Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.215
Filtrar
2.
J Public Health Policy ; 40(3): 351-366, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171846

RESUMEN

HIV/AIDS has disproportionately affected women worldwide. Several studies focus on economic sanctions and the health of populations, but little attention has been paid to the effects of sanctions on HIV rates. This study examines the influence of economic sanctions on HIV in women and finds that sanctions increase women's HIV rate by decreasing female labor participation. These findings are in line with previous findings that sanctions negatively affect public health in general as well as women in particular. All these findings suggest that policy makers need to consider more carefully the scourge of HIV/AIDS among women when formulating their policies toward target countries.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/economía , Internacionalidad , Recesión Económica , Empleo/economía , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Política , Derechos de la Mujer
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 802, 2019 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226965

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most studies measure the impact of ischemic heart disease (IHD) on individuals using quality of life metrics such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs); however, IHD also has an enormous impact on productive life years (PLYs). The objective of this study was to project the indirect costs of IHD resulting from lost PLYs to older Australian workers (45-64 years), government, and society 2015-2030. METHODS: Nationally representative data from the Surveys of Disability, Ageing and Carers (2003, 2009) were used to develop the base population in the microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030), which integrated data from established microsimulation models (STINMOD, APPSIM), Treasury's population and workforce projections, and chronic conditions trends. RESULTS: We projected that 6700 people aged 45-64 were out of the labour force due to IHD in 2015, increasing to 8100 in 2030 (21 increase). National costs consisted of a loss of AU$273 (US$263) million in income for people with IHD in 2015, increasing to AU$443 ($US426) million (62% increase). For the government, extra welfare payments increased from AU$106 (US$102) million in 2015 to AU$143 (US$138) million in 2030 (35% increase); and lost income tax revenue increased from AU$74 (US$71) million in 2015 to AU$117 (US$113) million in 2030 (58% increase). A loss of AU$785 (US$755) million in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to AU$1125 (US$1082) million in 2030. CONCLUSIONS: Significant costs of IHD through lost productivity are incurred by individuals, the government, and society. The benefits of IHD interventions include not only improved health but also potentially economic benefits as workforce capacity.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Isquemia Miocárdica/economía , Australia , Simulación por Computador , Eficiencia , Empleo/economía , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 140, 2019 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064371

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Over the past decades research has shown that employment has a positive impact on quality of life, global functioning and recovery in individuals with schizophrenia. However, access to vocational rehabilitation services for this group is limited and unemployment rates remain high. In this study we explore the potential cost-effectiveness of a novel vocational rehabilitation program (The Job Management Program - JUMP) earmarked for individuals with schizophrenia in Norway. METHODS: The JUMP study was a vocational rehabilitation program augmented with either cognitive behaviour therapy or cognitive remediation. In addition to the JUMP protocol, we extracted treatment cost data from comprehensive and mandatory health and welfare registers. The costs over a two-year follow-up period were compared with the costs over the two-year period prior to inclusion in the study. We also compared the cost-effectiveness of JUMP with a treatment as usual group (TAU). RESULTS: We identified significant reductions in inpatient services in the JUMP group, both for those who obtained employment and those who did not. Significant reductions were also found in the TAU group, but adjusted for baseline differences the total cost for JUMP participants were € 10,621 lower than in the TAU group during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: In addition to supporting individuals with schizophrenia obtain employment, JUMP appears to have reduced the reliance on mental health services, which should be of interest to stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01139502 . Retrospectively registered on 6 February 2010.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Remediación Cognitiva/métodos , Análisis Costo-Beneficio/estadística & datos numéricos , Rehabilitación Vocacional/economía , Rehabilitación Vocacional/métodos , Esquizofrenia/rehabilitación , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/economía , Remediación Cognitiva/economía , Análisis Costo-Beneficio/economía , Empleo/economía , Empleo/psicología , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Estudios Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/economía , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Am J Public Health ; 109(6): e1-e12, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067117

