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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1202: 1-12, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034706

RESUMEN

ATP is a cotransmitter with glutamate, noradrenaline, GABA, acetylcholine and dopamine in the brain. There is a widespread presence of both adenosine (P1) and P2 nucleotide receptors in the brain on both neurons and glial cells. Adenosine receptors play a major role in presynaptic neuromodulation, while P2X ionotropic receptors are involved in fast synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. P2Y G protein-coupled receptors are largely involved in presynaptic activities, as well as mediating long-term (trophic) signalling in cell proliferation, differentiation and death during development and regeneration. Both P1 and P2 receptors participate in neuron-glial interactions. Purinergic signalling is involved in control of cerebral vascular tone and remodelling and has been implicated in learning and memory, locomotor and feeding behaviour and sleep. There is increasing interest in the involvement of purinergic signalling in the pathophysiology of the CNS, including trauma, ischaemia, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric and mood disorders, and cancer, including gliomas.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Transmisión Sináptica , Adenosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Animales , Humanos
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(3): 172-177, 2020 Jan 21.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008281

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the pattern of the change in cerebral white matter tract in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients based on the automating fiber-tract quantification (AFQ). Methods: A total of 20 aMCI patients,9 males,11 females, the mean age was (67±9) years, and 22 patients with naMCI, 8 males,14 females, the mean age was (64±10) years, and 23 normal control subjects, 10 males, 13 females, with a mean age of (65±9) years were enrolled from the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from January 2018 to March 2019. All of them underwent 3.0 T MRI scan, which include DTI and 3D T(1)WI sequence.Two tract profiles, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), were extracted to evaluate the white matter integrity at 100 locations along each of 20 fiber tracts based on the AFQ. Results: In a pointwise comparison of FA profiles,the aMCI patients showed FA reduction in the middle part of right corticospinal tract (t=-4.023, P<0.01, FWE corrected) relative to the naMCI patients. There was a positive correlation between the decreased FA value and the auditory verbal learning test score (P=0.039). In a pointwise comparison of MD profiles, the aMCI patients showed extensive MD elevation in the middle part of the left cingulum hippocampus (t=2.408,P=0.037,FWE corrected) relative to the naMCI patients. The aMCI patients showed MD elevation in the posterior part of the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (t=-2.919, P=0.006, FWE corrected) and the middle part of the left cingulum hippocampus (t=-3.878, P=0.002, FWE corrected) relative to the NC subjects. And the elevated MD in left inferior longitudinal fasciculus showed negative correlation with MoCA (P=0.039) and auditory verbal learning test score (P=0.015). There was also a negative correlation between the elevated MD value in the left cingulum hippocampus and the auditory verbal learning test score (P=0.033). Conclusions: Disruption is found in specific part along the white matter tract in the aMCI group. Furthermore, the pattern of white matter abnormalities is different across neuronal fiber tracts. These findings will have an impact on the further specific study of the white matter tract in aMCI patients.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfunción Cognitiva , Imagen de Difusión Tensora/métodos , Fibras Nerviosas/patología , Sustancia Blanca/diagnóstico por imagen , Anciano , Anisotropía , Encéfalo , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sustancia Blanca/patología
3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(3): 182-186, 2020 Jan 21.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008283

