Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.300
Filtrar
1.
JAMA ; 325(5): 445-453, 2021 02 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528535

RESUMEN

Importance: After a decline in cardiovascular mortality for nonelderly US adults, recent stagnation has occurred alongside rising income inequality. Whether this is associated with underlying economic trends is unclear. Objective: To assess the association between changes in economic prosperity and trends in cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective analysis of the association between change in 7 markers of economic prosperity in 3123 US counties and county-level cardiovascular mortality among 40- to 64-year-old adults (102 660 852 individuals in 2010). Exposures: Mean rank for change in 7 markers of economic prosperity between 2 time periods (baseline: 2007-2011 and follow-up: 2012-2016). A higher mean rank indicates a greater relative increase or lower relative decrease in prosperity (range, 5 to 92; mean [SD], 50 [14]). Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the additional APC associated with a change in prosperity. Results: Among 102 660 852 residents aged 40 to 64 years living in these counties in 2010 (51% women), 979 228 cardiovascular deaths occurred between 2010 and 2017. Age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates did not change significantly between 2010 and 2017 in counties in the lowest tertile for change in economic prosperity (mean [SD], 114.1 [47.9] to 116.1 [52.7] deaths per 100 000 individuals; APC, 0.2% [95% CI, -0.3% to 0.7%]). Mortality decreased significantly in the intermediate tertile (mean [SD], 104.7 [38.8] to 101.9 [41.5] deaths per 100 000 individuals; APC, -0.4% [95% CI, -0.8% to -0.1%]) and highest tertile for change in prosperity (100.0 [37.9] to 95.1 [39.1] deaths per 100 000 individuals; APC, -0.5% [95% CI, -0.9% to -0.1%]). After accounting for baseline prosperity and demographic and health care-related variables, a 10-point higher mean rank for change in economic prosperity was associated with 0.4% (95% CI, 0.2% to 0.6%) additional decrease in mortality per year. Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective study of US county-level mortality data from 2010 to 2017, a relative increase in county-level economic prosperity was significantly associated with a small relative decrease in cardiovascular mortality among middle-aged adults. Individual-level inferences are limited by the ecological nature of the study.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Empleo/tendencias , Renta/tendencias , Adulto , Empleo/economía , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243730, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370306

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the current study was to investigate what role perceived life stress, psychological capital (PsyCap), financial self-reliance and time perspective orientations play in explaining socioeconomic health inequalities, specifically self-perceived health and self-reported physical health conditions. METHODS: Individuals (total n = 600) aged 16+ years from a general Dutch population sample (LISS panel) completed an online questionnaire measuring three different SEP indicators (highest achieved educational level, personal monthly disposable income and being in paid employment), perceived life stress, PsyCap, financial self-reliance, time perspective, self-perceived health, and self-reported physical health conditions. Structural equation modelling using a cross-sectional design was used to test the mediation paths from SEP indicators to self-perceived health and self-reported physical health conditions through perceived life stress, PsyCap, financial self-reliance and time perspective orientations. RESULTS: Highest achieved educational level and being in paid employment showed to play a role in the social stratification within self-reported and self-perceived health outcomes, whereas this was not found for personal monthly disposable income. The association between a lower highest achieved educational level and lower self-perceived health was mediated by lower PsyCap and higher perceived life stress levels. The association between a lower highest achieved educational level and higher levels of self-reported physical health conditions was mediated by less financial self-reliance and higher perceived life stress levels. Although no mediating role was found for time perspective orientations in the association between the measured SEP indicators and health outcomes, negative time perspective orientations were associated with either self-perceived health or self-reported physical health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: reserves (PsyCap and financial self-reliance) and perceived life stress seem to play a larger role in explaining the health gradient in achieved educational level than time perspective orientations. Prevention efforts trying to reduce the SEP-health gradient should focus on a) increasing reserves and lowering perceived life stress levels for individuals with a low achieved educational level, and b) reducing unemployment and narrowing opportunity gaps in education for people with a low SEP.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Empleo/economía , Empleo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
4.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMEN

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Asunto(s)
Ortopedia/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo/prevención & control , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Éxito Académico , Empleo/economía , Empleo/normas , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/economía , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economía , Ortopedia/educación , Ortopedia/normas , Rol del Médico , Prevalencia , Sexismo/economía , Cambio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22835, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038075

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Essential workers have been shown to present a higher prevalence of positive screenings for anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Individuals from countries with socioeconomic inequalities may be at increased risk for mental health disorders. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, and their comorbidity among essential workers in Brazil and Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A web survey was conducted between April and May 2020 in both countries. The main outcome was a positive screening for depression only, anxiety only, or both. Lifestyle was measured using a lifestyle multidimensional scale adapted for the COVID-19 pandemic (Short Multidimensional Inventory Lifestyle Evaluation-Confinement). A multinomial logistic regression model was performed to evaluate the factors associated with depression, anxiety, and the presence of both conditions. RESULTS: From the 22,786 individuals included in the web survey, 3745 self-reported to be essential workers. Overall, 8.3% (n=311), 11.6% (n=434), and 27.4% (n=1027) presented positive screenings for depression, anxiety, and both, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the multinomial model showed that an unhealthy lifestyle increased the likelihood of depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.00, 95% CI 2.72-5.87), anxiety (AOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.80-3.20), and both anxiety and depression (AOR 8.30, 95% CI 5.90-11.7). Living in Brazil was associated with increased odds of depression (AOR 2.89, 95% CI 2.07-4.06), anxiety (AOR 2.81, 95%CI 2.11-3.74), and both conditions (AOR 5.99, 95% CI 4.53-7.91). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions addressing lifestyle may be useful in dealing with symptoms of common mental disorders during the strain imposed among essential workers by the COVID-19 pandemic. Essential workers who live in middle-income countries with higher rates of inequality may face additional challenges. Ensuring equitable treatment and support may be an important challenge ahead, considering the possible syndemic effect of the social determinants of health.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Empleo/economía , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Estilo de Vida , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Factores Socioeconómicos , España/epidemiología
6.
Public Health ; 188: 4-7, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039678

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Governments and health policymakers are now looking for strategies to lift the COVID-19 lockdown, while reducing risk to the public. METHODS: We propose the population attributable risk (PAR) as an established epidemiological tool that could support decision-making through quickly estimating the main benefits and costs of various exit strategies. RESULTS: We demonstrate the feasibility of use of PAR using pandemic data, that were publicly available in mid-May 2020 from Scotland and the US, to estimate the proportion of COVID-19 hospital admissions which might be avoided, and the proportion of adverse labour market effects - for various scenarios - based on maintaining the lockdown for those of certain ages with and without comorbidities. CONCLUSION: These calculations could be refined and applied in different countries to inform important COVID-19 policy decisions, using routinely collected data.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Empleo/economía , Estudios de Factibilidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Escocia/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239113, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946463

RESUMEN

Social distancing interventions can be effective against epidemics but are potentially detrimental for the economy. Businesses that rely heavily on face-to-face communication or close physical proximity when producing a product or providing a service are particularly vulnerable. There is, however, no systematic evidence about the role of human interactions across different lines of business and about which will be the most limited by social distancing. Here we provide theory-based measures of the reliance of U.S. businesses on human interaction, detailed by industry and geographic location. We find that, before the pandemic hit, 43 million workers worked in occupations that rely heavily on face-to-face communication or require close physical proximity to other workers. Many of these workers lost their jobs since. Consistently with our model, employment losses have been largest in sectors that rely heavily on customer contact and where these contacts dropped the most: retail, hotels and restaurants, arts and entertainment and schools. Our results can help quantify the economic costs of social distancing.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Empleo/tendencias , Control de Infecciones/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Comercio/normas , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Empleo/economía , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Control de Infecciones/normas , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237970, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903268