RESUMEN

Background. Although there is a large literature examining the relationship between a wide range of political economy exposures and health outcomes, the extent to which the different aspects of political economy influence health, and through which mechanisms and in what contexts, is only partially understood. The areas in which there are few high-quality studies are also unclear. Objectives. To systematically review the literature describing the impact of political economy on population health. Search Methods. We undertook a systematic review of reviews, searching MEDLINE, Embase, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, ProQuest Public Health, Sociological Abstracts, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, EconLit, SocINDEX, Web of Science, and the gray literature via Google Scholar. Selection Criteria. We included studies that were a review of the literature. Relevant exposures were differences or changes in policy, law, or rules; economic conditions; institutions or social structures; or politics, power, or conflict. Relevant outcomes were any overall measure of population health such as self-assessed health, mortality, life expectancy, survival, morbidity, well-being, illness, ill health, and life span. Two authors independently reviewed all citations for relevance. Data Collection and Analysis. We undertook critical appraisal of all included reviews by using modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) criteria and then synthesized narratively giving greater weight to the higher-quality reviews. Main Results. From 4912 citations, we included 58 reviews. Both the quality of the reviews and the underlying studies within the reviews were variable. Social democratic welfare states, higher public spending, fair trade policies, extensions to compulsory education provision, microfinance initiatives in low-income countries, health and safety policy, improved access to health care, and high-quality affordable housing have positive impacts on population health. Neoliberal restructuring seems to be associated with increased health inequalities and higher income inequality with lower self-rated health and higher mortality. Authors' Conclusions. Politics, economics, and public policy are important determinants of population health. Countries with social democratic regimes, higher public spending, and lower income inequalities have populations with better health. There are substantial gaps in the synthesized evidence on the relationship between political economy and health, and there is a need for higher-quality reviews and empirical studies in this area. However, there is sufficient evidence in this review, if applied through policy and practice, to have marked beneficial health impacts. Public Health Implications. Policymakers should be aware that social democratic welfare state types, countries that spend more on public services, and countries with lower income inequalities have better self-rated health and lower mortality. Research funders and researchers should be aware that there remain substantial gaps in the available evidence base. One such area concerns the interrelationship between governance, polities, power, macroeconomic policy, public policy, and population health, including how these aspects of political economy generate social class processes and forms of discrimination that have a differential impact across social groups. This includes the influence of patterns of ownership (of land and capital) and tax policies. For some areas, there are many lower-quality reviews, which leave uncertainties in the relationship between political economy and population health, and a high-quality review is needed. There are also areas in which the available reviews have identified primary research gaps such as the impact of changes to housing policy, availability, and tenure.


Asunto(s)
Economía , Política de Salud , Política , Salud Poblacional , Recesión Económica , Empleo/economía , Política de Salud/economía , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/economía , Vivienda/economía , Humanos , Renta , Sistemas Políticos/economía , Lugar de Trabajo/economía
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 609, 2019 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109317

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In multiple sclerosis (MS), half of affected people are unemployed within 10 years of diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the economic impact of MS in adult subjects with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). METHODS: A multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional study was conducted. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the 23-item Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire (MSWDQ-23) were used to assess disability and work performance, respectively. Only indirect costs were considered using the human capital method, including work costs. Professional support costs and informal caregivers' costs were also estimated. RESULTS: A total of 199 subjects were studied (mean age: 43.9 ± 10.5 years, 60.8% female, 86.4% with RRMS). Median EDSS score was 2.0 (interquartile range: 1.0-3.5) and median MSWDQ-23 total score was 31.5 (15.2, 50.0). The number of employed subjects decreased after MS diagnosis from 70.6 to 47.2%, and the number of retired people increased (23.6%). Mean age of retirement was 43.6 ± 10.5 years. Ten percent of the population had sick leaves (absenteeism was seen in 90.9% of the student population and 30.9% of the employed population). Professional support in their daily life activities was needed in 28.1% of subjects. Costs for sick leave, work absenteeism, premature retirement and premature work disability/pensioner were €416.6 ± 2030.2, €763.4 ± 3161.8, €5810.1 ± 13,159.0 and €1816.8 ± 9630.7, respectively. Costs for professional support and informal caregiving activities were €1026.93 ± 4622.0 and €1328.72, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MS is responsible for a substantial economic burden due to indirect and informal care costs, even in a population with low physical disability.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Esclerosis Múltiple/economía , Absentismo , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Empleo/economía , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pensiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Jubilación/economía , Jubilación/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/economía , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(6): 901-918, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989364