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze morphological changes in central sulcus of the cerebral cortex in children with complete growth hormone deficiency (CGHD). Methods: Patients attending the Shandong Provincial Hospital who were diagnosed with CGHD or idiopathic short stature were recruited from January 2015 to January 2019. Thirty children with CGHD (18 males and 12 females, 5 to 14 years old) and 30 children with idiopathic short stature (22 males and 8 females, 5 to 14 years old) were included. Measurements of the central sulcus, including the average width, maximum depth, average depth, top length, bottom length and depth position-based profiles (DPP), were obtained using Brain VISA software. The significant differences between groups were statistically analyzed. Results: The average width of bilateral central sulci in children with CGHD (left: (2.26±0.41) mm; right: (2.19±0.34) mm) were significantly higher than those in children with idiopathic short stature (left: (2.10±0.27) mm; right: (2.02±0.18) mm) (P<0.05) ; The maximum depth of the left central sulcus ((19.67±1.29) mm) and the average depth of the right central sulcus ((14.18±1.41) mm) were significantly lower than those in children with idiopathic short stature (left maximum depth: (20.69±1.43) mm; right average depth: (14.92±1.21) mm) (P<0.05) . Children with CGHD had significantly lower DPP at the middle part of the left central sulcus (sites: 46-54) and the inferior part of the right central sulcus(sites: 91-98). Conclusion: There are significant morphological changes of the central sulcus in children with CGHD, which may represent the structural basis of their relatively slower development in motor, cognitive and linguistic functional performance.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/patología , Corteza Cerebral/anatomía & histología , Hormona del Crecimiento/deficiencia , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Mapeo Encefálico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1226: 97-109, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030679

RESUMEN

Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are rare entities for which there currently exist no standardized treatment paradigms. Consequently, patients usually receive treatment modalities that were established for intracerebral tumors; these approaches, however, typically result in functional impairment, recurrent tumor growth, and short overall survival. There is a distinct lack of promising research efforts in this field, which raises questions about whether spinal cord tumor microenvironment (TME) might promote the development, progression, and treatment resistance of IMSCT. In this review, we aim to examine spinal cord biology, compare spinal cord and brain microenvironments, and discuss mutual interactions between IMSCT and TME. Manipulating these pathways may provide new treatment approaches for future patient groups.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Médula Espinal , Microambiente Tumoral , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Médula Espinal/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Médula Espinal/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Médula Espinal/patología , Neoplasias de la Médula Espinal/terapia
5.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(2): 75-77, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030929

RESUMEN

Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebral vasculopathy. Disease onset is mainly sudden presenting as an ischemic stroke but also sometimes as a brain hemorraghe. Cerebral angiography is the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis. Different therapeutic approaches have been described such as conservative management or endoscopic and surgical approaches. We report the case of a young patient who was diagnosed with a brain hemorraghe following a sudden loss of consciousness.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Moyamoya , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Angiografía Cerebral , Humanos , Enfermedad de Moyamoya/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagen , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología
6.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 207-222, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006362

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a cluster of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders that has been characterized mainly by social withdrawal, repetitive behavior, restricted interests, and deficits in language processing mainly in children. ASD has been known to severely impair behavioral patterns and cognitive functions including learning and memory due to defects in neuroplasticity. The biology of the ASD appears to be highly complex and heterogeneous, and thus, finding a therapeutic target for autism remains obscure. There has been no complete prevention or disease-modifying cure for this disorder. Recently, individuals with autism have been characterized by reactive neurogenesis, obstructions in axonal growth, heterotopia, resulting from dysplasia of neuroblasts in different brain regions. Therefore, it can be assumed that the aforementioned neuropathological correlates seen in the autistic individuals might originate from the defects mainly in the regulation of neuroblasts in the developing as well as adult brain. Nutrient deficiencies during early brain development and intake of certain allergic foods have been proposed as main reasons for the development of ASD. However, the integrated understanding of neurodevelopment and functional aspects of neuroplasticity working through neurogenesis in ASD is highly limited. Moreover, neurogenesis at the level of neuroblasts can be regulated by nutrition. Hence, defects in neuroblastosis underlying the severity of autism potentially could be rectified by appropriate implementation of nutraceuticals.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/patología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Plasticidad Neuronal/efectos de los fármacos , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/fisiopatología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/patología , Humanos
7.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 587-600, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006375

