liver donors. While obtaining and maintaining insurance is important to financial health, little is known about the impact of liver donation on future insurability. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the donors' experiences with insurance following donation and identify the insurance provider-driven factors that contribute to donor insurability. DESIGN: A two center cohort of living donors with donation between January 2000 and December 2018 (N = 442) were surveyed about postdonation insurance experiences. To understand insurance provider practices towards liver donors, life (n = 11) and disability (n = 4) insurance underwriters were asked to provide policy quotes for a standardized living liver donor profile. RESULTS: Responses (N = 101) were received by August 2020 (response rate = 22.9%). Living liver donors reported owning life (58%), disability (35%), and medical (87%) insurance at rates comparable to the general population with low proportions reporting difficulty obtaining these insurance types (9%, 9%, 4%, respectively). Post-donation life insurance ownership was associated with post-donation employment (P = 0.01). Underwriter responses indicate life and disability insurability were adversely affected up to 12 months following donation. CONCLUSIONS: Living liver donors did not have difficulty maintaining insurance in the long-term but should be counseled to purchase insurance prior to surgery as short-term insurability may be affected. Perception of difficulty obtaining insurance following donation remains of significant concern among living donors. Further collaboration between the transplant community and insurance companies is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Hígado , Donadores Vivos , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Empleo , Hígado
11.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 20(11): 1244-1254.e3, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351332

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the lack of paid sick leave among working cancer survivors by sociodemographic/socioeconomic and employment characteristics and its association with preventive services use in the United States. METHODS: Working cancer survivors (ages 18-64 years; n=7,995; weighted n=3.43 million) were identified using 2001-2018 National Health Interview Survey data. Adjusted prevalence of lack of paid sick leave by sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as job sector, working hours, and employer size, were generated using multivariable logistic regression models. Separate analyses examined the associations of lack of paid sick leave with use of various preventive services. RESULTS: Of all working cancer survivors, 36.4% lacked paid sick leave (n=2,925; weighted n=1.25 million), especially those working in food/agriculture/construction/personal services occupations or industries (ranging from 54.9% to 88.5%). In adjusted analyses, working cancer survivors with lower household income (<200% of the federal poverty level, 48.7%), without a high school degree (43.3%), without health insurance coverage (70.6%), and who were self-employed (89.5%), were part-time workers (68.2%), or worked in small businesses (<50 employees, 48.8%) were most likely to lack paid sick leave. Lack of paid sick leave was associated with lower use of influenza vaccine (ages 18-39 years, 21.3% vs 33.3%; ages 40-49 years, 25.8% vs 38.3%; ages 50-64 years, 46.3% vs 52.4%; P<.001 for all), cholesterol screening (ages 18-39 years, 43.1% vs 62.5%; P<.05), and blood pressure check (ages 18-39 years, 43.1% vs 62.5%; P<.05) compared with survivors having paid sick leave. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, more than one-third of all working cancer survivors and more than half of survivors working for small employers and in certain occupations/industries lack paid sick leave. Survivors with lower household income or educational attainment are particularly vulnerable. Moreover, lack of paid sick leave is associated with lower use of some recommended preventive services, suggesting that ensuring working cancer survivors have access to paid sick leave may be an important mechanism for reducing health disparities.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer , Neoplasias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/terapia , Empleo , Servicios Preventivos de Salud
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277280, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346798

RESUMEN

To identify the role of digital skill in the skill-biased technological changes caused by artificial intelligence, this study estimates the impacts of displacement risk on occupational wage and employment and examines the moderation effects of digital skill through the occupational data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics through the methods of fixed-effects modeling, heterogeneity analyzing and moderation effect testing. The results highlight three main points that (1) the displacement risk by artificial intelligence has significantly negative effects on occupational wage and employment, (2) the heterogeneous effects across occupational characteristics are significant, and (3) the digital skill exerts a significant moderation effect to protect against displacement risk. The core policy implication is suggested to emphasize digital skill in education and training across occupations to accommodate job requirements in the future.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Ocupaciones , Empleo , Salarios y Beneficios , Escolaridad
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360925

RESUMEN

The many facets of work, including employment relationships and attendant employment quality, the day-to-day conditions experienced in any given job, and the evolution of one's working circumstances over time can support or detract from health, and combine in myriad ways to impact worker well-being [...].


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Empleo , Estudios Longitudinales , Tiempo
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361247

RESUMEN

While technological advancements have proliferated in our daily lives, they also pose threats to the job security of employees. Despite these growing concerns about technology-related job insecurity, little research has been carried out on the antecedents and outcomes of tech-related job insecurity. Using a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey sample of 28,989 Korean workers drawn from the Korean Working Conditions Survey, we examined the impacts of technology advancements on employee perceptions of technology-related qualitative job insecurity (i.e., perceived technology-related threat to the continued existence of valued job features) and subsequent effects on employees' work (i.e., work engagement, job satisfaction), health (i.e., sleep), and life (i.e., work-to-family conflict) outcomes. Furthermore, we investigated the extent to which employer-provided (versus self-funded) training buffers the adverse impacts of technology advancements and associated job insecurity. The path analysis results showed more technology changes were associated with higher job insecurity, which subsequently related to adverse outcomes. While employer-provided training helped workers to reduce the negative impacts of tech changes on job insecurity, workers who paid for their training reported more adverse outcomes in face of job insecurity. We discuss these results in light of the job demands-resources theory and practical implications to buffer the adverse impacts of technology advancements.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , República de Corea , Tecnología
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361496