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Individual differences in the development of perceived job insecurity among young workers may be influenced by characteristics of the first job (contract type and sector) and individual background (education and previous unemployment), and can have implications for subsequent health and well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of perceived job insecurity during the early career, as well as associations between different patterns of development (i.e., trajectories), predictors and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a latent class growth analysis to identify trajectories of perceived job insecurity and investigated their respective associations with predictors and outcomes across 6 years in a sample of 1711 German labor market entrants. RESULTS: Six trajectories were identified: three showed stable job insecurity perceptions (stable moderate, 36%; stable low, 32%; stable high, 5%), two showed decrease (moderate to low, 12%; high to moderate, 3%), and one showed increasing job insecurity perceptions (low to moderate, 13%). Temporary contracts and previous unemployment predicted trajectories characterized by increasing, higher initial or higher overall levels of perceived job insecurity. In contrast, public sector employees and university graduates were less likely to experience persisting or increasing job insecurity. The trajectories differed in their overall levels of self-rated health and job satisfaction, but not with respect to change in these outcomes. Instead, increasing perceived job insecurity was associated with decreasing life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that an insecure career start and individual risk factors may predispose young workers to an unfavorable development of both job insecurity perceptions and levels of well-being.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/psicología , Desempleo/psicología , Adulto , Contratos/estadística & datos numéricos , Escolaridad , Empleo/economía , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Sector Público
9.
Phys Ther ; 99(8): 977-988, 2019 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939197

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, the number of physical therapy education programs and, consequently, of professionals has been growing for the past 20 years. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to describe the evolution and distribution of physical therapist education programs in Brazil and to analyze the impact of workforce growth on the labor market for these professionals. DESIGN: This was a descriptive, exploratory, quantitative study. METHODS: Secondary data collected from official sources in Brazil were used. RESULTS: The first physical therapist education program was created in 1958, and, after significant growth, 536 programs were active in 2014. The historical series (1996-2014) shows a corresponding increase in the number of admissions by higher educational institutions. This expansion resulted in an increase in the number of professionals, with an impact on the labor market. The workforce in physical therapy is predominantly female, and women increased their participation in this labor market from 59% in 1996 to 81% in 2014. An increase in nominal monthly salaries was observed over the years from US $797.00 in 1996 to US $1056.00 in 2014. Nevertheless, the real average salaries, that is, salaries adjusted to inflation, have followed a trend of devaluation. LIMITATIONS: Results of this study must be interpreted in terms of overall trends rather than as precise absolute numbers due to the inherent nature of the varied secondary data sources. CONCLUSIONS: These data can support further discussion on training and the labor market in the field of physical therapy.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/economía , Fisioterapeutas/educación , Salarios y Beneficios/economía , Brasil , Educación de Postgrado/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Fisioterapeutas/provisión & distribución
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214234, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913257

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze differences in the employment and wage trajectories of college-educated young workers in the United States, as distinguished by the timing of their entry into the labor market relative to the onset of the 2008-09 recession. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using annual American Community Survey microdata, we analyzed the first six years of employment and wage outcomes for cohorts of young workers on traditional-student pathways entering the market (1) in 2006, shortly before recession onset; (2) in 2009, during the recession; and (3) in 2012, three years after the recession officially ended. We found evidence for negative effects on outcomes and outcome trajectories differentiated by the recession's proximity to workers' labor market entry, including lower wages for the cohort entering in 2009. However, recession effects tended to be smaller for workers at the high end of the education gradient or with no direct exposure to the recession and were outweighed by gendered labor outcome disparities. We also observed a possibly enduring, recession-induced rise in the number of idle young males and the proportion of male and female high school graduates enrolled in college and not working. CONCLUSIONS: Cohort differences in labor outcomes show that the disadvantages of entering the labor market during an economic downturn appear lasting. However, the subordinate role of timing effects in sorting young workers' employment and wage rates, when compared to the stark stratification of employment and wage outcomes by education or sex, is a useful reminder that these latter social structures remain key determinants of labor outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/economía , Salarios y Beneficios/economía , Clase Social , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
11.
Med Care ; 57(7): 494-497, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844906