RESUMEN

Characterized by a wide range of behavioural, social and language problems, autism is a complex developmental disability that affects an individual's capacity to communicate and interact with others. Although the real causes that lead to the development of autism are still unclear, the gastrointestinal tract has been found to play a major role in the development of autism. Alterations in macrobiotic compositions have been reported in autistic children. Irregularities in carbohydrate digestion and absorption could also explain some of the gastrointestinal problems reported in autistic patients, although their role in the neurological and behavioural problems remains uncertain. A relationship between improved gut health and decrease of symptoms in autism has been reported as well. Studies done to evaluate the gluten-free diets, casein-free diets, pre- and probiotic and multivitamin supplementation have shown promising results. Probiotics have been thought to alleviate the progression of autism and reduce cognitive and behavioural deficits.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico/dietoterapia , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiopatología , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Autístico/metabolismo , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos
8.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 615-646, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006377

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms ranging from lack of social interaction and communication deficits to rigid, repetitive, and stereotypic behavior. It has also been associated with comorbidities such as anxiety, aggression, epilepsy, deficit in sensory processing, as well as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Apart from several behavioral and cognitive complications arising as a result of central nervous system dysfunction, there are various physiological comorbidities such as immune system deregulation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and gastrointestinal complications which can worsen existing behavioral complications. There are no available treatments for these physiological comorbidities. The prevalence of gastrointestinal complications in ASD ranges from 9% to 70% and it correlates with behaviors consistent with the autistic endophenotype indicating that these are one of the major comorbidities associated with ASD. A strong connection of gut-brain cross talk occurs as a result of gut dysbiosis responsible for excessive production of short-chain fatty acids such as propanoic acid (PPA) by abnormal gut flora in ASD patients. This worsens behavioral, neurochemical, and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in ASD. These physiological comorbidities are responsible for the generation of free radical species that cause immune system dysfunction leading to synthesis of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This in turn causes activation of microglia. Dietary phytochemicals are thought to be safer and useful as an alternative neurotherapeutic moiety. These compounds provide neuroprotection by modulating signaling pathways such as Nrf2, NF-κB, MAPK pathway or Sirtuin-FoxO pathway. There has been recent evidence in scientific literature regarding the modulation of gut-brain cross talk responsible for behavioral, biochemical, and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as cellular and behavioral sensory alterations by dietary phytochemicals such as curcumin, resveratrol, naringenin, and sulforaphane. These dietary phytochemicals can be formulated in novel brain-targeted delivery systems which overcome their limitation of low oral bioavailability and short half-life leading to prolonged action. Till date, not much work has been done on the development of brain-targeted neurotherapeutics for ASD. In this chapter we discuss plausible mechanisms and evidence from our own and other scientific research for the utilization of curcumin, resveratrol, naringenin, and sulforaphane as neurotherapeutics for ASD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/fisiopatología , Fitoquímicos/administración & dosificación , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/complicaciones , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiopatología , Humanos
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 3-20, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002919

RESUMEN

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a good tool for researchers to understand the biological mechanisms and pathophysiology of the brain due to the translational characteristics of MRI methods. For the psychiatric illness, this kind of mental disorders usually have minor alterations when compared to traditional neurological disorders. Therefore the functional study, such as functional connectivity, would play a significant role for understanding the pathophysiology of mental disorders. This chapter would focus on the discussion of task MRI-based functional network studies in anxiety. For social anxiety disorder, the limbic system, such as the temporal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus, would show alterations in the functional connectivity with frontal regions, such as anterior cingulate, prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. PD has anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala alterations in fear conditioning, frontoparietal alterations in attention network task, and limbic-prefrontal alterations in emotional task. A similar amygdala-based aberrant functional connectivity in specific phobia is observed. The mesocorticolimbic and limbic-prefrontal functional alterations are found in generalized anxiety disorder. The major components of task MRI-based functional connectivity in anxiety include limbic and frontal regions which might play a vital role for the origination of anxiety under different scenarios and tasks.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Mapeo Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Humanos
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 21-34, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002920

RESUMEN

Network-based approach for psychological phenotypes assumes the dynamical interactions among the psychiatric symptoms, psychological characteristics, and neurocognitive performances arise, as they coexist, propagate, and inhibit other components within the network of mental phenomena. For differential types of dataset from which the phenotype network is to be estimated, a Gaussian graphical model, an Ising model, a directed acyclic graph, or an intraindividual covariance network could be used. Accordingly, these network-based approaches for anxiety-related psychological phenomena have been helpful in quantitative and pictorial understanding of qualitative dynamics among the diverse psychological phenomena as well as mind-environment interactions. Brain structural covariance refers to the correlative patterns of diverse brain morphological features among differential brain regions comprising the brain, as calculated per participant or across the participants. These covarying patterns of brain morphology partly overlap with longitudinal patterns of brain cortical maturation and also with propagating pattern of brain morphological changes such as cortical thinning and brain volume reduction in patients diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders along the trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies that used the brain structural covariance network could show neural correlates of specific anxiety disorder such as panic disorder and also elucidate the neural underpinning of anxiety symptom severity in diverse psychiatric and neurologic disorder patients.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/patología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/patología , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/patología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Fenotipo , Humanos , Vías Nerviosas
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 35-59, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002921

RESUMEN

Electrocortical network dynamics are integral to brain function. Linear and nonlinear connectivity applications enrich neurophysiological investigations into anxiety disorders. Discrete EEG-based connectivity networks are unfolding with some homogeneity for anxiety disorder subtypes. Attenuated delta/theta/beta connectivity networks, pertaining to anterior-posterior nodes, characterize panic disorder. Nonlinear measures suggest reduced connectivity of ACC as an executive neuro-regulator in germane "fear circuitry networks" might be more central than considered. Enhanced network complexity and theta network efficiency at rest define generalized anxiety disorder, with similar tonic hyperexcitability apparent in social anxiety disorder further extending to task-related/state functioning. Dysregulated alpha connectivity and integration of mPFC-ACC/mPFC-PCC relays implicated with attentional flexibility and choice execution/congruence neurocircuitry are observed in trait anxiety. Conversely, state anxiety appears to recruit converging delta and beta connectivity networks as panic, suggesting trait and state anxiety are modulated by discrete neurobiological mechanisms. Furthermore, EEG connectivity dynamics distinguish anxiety from depression, despite prevalent clinical comorbidity. Rethinking mechanisms implicated in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety from the perspective of EEG network science across micro- and macroscales serves to shed light and move the field forward.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Electroencefalografía , Red Nerviosa , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/fisiopatología , Miedo , Humanos
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 61-70, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002922

RESUMEN

Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive fear and anxiety and related behavioral disturbances. Because diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive to detect subtle pathology of the brain, it has been used to characterize differences in white matter microstructure for a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. The neurobiological underpinnings of a trait anxiety seem to be associated with the uncinate fasciculus, a major pathway between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Apparent WM micro-alterations in patients with panic disorder are present in diverse and widespread regions, although alterations vary in terms of clinical symptom severity and comorbidities. Social anxiety disorder is associated with structural dysconnectivity in a fronto-limbic network consistent with reduced fractional anisotropy values in uncinate fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder may include abnormal findings in not only the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit but also the posterior and temporal regions of forceps major and cingulum bundle. Studies of white matter status in anxiety revealed overlapping patterns of front-cortical and fronto-limbic changes with uncinate fasciculus and cingulum alterations a frequent component.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/patología , Ansiedad/patología , Encéfalo/patología , Sustancia Blanca/patología , Anisotropía , Imagen de Difusión Tensora , Humanos
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 71-90, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002923

RESUMEN

Anxiety disorders include a variety of different disorders including panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and phobias. We here focus our review on GAD, SAD, and PD and put a specific emphasis on resting state networks and the coupling between the brain and the heart as all anxiety disorders exhibit abnormal perception of their own heartbeat in some way or the other. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) studies demonstrate abnormalities in default-mode network (DMN) in all anxiety disorders, e.g., mostly decreases in rsFC of DMN. In contrast, resting state fMRI shows increased rsFC in salience network (SN) (SAD, GAD) and/or somato-motor/sensory network (SMN) (PD). Since rsFC is coherence- or phase-based operating in the infraslow frequency domain (0.01-0.1 Hz), these data suggest spatiotemporal hypo- or hyper-synchronization in DMN and SMN/SN, respectively. These abnormalities in the neural network's spatiotemporal synchronization may, in turn, impact phase-based temporal synchronization of neural and cardiac activities resulting in decreased (DMN) or increased (SMN/SN) neuro-cardiac coupling in anxiety disorders. That, in turn, may be related to the various psychopathological symptoms like unstable sense of self (as based on unstable DMN showing spatiotemporal hypo-synchronization), increased emotions and specifically anxiety (as related to increased SN showing spatiotemporal hyper-synchronization), and increased bodily awareness (mediated by increased SMN with spatiotemporal hyper-synchronization) in anxiety disorders. Taken together, we here suggest altered spatiotemporal synchronization of neural and cardiac activity within the brain's resting state to underlie various psychopathological symptoms in anxiety disorders. Such spatiotemporal basis of psychopathological symptoms is well compatible with the recently suggested "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology."


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Psicopatología , Descanso , Mapeo Encefálico , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 155-167, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002928

RESUMEN

Anxiety disorders are a complex set of illnesses in which genetic factors, particularly stress, play a role in the etiopathogenesis. In recent years, inflammation and intestinal microbiota have also been included in this complex network of relationships. The functions associated with tryptophan catabolism and serotonin biosynthesis have long been associated with anxiety disorders. Tryptophan catabolism progresses toward the path of the kynurenine in the presence of stress and inflammation. The catabolism of kynurenine is a pathway in which many enzymes play a role and a large number of catabolites with neuroactive properties occur. The body's serotonin biosynthesis is primarily performed by enterochromaffin cells located in the intestines. A change in the intestinal microbiota composition (dysbiosis) directly affects the serotonin biosynthesis. Stress, unhealthy nutrition, and the use of antibiotics cause dysbiosis. In the light of this new perspective, the role of dysbiosis-induced inflammation and kynurenine pathway catabolites activated sequentially come into prominence in the etiopathogenesis of anxiety disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/metabolismo , Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Quinurenina/metabolismo , Disbiosis/metabolismo , Disbiosis/microbiología , Humanos , Serotonina/biosíntesis , Serotonina/metabolismo
15.
16.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(2): 82-83, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009370

RESUMEN

Nonketotic hyperglycemia is an unusual and rare cause of hemichorea. Hemichorea though rare may be the initial manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Correction of the hyperglycemia usually results in total resolution of the signs and symptoms. We present the case of a 71 yr old female, who presented with subacute onset of choreiform movement of left upper and lower extremities over 8 days. Her serum glucose level was 416 mg/dl and urine ketone bodies were absent. Computed tomography of brain showed right caudate nucleus and right lentiform nucleus hyperdensity suggesting hyperglycemia related hemichorea syndrome. Restoration of euglycemia along with treatment with haloperidol and tetrabenazine led to eventual resolution of all symptoms. So, nonketotic hyperglycemia should be kept as a differential diagnosis in a patient with hemichorea.


Asunto(s)
Corea , Diabetes Mellitus , Discinesias , Hiperglucemia , Encéfalo , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18786, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011475

RESUMEN

Insomnia patients with different gender and age usually had different sleep experience. Primary insomnia (PI) has been considered to be a disorder of hyper-arousal in the physiologic, emotional, or cognitive network. Although the hyper-arousal brain regions can be shown by comparing the brain activity of PI patients with normal people at rest, whether the brain activity of PI patients varied according to age and gender and whether age and gender could affect the distribution of hyper-arousal brain regions are still worthy of further exploration. Hence, a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study (No. NCT02448602) was designed to observe the brain activity of thirty PI patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs). The brain activity in resting state was measured by calculating the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), which reflected the idiopathic activity level of neurons. Multiple regression was performed to investigate the age and gender-related differences of brain activity in PI patients (P < .001, Family Wise Error (FWE) correct P = .05, cluster size >50) with age and gender as covariates. The hyper-arousal brain regions were measured by comparing the fALFF of PI patients and HCs. Multiple regression (P < .001, FWE correct P = .05, cluster size >50) was also performed for PI patients and HCs with group, age, and gender as covariates.The results suggested that the gender-related difference of brain activity mainly existed in superior temporal gyrus, cerebellum posterior lobe, middle frontal gyrus, and the age-related difference mainly existed in cerebellum anterior lobe, superior temporal gyrus, brainstem, parahippocampa gyrus, anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus. In addition, the altered fALFF regions between PI and HCs mainly existed in superior temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the gender factor could not influence the distribution of the altered regions. While the age factor could affect the distribution of the altered regions.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Caracteres Sexuales , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Descanso , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
18.
Nervenarzt ; 91(1): 18-25, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919551

RESUMEN

Imaging methods have become the main approach for identifying dysfunctional neuronal networks in schizophrenia. This review article presents recent results of disorders of neuronal networks at structural and functional levels and summarizes the current developments. Large multicenter analyses have further established patterns of regional brain alterations, while novel methods in magnetic resonance (MR) morphometry have contributed to differentiating early from delayed brain structural changes. The use of machine learning approaches has not only enabled the establishment of classification models using biological data for future differential diagnostic use, it has also facilitated multivariate models for outcome prediction following therapeutic interventions. Novel methods, such as BrainAGE, a surrogate marker of accelerated brain aging processes, have added to longitudinal studies to gain insights into the brain structural dynamics from early brain developmental alterations to progressive structural brain changes after disease onset.


Asunto(s)
Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Neuroimagen , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagen
19.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(1): 5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925568

RESUMEN

The advancement of computing technology makes it possible to build extremely accurate digital reconstructions of brain circuits. Are such unprecedented levels of biological accuracy essential for brain simulations to play the roles they are expected to play in neuroscientific research? The main goal of this paper is to clarify this question by distinguishing between various roles played by large-scale simulations in contemporary neuroscience, and by reflecting about what makes a simulation biologically accurate. It is argued that large-scale simulations may play model-oriented and prediction-oriented roles in brain research, and that the concept of biological accuracy can be interpreted as related to the plausibility of the theoretical model implemented in the simulation system, to the accuracy of the computer implementation, and to the level of details of the implemented model. Building on these observations and distinctions, it is argued that biological accuracy is not essential for a computer simulation to play the epistemic roles it is expected to play in brain research.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Simulación por Computador , Exactitud de los Datos , Neurociencias/métodos
20.
BMJ ; 368: l6880, 2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992555

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (referred to here as autism) is one of several overlapping neurodevelopmental conditions that have variable impacts on different individuals. This variability results from dynamic interactions between biological and non-biological risk factors, which result in increasing differentiation between individuals over time. Although this differentiation continues well into adulthood, the infancy period is when the brain and behavior develop rapidly, and when the first signs and symptoms of autism emerge. This review discusses advances in our understanding of the causal pathways leading to autism and overlapping neurodevelopmental conditions. Research is also mapping trajectories of brain and behavioral development for some risk groups, namely later born siblings of children with autism and/or infants referred because of developmental concerns. This knowledge has been useful in improving early identification and establishing the feasibility of targeted interventions for infant risk groups before symptoms arise. However, key knowledge gaps remain, such as the discovery of protective factors (biological or environmental) that may mitigate the impact of risk. Also, the dynamic mechanisms that underlie the associations between risk factors and outcomes need further research. These include the processes of resilience, which may explain why some individuals at risk for autism achieve better than expected outcomes. Bridging these knowledge gaps would help to provide tools for early identification and intervention that reflect dynamic developmental pathways from risk to outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Desarrollo Infantil , Factores Protectores , Trastorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Trastorno Autístico/epidemiología , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Diagnóstico Precoz , Humanos , Lactante , Pronóstico , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores de Riesgo
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