RESUMEN

Germany has experienced sharply rising earnings inequalities, both between and within workplaces. Working from prior literature on rising employment dualization and the fissuring of workplaces into high and low wage employers, we explore a set of organizational explanations for rising between and within workplace inequality focusing on the role of employment dualization, skill segregation/complexity, and firm fissuring. We describe and model these hypothesized processes with administrative data on a large random sample panel of German workplaces. We find that rising inequalities are associated with polarization in industrial wage rates and the birth of new low wage workplaces, as well as increased establishment skill specialization and the growth of part-time jobs in workplace divisions of labor. We conclude with recommendations for future research that directly examines more proximate mechanisms and their relative importance in different institutional contexts.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia Organizacional , Empleo/economía , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Salarios y Beneficios/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Lugar de Trabajo/normas , Adulto , Empleo/tendencias , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo
9.
Work ; 67(1): 21-28, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955471

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused economic slowdown all across the globe. It results in job loss on the one hand and less wages, increased working hours, overqualified employees and part time jobs on the other hand. Low demand of labour and a huge availability of work force will put many in a disadvantageous position, where they will have to compromise with the circumstances by being underemployed. Cabinet decisions, by some Indian states like Uttar Pradesh, to suspend the labour laws related to minimum wage, bonus, working hours and other employee benefits will put workers in a highly disadvantageous position of being underemployed. This may lead to many socio-economic, psychological and health-related implications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review on the concept of underemployment, its types and consequences. METHODOLOGY: A critical and constructive analysis of the literature was performed. RESULTS: The findings reveal that if employment does not provide workers with proper opportunities to use their education, time, skills and expertise, it can create stressful situations in workers' lives. CONCLUSION: The problem needs both a diagnosis and robust treatment in order to have better outcomes at the individual, organisational and national levels.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Empleo/economía , Empleo/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Estrés Psicológico , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Recesión Económica , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Renta , India/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(11): 1588-1595, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839116

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Australia. Investment in research solutions has been demonstrated to yield health and a 9.8-fold return economic benefit. The sector, however, is severely challenged with success rates of traditional peer-reviewed funding in decline. Here, we aimed to understand the perceived challenges faced by the cardiovascular workforce in Australia prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We used an online survey distributed across Australian cardiovascular societies/councils, universities and research institutes over a period of 6 months during 2019, with 548 completed responses. Inclusion criteria included being an Australian resident or an Australian citizen who lived overseas, and a current or past student or employee in the field of cardiovascular research. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 42±13 years, 47% were male, 85% had a full-time position, and 40% were a group leader or laboratory head. Twenty-three per cent (23%) had permanent employment, and 82% of full-time workers regularly worked >40 hours/week. Sixty-eight per cent (68%) said they had previously considered leaving the cardiovascular research sector. If their position could not be funded in the next few years, a staggering 91% of respondents would leave the sector. Compared to PhD- and age-matched men, women were less likely to be a laboratory head and to feel they had a long-term career path as a cardiovascular researcher, while more women were unsure about future employment and had considered leaving the sector (all p<0.05). Greater job security (76%) and government and philanthropic investment in cardiovascular research (72%) were highlighted by responders as the main changes to current practices that would encourage them to stay. CONCLUSION: Strategic solutions, such as diversification of career pathways and funding sources, and moving from a competitive to a collaborative culture, need to be a priority to decrease reliance on government funding and allow cardiovascular researchers to thrive.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Administración Financiera , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Investigadores , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto , Recursos Humanos , Adulto , Australia , Betacoronavirus , Investigación Biomédica/economía , Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Empleo/economía , Empleo/psicología , Femenino , Administración Financiera/métodos , Administración Financiera/organización & administración , Administración Financiera/estadística & datos numéricos , Financiación Gubernamental , Humanos , Masculino , Cultura Organizacional , Pandemias , Técnicas de Planificación , Investigadores/economía , Investigadores/psicología , Investigadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto/organización & administración , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Recursos Humanos/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1822-1831, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757955

RESUMEN

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has resulted in unprecedented job losses in the United States, disrupting health insurance coverage for millions of people. Several models have predicted large increases in Medicaid enrollment among those who have lost jobs, yet the number of Americans who have gained coverage since the pandemic began is unknown. We compiled Medicaid enrollment reports covering the period from March 1 through June 1, 2020, for twenty-six states. We found that in these twenty-six states, Medicaid covered more than 1.7 million additional Americans in roughly a three-month period. Relative changes in Medicaid enrollment differed significantly across states, although enrollment growth was not systemically related to job losses. Our results point to the important effects of state policy differences in the response to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Determinación de la Elegibilidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicaid/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Bases de Datos Factuales , Determinación de la Elegibilidad/métodos , Empleo/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Seguro de Salud/organización & administración , Masculino , Pacientes no Asegurados/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
12.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(8): 745-751, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618090