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to estimate the tax revenue lost by state and federal governments as a result of adverse labor market outcomes attributable to opioid misuse. METHODS: We pair existing, plausibly causal estimates of the effect of opioid misuse on the decline in the labor force from 2000 to 2016 with a variety of data sources to compute tax revenues lost by state and federal governments using the online TAXSIM calculator. RESULTS: We find that between 2000 and 2016, opioid misuse cost state governments $11.8 billion, including $1.7 billion in lost sales tax revenue and $10.1 billion in lost income tax revenue. In addition, the federal government lost $26.0 billion in income tax revenue. CONCLUSIONS: By omitting lost tax revenue due to labor force exits, prior studies have missed an important component of opioid-related costs borne by state and federal governments. POLICY IMPLICATIONS: As more states and the federal government contemplate litigation for opioid-related damages, lost tax revenue represents an important cost that could be recouped and allocated to opioid prevention and treatment programs.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/economía , Gobierno Federal , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/economía , Gobierno Estatal , Impuestos/economía , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019838358, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924696

RESUMEN

This study quantitatively analyzes the effects of employment patterns at the time of death of the elderly on the utilization of medical care before death using the cohort data from the National Health Insurance Corporation, controlling mortality to obtain more accurate results. Gender was coded as 0 for males and 1 for females, and average monthly household income was taken as a logarithm to approximate a normal distribution. Care cost at the end of life was defined as the sum of the national health insurance contributions and statutory self-contributions. To measure proximity to death, deceased elderly were divided by the period from last hospital visit to death (except any hospital visit at time of death). We distinguished regular workers, irregular workers, self-employed and employers, unpaid family workers, and unemployed. The data used in this study are sample cohort data from the National Health Insurance Corporation. We examined the relationships between variables through 4 models using negative binomial regression. The effects of employment status on health status were analyzed and adjusted for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, and proximity to death. As the dependent variable, medical expenses were taken for 1 year before death. In this study, care costs at end of life were higher when children were economically independent and when the respondent was more educated, had high economic level, and had high average monthly household income. In addition, employment security also had a significant impact on care cost at end of life: Irregular workers spent significantly less than regular workers. The fact that care cost at end of life is differentiated according to employment status suggests that individuals' health exists within a social context, which may also constrain it: There is a risk that people's health status will become determined by socioeconomic status.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Empleo/economía , Mortalidad , Cuidado Terminal/economía , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , República de Corea , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(3): 317-327, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920273

RESUMEN

People from lower social classes experience significant difficulties in many life domains including work, yet their work lives continue to be understudied in psychology. This study examined the applicability of the Psychology of Working Theory (PWT), which emphasizes the role of socioeconomic constraints in shaping work and well-being outcomes, in a non-Western, collectivist cultural framework. Specifically, we tested the associations of social class with work volition and career adaptability in predicting decent work and job and life satisfaction with a sample of 401 low-income Turkish employees. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported all hypothesized paths of the proposed model. Social class predicted decent work directly and indirectly through work volition and career adaptability, and decent work predicted job satisfaction and life satisfaction. In addition to extending the research on the international utility of the PWT, these results support the notion that social class has a crucial role in low-income working adults' access to decent and fulfilling work along with their attainment of well-being. The results of this study also underline the importance of promoting decent work among low-income individuals to improve their personal and work lives. Implications for practice with low-income Turkish employees and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Empleo/economía , Empleo/psicología , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Ocupaciones/economía , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción Personal , Teoría Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza/economía , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Turquia , Adulto Joven
14.
J Prof Nurs ; 35(2): 93-100, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902412

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The New Careers in Nursing (NCIN) program provided scholarships and other supports to accelerated degree students at 130 nursing schools and collected data from the scholars at three time-points. PURPOSE: The NCIN database was analyzed to identify gender-based differences in scholars' profile characteristics, program experiences, and post-graduation outcomes. METHOD: An adaptation of Jeffreys's Nursing Universal Retention and Success Model guided the analysis. Gender differences were assessed after multiplicity adjustments for false positive rates. RESULTS: Differences based on gender were found for profile characteristics, student affective factors, academic factors, professional integration factors, environmental factors, as well as academic, psychological and NCIN program outcomes. Results suggest that males were influenced by economic factors more than females when choosing nursing as a career. They had fewer concerns about financial aspects associated with being a student again yet secured employment sooner after graduation than female scholars. They did not view support services as important as did female students. They expressed confidence in their leadership competence more than their female counterparts. CONCLUSION: Efforts are needed to better understand and address the nuanced gender-based perceptions and needs of nursing students who are male.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/economía , Relaciones Interpersonales , Percepción , Estudiantes de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Educación en Enfermería , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Indian J Tuberc ; 66(1): 150-157, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797274