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory arthritis (IA) is known to be involved in declining work outcomes and increased risk of experiencing unemployment. The aim of this study is to qualitatively identify the levers for the employment of patients with IA and AI-like conditions. METHODS: To accomplish this task, a multi-centered, exploratory qualitative design involving one-on-one semi-directed interviews and a focus group was performed among 18 IA French patients to deepen our understanding of what enables patients to maintain employment despite the limiting, chronic, and expanding nature of their symptoms. RESULTS: Analysis revealed five clusters of levers for the employment of chronic IA patients: The first cluster of levers was based on a set of verbatim records mentioning an overall improvement in the management of the disease. The second cluster of levers was based on a set of verbatim records mentioning the perceived added value of one's occupation at a personal, familial, or societal scale. The third cluster of levers was based on a set of verbatim records mentioning the perceived interpersonal supportiveness of the professional sphere. The fourth cluster of levers was based on a set of verbatim records mentioning the micro-, meso-, and macro-characteristics of the working environment. The fifth cluster of levers was based on a set of verbatim records mentioning intrapersonal attributes. CONCLUSIONS: This study deepens and updates the current knowledge on what empowers patients dealing with chronic AI. These results provide valuable insights for stakeholders involved in designing or deploying employment initiatives for patients with AI.


Asunto(s)
Artritis , Empleo , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Lugar de Trabajo , Ocupaciones
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0273440, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383506

RESUMEN

We test in how far women's economic participation can be associated with physical and/or sexual domestic violence against women in Turkey, by mobilizing the Survey "National Research on Domestic Violence against Women in Turkey" (wave 2014). Several studies found that economically active women have a similar, if not a higher risk of experiencing domestic violence than inactive women in Turkey, as well as in other emerging countries. We challenge these findings for Turkey by distinguishing between formal and informal labor market activities as well as between women who do not work because their partner does not allow them to and women who are inactive for other reasons. To increase the control for endogeneity in this cross-sectional setting, we apply an IV-approach based on cluster averages. We find that, while overall employment for women cannot be associated with a lower risk of experiencing domestic violence for women in Turkey, those women who participate in the formal labor market and those women who contribute at least the same as their partner to household income are less exposed to physical and/or sexual domestic violence than their counterparts. Distinguishing between formal and informal employment is thus important when it comes to investigate the association between women's economic activity and domestic violence. This is especially the case in a country like Turkey, which currently undergoes important socio-economic changes and where women in formal and informal employment have therefore very different socioeconomic backgrounds.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Turquia , Factores de Riesgo , Empleo , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 953752, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388279

RESUMEN

Population health and wellbeing is both a result, as well as a driver, of economic development and prosperity on global, European, national and sub-national (local) levels. Wales, one of the four United Kingdom (UK) nations, has shown a long-term commitment to sustainable development and achieving prosperity for all, providing a good example of both national and sub-national level, which can be useful for other European countries and regions. In this paper, the economic importance of the healthcare sector to the Welsh economy is explored. We use a large number of data sources for the UK and Welsh economy to derive an economic model for 2017. We estimate output, income, employment, value-added, and import multipliers of the healthcare sector. Results suggest that the healthcare sector has an above average contribution in four explored economic aspects of the Welsh economy (output, income, employment, value-added), according to its impact on the surrounding economic ecosystem. Also, it is below average regarding leaking through imports. The multipliers' values offer empirical evidence when deciding on alternative policy actions. Such actions can be used as a stimulus for encouraging regional development and post-COVID economic recovery. Our study refers to the Welsh healthcare sector's economic impact as a whole. Therefore, we suggest investigating the economic impact of individual healthcare providers in the future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Sector de Atención de Salud , Humanos , Ecosistema , Renta , Empleo
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1575-1582, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343314

RESUMEN

Paid sick leave helps workers recover from illness and manage care obligations and protects public health. Yet access to paid sick leave remains limited and unequal in the United States. Drawing on surveys of 61,223 service-sector workers collected during the period 2017-21 by the Shift Project, we documented limited access to paid sick leave and stark gender inequality, with women less likely than men to have paid sick leave. Part-time employment and gender segregation by industry subsector each explain part, but not all, of the gender disparity. However, in states and localities that mandate paid sick leave for workers, workers are far more likely to report access to this benefit, and the gender gap is eliminated. Guaranteeing paid sick leave to all workers would offer a range of benefits for workers, employers, and public health while also offering the further benefit of reducing gender inequality.


Asunto(s)
Salarios y Beneficios , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Factores Sexuales , Empleo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 101, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415326

RESUMEN

Background: In Central America, the COVID-19 pandemic coexists with a devastating epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin. The consequences of these overlapping health crises remain largely unknown. Methods: We assessed vulnerability to and impact of the first wave of COVID-19 on participants in a cohort study of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in El Salvador (n = 229). Participants were contacted by phone during August and September 2020. We queried changes to employment, healthcare access, household income and food security due to the pandemic (from March 2020 until the time of the interview) and COVID-19-associated symptoms during that time. Findings: We reached 94% of the cohort (n = 215). Nearly 40% of participants reported an unexpected change in employment or work activities and 8.8% reported new unemployment due to the pandemic. Participants with CKD (n = 27) had higher odds of reporting new income insecurity, food insecurity, and reductions in medical care access due to the pandemic. COVID-19-associated symptoms (an approximation of disease) were reported in 7.0% (n = 15). Participants with CKD were more likely to report COVID-19-associated symptoms compared to those without CKD, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, participants with CKD suffered greater economic consequences as a result of the pandemic and may have experienced higher incidence of COVID-19 disease, although laboratory diagnostics would be required to draw this conclusion. Longitudinal analyses are required to comprehensively evaluate the implications of the pandemic for individuals with CKD in Central America.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Pandemias , Estudios de Cohortes , El Salvador/epidemiología , Empleo , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/etiología , Seguridad Alimentaria , Atención a la Salud
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