RESUMEN

AIM: The health benefits of paid employment in late life are understood, but they might vary according to work motives. We examined the health effects of employment among older adults, focusing on motivation. METHODS: We carried out a 2-year longitudinal survey from 2013 (baseline) to 2015 (follow up). Among 7608 older adults, the analysis included 1069 who completed both surveys and were employed at baseline. Work motives were assessed using a questionnaire. Participants were assigned to groups based on their responses: (i) financial reasons; (ii) motivation other than financial reasons; and (iii) both financial and non-financial reasons. Self-rated health, mental health and higher-level functional capacity were evaluated as health outcomes. RESULTS: There were group differences in baseline demographic variables and health status; those with financial reasons had lower socioeconomic status and worse mental health. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that compared with older workers with non-financial reasons, those with financial reasons were more likely to decline in self-rated health (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.00-2.03) and higher-level functional capacity (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.16-2.07), which was independent of potential covariates, including socioeconomic status. However, no differences were evident between those with only non-financial reasons and those having both financial and non-financial reasons. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the participants who worked only for financial rewards had reduced health benefits through working in old age. A prolonged working life among older workers can contribute to maintaining health and can be enhanced by non-financial reasons, such as finding meaning in life and social contact. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 745-751.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/economía , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Motivación , Jubilación/psicología , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Empleo/psicología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Renta , Japón , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233555, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453772

RESUMEN

New urbanization is the fundamental approach to achieve the healthy, stable, and sustainable development of the Chinese economic society. It is also the basic outlet to eliminate the "dual economic structure" in urban and rural areas. Based on the connotation of new urbanization, we constructed an evaluation system using population development, economic development, quality of life, infrastructure, resources and environment, and urban and rural harmonious development. The entropy and weighted summation methods were used to measure the level of new urbanization for 11 provincial capital cities from 2005 to 2018, and policy implications were analyzed correspondingly. The results show that there are significant differences in the development levels of new urbanization in these cities, with infrastructure construction being the primary driver. These developments have placed the economy and environment under great pressure. The quality of urban life and the level of infrastructure construction need to be improved because of the expanding economic gap between urban and rural areas. These cities with poor internal coordination also have apparent differences amongst individual factors. Overall, the policies on these factors play a positive role in the process of new urbanization. In the future, provincial capital cities need to consider the weak links and provide more focus on employment and education.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Política Pública , Planificación Social , Urbanización , China , Ciudades/economía , Emigración e Inmigración , Empleo/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dinámica Poblacional , Calidad de Vida , Cambio Social , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía , Población Urbana
18.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 23(1): 3-17, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458813

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development reports that one in every two people experiences a mental illness in their lifetime, and developed policy guidelines to address the impact of mental health-related issues on employment and health. The results of this policy initiative have been reported in many member countries but no survey findings are available yet for Japan. Previous studies in Japan focused on the social costs of mental illness, but little empirical evidence exists on burdens created by mental illness in individual households. AIMS: This study investigated the effects of mental illness and mental distress on family members' employment and sleep time. Employed men and women family members and unemployed women family members who wanted to work were included in the study. METHODS: Japanese survey data from the 2013 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions were analyzed to identify the above-mentioned effects. A propensity score matching method was used to create a valid comparison group for family members of patients with mental illness and distress. RESULTS: For depression, family member average weekly work hours decreased by a range of 1.06 (p%lt;0.01) to 1.18 (p<0.01) for men, and 0.53 (p<0.1) to 1.06 (p<0.05) for women. For dementia (termed "major neurocognitive disorder" in the DSM-5), there were no statistically significant effects on work hours in men, but the work hours of employed women increased, ranging from 1.15 (p<0.05) to 1.25 (p<0.01). Mental illness in a family member also significantly influenced future employment prospects of unemployed women. In family members of patients with dementia, sleep time decreased by a range of 3.6 minutes (p<0.05) to 4.8 minutes (p<0.01) per night for men and 12 minutes (p<0.01) per night for women. DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS: These findings can add to the existing evidence on the effects of mental illness and distress on family members' work hours and sleep time in Japan, which are consistent with research from other countries such as Germany, the UK, and the US. This study has two limitations. First, the magnitude of the effect of mental illness is limited with respect to the illness category in our study, since the severity of the condition and the impact on actual daily life may vary across categories or differ even within the same category. Second, measurement error might exist in the self-reported mental illness measures. POLICY IMPLICATIONS: First, cooperation and mutual support between employers and the community are necessary to support working family caregivers by allowing them to adjust work schedules to accommodate caregiving responsibilities. Second, social institutional policies are needed that reduce the burden of informal caregiving for family members with mental illness and increase access to long-term care for those in need. Third, since mental illness and distress have been shown to affect family members' sleep schedules, health care programs must focus on promoting caregivers' general health. IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: To further address the burden of mental illness and distress on family members, future research should examine illness severity as measured by Activities of Daily Living.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Cuidadores/psicología , Costo de Enfermedad , Empleo/economía , Familia/psicología , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud de la Familia , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Estrés Psicológico
19.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(5): 387-397, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468973

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hearing loss affects over 1.3 billion individuals worldwide, with the greatest burden among adults. Little is known regarding the association between adult-onset hearing loss and employment. METHODS: Seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ABI/Inform Collection, Business Source Ultimate, Web of Science and Scopus) were searched through to October 2018. The key word terms used related to hearing loss and employment, excluding paediatric or congenital hearing loss and deaf or culturally deaf populations. RESULTS: The initial search resulted in 13 144 articles. A total of 7494 articles underwent title and abstract screening, and 243 underwent full-text review. Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were set in 10 predominantly high-income countries. Seven of the 25 studies analysed regionally or nationally representative datasets and controlled for key variables. Six of these seven studies reported associations between hearing loss and employment. CONCLUSION: The highest quality studies currently available indicate that adult-onset hearing loss is associated with unemployment. However, considerable heterogeneity exists, and more rigorous studies that include low- and middle-income countries are needed.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Pérdida Auditiva/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Empleo/economía , Pérdida Auditiva/economía , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pensiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas con Deficiencia Auditiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
J Surg Res ; 253: 41-52, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320896

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of living liver donation (LD) in a diverse and aging population up to 20 y after donation, particularly with regard to medical, financial, psychosocial, and overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Patients undergoing LD between 1999 and 2009 were recruited to respond to the Short-Form 36 and a novel Donor Quality of Life Survey at two time points (2010 and 2018). RESULTS: Sixty-eight living liver donors (LLDs) completed validated surveys, with a mean follow-up of 11.5 ± 5.1 y. Per Donor Quality of Life Survey data, physical activity or strength was not impacted by LD in most patients. All respondents returned to school or employment, and 82.4% reported that LD had no impact on school or work performance. LD did not impact health insurability in 95.6% of donors, and only one patient experienced difficulty obtaining life insurance. Overall, 97.1% of respondents did not regret LD. Short-Form 36 survey-measured outcomes were similar between LLDs and the general U.S. POPULATION: LLDs who responded in both 2010 and 2018 were followed for an overall average of 15.4 ± 2.4 y and HRQOL outcomes in these donors also remained statistically equivalent to U.S. population norms. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the longest postdonation follow-up and offers unique insight related to HRQOL in a highly diverse patient population. Although LLDs continue to maintain excellent HRQOL outcomes up to 20 y after donation, continued lifetime follow-up is required to accurately provide young, healthy potential donors with an accurate description of the risks that they may incur on aging.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Hepatectomía/efectos adversos , Donadores Vivos/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos , Adolescente , Adulto , Empleo/economía , Empleo/psicología , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Hepatectomía/psicología , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro/economía , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Trasplante de Hígado , Donadores Vivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...