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients often incur large costs related to illness, as well as for seeking and receiving health care. Despite TB treatment being free under RNCTP, out of pocket expenditure incurred (OOP) by patients for TB diagnosis and treatment impoverishes the households. This expenditure may turn catastrophic (more than 20% of their family income) impacting adherence and leading to poor treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of households experiencing catastrophic expenditure due to TB and also to find out the various costs contributing to catastrophic expenditure. METHODS: In this cohort study, 450 TB patients (including 96 children) registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in Delhi were interviewed at three different time points (in the beginning of treatment, end of intensive phase, end of treatment). Interview schedule was used to collect information on direct medical and non-medical, and indirect costs. The TB-specific indicator of "catastrophic total costs" incorporates both, direct medical and non-medical payments for treatment such as transportation, lodging charges and indirect costs such as wage loss. RESULTS: A total of 450 patients were enrolled in this study, out of which 425 were followed up to the end of treatment. It was observed that 7% of TB patients registered under RNTCP in Delhi experienced catastrophic expenditure due to TB. The total mean cost to patients with TB was Rs. 12165 (Rs. 1406 during diagnosis and Rs. 10759 during treatment). The indirect cost was higher compared to direct cost i.e.Rs. 7564 and Rs. 4601 respectively). CONCLUSION: This information will be useful for policy makers to design an intervention to provide financial protection to TB patients. In addition, findings of this study will aid in providing baseline evidence to periodically measure the OOP which is the one of the End TB strategy target.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Posteriores/economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Empleo/economía , Alimentos/economía , Gastos en Salud , Hospitalización/economía , Viaje/economía , Tuberculosis/economía , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Apoyo Financiero , Humanos , Renta , India , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto Joven
16.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 19(1): 2, 2019 01 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665456

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh not only contributes to the nation's economic development, but has created income opportunities for women, benefiting their whole family. However, these benefits come at considerable cost to the women. This research examines how the work environment and gendered family role in this conservative society affect the health of the female industrial workers. METHODS: A qualitative study employed in-depth interviews (n-20) and focus group discussions with female garment workers (n-4) in two cities of Dhaka district. Further, key informant interviews (n = 4) with factory doctors, along with eight workplace observations were conducted to explore the lived experience of female workers' health issues. Interview transcripts were coded in Atlas-ti, 5.2. The data were analysed using thematic analysis approach. The themes are illustrated with case narratives. RESULTS: The female workers reported that their work has led to back and joint pain, continuous headache, eye pain and difficulty in breathing associated with inhaling fabric dust. Inadequate lighting, constantly sitting in one position without back rest and continuous noise from hundreds of machines makes them feel permanently tired. Further, the female workers reported that working in the factory and meeting the expectations of the families at home has doubled their workload. The doctors indicated that the physical work environment, their low job status and the nature of the job affect the health of female workers. CONCLUSION: This study found that female workers in the ready-made garment industry face a high risk of health problems. Both government and non-government organizations need to be better involved in designing interventions targeting these women, to protect them from such health risks. In addition, recognition by the whole society of the important role the women play in the economy is needed, so that support by both family and society can be improved.


Asunto(s)
Vestuario/efectos adversos , Empleo/economía , Salud Laboral , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado/fisiología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Bangladesh , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Investigación Cualitativa , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Salud de la Mujer
18.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(5): 669-689, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644004

RESUMEN

This article evaluates the effectiveness of hiring subsidies targeted to people with disabilities. By exploiting the timing of implementation among different Spanish regions of a subsidy scheme implemented in Spain during the period 1990-2014, we employed a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the impact of the scheme on the probability of disability insurance (DI) beneficiaries of transiting to employment and on the propensity of individuals of entering the DI program. Our results show that the introduction of the subsidy scheme is in general ineffective at incentivizing transitions to employment, and in some cases it is associated with an increased propensity of transiting to DI. Furthermore, we show that an employment protection component incorporated into the subsidy scheme, consisting in the obligation for the employer to maintain the subsidized worker in employment, is associated with less transitions to permanent employment, more transitions to temporary employment and more transitions to DI, suggesting that these type of employment protection measures can have undesired effects for people with disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/economía , Seguro por Discapacidad/economía , Ocupaciones , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , España
19.
Circulation ; 139(7): 850-859, 2019 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612448

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Income volatility is on the rise and presents a growing public health problem. Because in many epidemiological studies income is measured at a single point in time, the association of long-term income volatility with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality has not been adequately explored. The goal of this study was to examine associations of income volatility from 1990 to 2005 with incident CVD and all-cause mortality in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study conducted within urban field centers in Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA. We studied 3937 black and white participants 23 to 35 years of age in 1990 (our study baseline). Income volatility was defined as the intraindividual SD of the percent change in income across 5 assessments from 1990 to 2005. An income drop was defined as a decrease of ≥25% from the previous visit and less than the participant's average income from 1990 to 2005. CVD events (fatal and nonfatal) and all-cause mortality between 2005 and 2015 were adjudicated with the use of medical records and death certificates. CVD included primarily acute events related to heart disease and stroke. RESULTS: A total of 106 CVD events and 164 deaths occurred between 2005 and 2015 (incident rate, 2.76 and 3.66 per 1000 person-years, respectively). From Cox models adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, and CVD risk factors, higher income volatility and more income drops were associated with greater CVD risk (high versus low volatility: hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.10-3.90; ≥2 versus 0 income drops: hazard ratio, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.24-5.19) and all-cause mortality (high versus low volatility: hazard ratio, 1.78; 95% CI,1.03-3.09; ≥2 versus 0 income drops: hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.07-3.44). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of relatively young adults, income volatility and drops during a 15-year period of formative earning years were independently associated with a nearly 2-fold risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Empleo/tendencias , Renta/tendencias , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/tendencias , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/economía , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etnología , Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Empleo/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Clase Social , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/etnología , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
CMAJ ; 191(1): E3-E10, 2019 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617227

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Survivors of acute health events can experience lasting reductions in functional status and quality of life, as well as reduced ability to work and earn income. We aimed to assess the effect of acute myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrest and stroke on work and earning among working-age people. METHODS: For this retrospective cohort study, we used the Canadian Hospitalization and Taxation Database, which contains linked hospital and income tax data, from 2005 to 2013 to perform difference-in-difference analyses. We matched patients admitted to hospital for acute MI, cardiac arrest or stroke with controls who were not admitted to hospital for these indications. Participants were aged 40-61 years, worked in the 2 years before the event and were alive 3 years after the event. Patients were matched to controls for 11 variables. The primary outcome was working status 3 years postevent. We also assessed earnings change attributable to the event. We matched 19 129 particpants who were admitted to hospital with acute MI, 1043 with cardiac arrest and 4395 with stroke to 1 820 644, 307 375 and 888 481 controls, respectively. RESULTS: Fewer of the patients who were admitted to hospital were working 3 years postevent than controls for acute MI (by 5.0 percentage points [pp], 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.5-5.5), cardiac arrest (by 12.9 pp, 95% CI 10.4-15.3) and stroke (by 19.8 pp, 95% CI 18.5-23.5). Mean (95% CI) earnings declines attributable to the events were $3834 (95% CI 3346-4323) for acute MI, $11 143 (95% CI 8962-13 324) for cardiac arrest, and $13 278 (95% CI 12 301-14 255) for stroke. The effects on income were greater for patients who had lower baseline earnings, comorbid disease, longer hospital length of stay or needed mechanical ventilation. Sex, marital status or self-employment status did not affect income declines. INTERPRETATION: Acute MI, cardiac arrest and stroke all resulted in substantial loss in employment and earnings that persisted for at least 3 years after the events. These outcomes have consequences for patients, families, employers and governments. Identification of subgroups at high risk for these losses may assist in targeting interventions, policies and legislation to promote return to work.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/economía , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Paro Cardíaco/economía , Infarto del Miocardio/economía , Accidente Cerebrovascular/economía , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Femenino , Paro Cardíaco/epidemiología , Paro Cardíaco/rehabilitación , Hospitalización , Humanos , Renta , Seguro de Salud/economía , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio/rehabilitación , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA