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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1512-1515, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018278

RESUMEN

The patient-clinician relationship is known to significantly affect the pain experience, as empathy, mutual trust and therapeutic alliance can significantly modulate pain perception and influence clinical therapy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to use an EEG hyperscanning setup to identify brain and behavioral mechanisms supporting the patient-clinician relationship while this clinical dyad is engaged in a therapeutic interaction. Our previous study applied fMRI hyperscanning to investigate whether brain concordance is linked with analgesia experienced by a patient while undergoing treatment by the clinician. In this current hyperscanning project we investigated similar outcomes for the patient-clinician dyad exploiting the high temporal resolution of EEG and the possibility to acquire the signals while patients and clinicians were present in the same room and engaged in a face-to-face interaction under an experimentally-controlled therapeutic context. Advanced source localization methods allowed for integration of spatial and spectral information in order to assess brain correlates of therapeutic alliance and pain perception in different clinical interaction contexts. Preliminary results showed that both behavioral and brain responses across the patient-clinician dyad were significantly affected by the interaction style.Clinical Relevance- The context of a clinical intervention can significantly impact the treatment of chronic pain. Effective therapeutic alliance, based on empathy, mutual trust, and warmth can improve treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. A deeper scientific understanding of the brain and behavioral mechanisms underlying an optimal patient-clinician interaction may lead to improved quality of clinical care and physician training, as well as better understanding of the social aspects of the biopsychosocial model mediating analgesia in chronic pain patients.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Dolor Crónico , Manejo del Dolor , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Encéfalo/fisiología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Percepción del Dolor
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5004, 2020 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020473

RESUMEN

Adaptive brain function requires that sensory impressions of the social and natural milieu are dynamically incorporated into intrinsic brain activity. While dynamic switches between brain states have been well characterised in resting state acquisitions, the remodelling of these state transitions by engagement in naturalistic stimuli remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the temporal dynamics of brain states, as measured in fMRI, are reshaped from predominantly bistable transitions between two relatively indistinct states at rest, toward a sequence of well-defined functional states during movie viewing whose transitions are temporally aligned to specific features of the movie. The expression of these brain states covaries with different physiological states and reflects subjectively rated engagement in the movie. In sum, a data-driven decoding of brain states reveals the distinct reshaping of functional network expression and reliable state transitions that accompany the switch from resting state to perceptual immersion in an ecologically valid sensory experience.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Películas Cinematográficas , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Películas Cinematográficas/clasificación , Películas Cinematográficas/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción/fisiología , Pupila/fisiología , Descanso/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1207-1212, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999199

RESUMEN

T-type calcium channels are low-threshold voltage-gated calcium channel and characterized by unique electrophysiological properties such as fast inactivation and slow deactivation kinetics. All subtypes of T-type calcium channel (Cav3.1, 3.2 and 3.3) are widely expressed in the central nerve system, and they have an important role in homeostasis of sleep, pain response, and development of epilepsy. Recently, several reports suggest that T-type calcium channels may mediate neuronal plasticity in the mouse brain. We succeeded to develop T-type calcium channel enhancer ethyl 8'-methyl-2',4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2'H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine]-2-ene-3-carboxylate (SAK3) which enhances Cav3.1 and 3.3 currents in each-channel expressed neuro2A cells. SAK3 can promote acetylcholine (ACh) release in the mouse hippocampus via enhancing T-type calcium channel. In this review, we have introduced the role of T-type calcium channel, especially Cav3.1 channel in the mouse hippocampus based on our previous data using SAK3 and Cav3.1 knockout mice.


Asunto(s)
Canales de Calcio Tipo T/efectos de los fármacos , Canales de Calcio Tipo T/fisiología , Imidazoles/farmacología , Neuronas/fisiología , Compuestos de Espiro/farmacología , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Animales , Encéfalo/fisiología , Canales de Calcio Tipo T/genética , Canales de Calcio Tipo T/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Sistema Nervioso Central/metabolismo , Fenómenos Electrofisiológicos , Epilepsia/etiología , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Homeostasis , Ratones , Plasticidad Neuronal , Dolor/etiología , Ratas , Sueño/fisiología
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4937, 2020 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024110

RESUMEN

The social intelligence hypothesis (SIH) posits that within-group interactions drive cognitive evolution, but it has received equivocal support. We argue the SIH overlooks a major component of social life: interactions with conspecific outsiders. Competition for vital resources means conspecific outsiders present myriad threats and opportunities in all animal taxa across the social spectrum (from individuals to groups). We detail cognitive challenges generated by conspecific outsiders, arguing these select for 'Napoleonic' intelligence; explain potential influences on the SIH; and highlight important considerations when empirically testing these ideas. Including interactions with conspecific outsiders may substantially improve our understanding of cognitive evolution.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Cognición , Inteligencia , Conducta Social , Animales , Encéfalo/fisiología , Reproducción , Selección Genética
5.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(10): 929-934, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026337

RESUMEN

Sleep is a succession of two stages: slow-wave and rapid eye-movement sleep. The later has mixed characteristics between sleep and wakefulness. Therefore, dreams have been proposed to occur during this stage. This hypothesis is now considered as oversimplified. Dreaming may occur during the two stages though with different characteristics. Deciphering brain structures associated with dreaming is difficult. However, during the two stages, a decrease in low-frequency and an increase in high-frequency electrical activity in posterior cortical regions has been reported that might be the neural correlate of dreaming. The origin of cortex stimulation is under debate, but the mechanisms involved are similar to those acting during wakefulness. Dream function is not known and it might be an epiphenomenon originating from synaptic transmission noise. Depriving subjects of rapid-eye movement sleep for two weeks has no apparent effect on their behavior.


Asunto(s)
Sueños/psicología , Neurociencias/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiología , Sueños/fisiología , Electroencefalografía , Humanos , Polisomnografía , Sueño/fisiología
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5350, 2020 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093442

RESUMEN

Sociality is among the most important motivators of human behaviour. However, the neural mechanisms determining levels of sociality are largely unknown, primarily due to a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the presence of a surprising degree of general sociality in Drosophila. A newly-developed paradigm to study social approach behaviour in flies reveal that social cues perceive through both vision and olfaction converged in a central brain region, the γ lobe of the mushroom body, which exhibite activation in response to social experience. The activity of these γ neurons control the motivational drive for social interaction. At the molecular level, the serotonergic system is critical for social affinity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila are highly sociable, providing a suitable model system for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the motivation for sociality.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiología , Conducta Social , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Encéfalo/fisiología , Señales (Psicología) , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación/fisiología , Cuerpos Pedunculados/fisiología , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Sensación/fisiología , Neuronas Serotoninérgicas/fisiología
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5094, 2020 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037225

RESUMEN

Brain lesions do not just disable but also disconnect brain areas, which once deprived of their input or output, can no longer subserve behaviour and cognition. The role of white matter connections has remained an open question for the past 250 years. Based on 1333 stroke lesions, here we reveal the human Disconnectome and demonstrate its relationship to the functional segregation of the human brain. Results indicate that functional territories are not only defined by white matter connections, but also by the highly stereotyped spatial distribution of brain disconnections. While the former has granted us the possibility to map 590 functions on the white matter of the whole brain, the latter compels a revision of the taxonomy of brain functions. Overall, our freely available Atlas of White Matter Function will enable improved clinical-neuroanatomical predictions for brain lesion studies and provide a platform for explorations in the domain of cognition.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/patología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Conectoma , Accidente Cerebrovascular/patología , Conducta , Humanos , Neuroimagen , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología
9.
Nature ; 586(7827): 31-32, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939081
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238373, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866215

RESUMEN

The term "retroactive avoidance" refers to a special class of effects of future stimulus presentations on past behavioral responses. Specifically, it refers to the anticipatory avoidance of aversive stimuli that were unpredictable through random selection after the response. This phenomenon is supposed to challenge the common view of the arrow of time and the direction of causality. Preliminary evidence of "retroactive avoidance" has been published in mainstream psychological journals and started a heated debate about the robustness and the true existence of this effect. A series of seven experiments published in 2014 in the Journal of Consciousness Studies (Maier et al., 2014) tested the influence of randomly drawn future negative picture presentations on avoidance responses based on key presses preceding them. The final study in that series used a sophisticated quantum-based random stimulus selection procedure and implemented the most severe test of retroactive avoidance within this series. Evidence for the effect, though significant, was meager and anecdotal, Bayes factor (BF10) = 2. The research presented here represents an attempt to exactly replicate the original effect with a high-power (N = 2004) preregistered multi-lab study. The results indicate that the data favored the null effect (i.e., absence of retroactive avoidance) with a BF01 = 4.38. Given the empirical strengths of the study, namely its preregistration, multi-lab approach, high power, and Bayesian analysis used, this failed replication questions the validity and robustness of the original findings. Not reaching a decisive level of Bayesian evidence and not including skeptical researchers may be considered limitations of this study. Exploratory analyses of the change in evidence for the effect across time, performed on a post-hoc basis, revealed several potentially interesting anomalies in the data that might guide future research in this area.


Asunto(s)
Reacción de Prevención/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
11.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es8, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870083

RESUMEN

Cognitive neuroscience research is typically conducted in controlled laboratory environments that hold very little resemblance to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms. Fortunately, recent advances in portable electroencephalography technology now allow researchers to collect brain data from groups of students in real-world classrooms. Even though this line of research is still new, there is growing evidence that students' engagement, memory retention, and social dynamics are reflected in the brain-to-brain synchrony between students and teachers (i.e., the similarity in their brain responses). In this Essay, I will provide an overview of this emerging line of research, discuss how this approach can facilitate new collaborations between neuroscientists and discipline-based education researchers, and propose directions for future research.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Ingeniería/educación , Matemática/educación , Ciencia/educación , Tecnología/educación , Universidades , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Estudiantes/psicología
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238318, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881901

RESUMEN

Knowledge on neural processing during complex non-stationary motion sequences of sport-specific movements still remains elusive. Hence, we aimed at investigating hemodynamic response alterations during a basketball slalom dribbling task (BSDT) using multi-distance functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in 23 participants (12 females). Additionally, we quantified how the brain adapts its processing as a function of altered hand use (dominant right hand (DH) vs. non-dominant left hand (NDH) vs. alternating hands (AH)) and pace of execution (slow vs. fast) in BSDT. We found that BSDT activated bilateral premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor cortex (SMA), primary motor cortex (M1) as well as inferior parietal cortex and somatosensory association cortex. Slow dominant hand dribbling (DHslow) evoked lower contralateral hemodynamic responses in sensorimotor regions compared to fast dribbling (DHfast). Furthermore, during DHslow dribbling, we found lower hemodynamic responses in ipsilateral M1 as compared to dribbling with alternating hands (AHslow). Hence, altered task complexity during BSDT induced differential hemodynamic response patterns. Furthermore, a correlation analysis revealed that lower levels of perceived task complexity are associated with lower hemodynamic responses in ipsilateral PMC-SMA, which is an indicator for neuronal efficiency in participants with better basketball dribbling skills. The present study extends previous findings by showing that varying levels of task complexity are reflected by specific hemodynamic response alterations even during sports-relevant motor behavior. Taken together, we suggest that quantifying brain activation during complex movements is a prerequisite for assessing brain-behavior relations and optimizing motor performance.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Hemodinámica , Adulto , Baloncesto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Lateralidad Funcional/fisiología , Hemoglobinas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Corteza Motora/diagnóstico por imagen , Corteza Motora/fisiología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Adulto Joven
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236155, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915780

RESUMEN

Large brains in prey may select for adoption of anti-predator behavior that facilitates escape. Prey species with relatively large brains have been shown to be less likely to fall prey to predators. This results in the prediction that individuals that have been captured by predators on average should have smaller brains than sympatric conspecifics. We exploited the fact that Eurasian pygmy owls Glaucidium passerinum hoard small mammals and birds in cavities and nest-boxes for over-winter survival, allowing for comparison of the phenotype of prey with that of live conspecifics. In Northern Europe, main prey of pygmy owls are voles of the genera Myodes and Microtus, while forest birds and shrews are the most important alternative prey. Large fluctuations (amplitude 100-200-fold) in vole populations induce rapid numerical responses of pygmy owls to main prey populations, which in turn results in varying predation pressure on small birds. We found, weighed and measured 153 birds in food-stores of pygmy owls and mist-netted, weighed and measured 333 live birds of 12 species in central-western Finland during two autumns with low (2017) and high (2018) pygmy owl predation risk. In two autumns, individuals with large brains were captured later compared to individuals with small brains, consistent with the hypothesis that such individuals survived for longer. Avian prey of pygmy owls had smaller heads than live birds in autumn 2018 when predation risk by pygmy owls was high. This difference in head size was not significant in 2017 when predation risk by pygmy owls was reduced. Finally, avian survivors were in better body condition than avian prey individuals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that pygmy owls differentially prey on birds in poor condition with small brains. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that predation risk imposed by pygmy owls on small birds in boreal forests varies depending on the abundance of the main prey (voles).


Asunto(s)
Conducta Predatoria , Estrigiformes , Animales , Arvicolinae/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Estaciones del Año , Musarañas/fisiología , Estrigiformes/fisiología , Taiga
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4632, 2020 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934230

RESUMEN

Mapping neuroanatomy is a foundational goal towards understanding brain function. Electron microscopy (EM) has been the gold standard for connectivity analysis because nanoscale resolution is necessary to unambiguously resolve synapses. However, molecular information that specifies cell types is often lost in EM reconstructions. To address this, we devise a light microscopy approach for connectivity analysis of defined cell types called spectral connectomics. We combine multicolor labeling (Brainbow) of neurons with multi-round immunostaining Expansion Microscopy (miriEx) to simultaneously interrogate morphology, molecular markers, and connectivity in the same brain section. We apply this strategy to directly link inhibitory neuron cell types with their morphologies. Furthermore, we show that correlative Brainbow and endogenous synaptic machinery immunostaining can define putative synaptic connections between neurons, as well as map putative inhibitory and excitatory inputs. We envision that spectral connectomics can be applied routinely in neurobiology labs to gain insights into normal and pathophysiological neuroanatomy.


Asunto(s)
Conectoma/métodos , Microscopía/métodos , Neuronas/fisiología , Animales , Encéfalo/fisiología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Neuroanatomía , Neuronas/química , Sinapsis/química , Sinapsis/fisiología
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234749, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966291

RESUMEN

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to neurodegeneration in the injured circuitry, either through primary structural damage to the neuron or secondary effects that disrupt key cellular processes. Moreover, traumatic injuries can preferentially impact subpopulations of neurons, but the functional network effects of these targeted degeneration profiles remain unclear. Although isolating the consequences of complex injury dynamics and long-term recovery of the circuit can be difficult to control experimentally, computational networks can be a powerful tool to analyze the consequences of injury. Here, we use the Izhikevich spiking neuron model to create networks representative of cortical tissue. After an initial settling period with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), networks developed rhythmic oscillations similar to those seen in vivo. As neurons were sequentially removed from the network, population activity rate and oscillation dynamics were significantly reduced. In a successive period of network restructuring with STDP, network activity levels returned to baseline for some injury levels and oscillation dynamics significantly improved. We next explored the role that specific neurons have in the creation and termination of oscillation dynamics. We determined that oscillations initiate from activation of low firing rate neurons with limited structural inputs. To terminate oscillations, high activity excitatory neurons with strong input connectivity activate downstream inhibitory circuitry. Finally, we confirm the excitatory neuron population role through targeted neurodegeneration. These results suggest targeted neurodegeneration can play a key role in the oscillation dynamics after injury.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Simulación por Computador , Modelos Neurológicos , Red Nerviosa/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatología , Potenciales de Acción , Encéfalo/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/complicaciones , Humanos , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/etiología , Plasticidad Neuronal , Neuronas/patología , Neuronas/fisiología
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008165, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941457

RESUMEN

Combining information from multiple sources is a fundamental operation performed by networks of neurons in the brain, whose general principles are still largely unknown. Experimental evidence suggests that combination of inputs in cortex relies on nonlinear summation. Such nonlinearities are thought to be fundamental to perform complex computations. However, these non-linearities are inconsistent with the balanced-state model, one of the most popular models of cortical dynamics, which predicts networks have a linear response. This linearity is obtained in the limit of very large recurrent coupling strength. We investigate the stationary response of networks of spiking neurons as a function of coupling strength. We show that, while a linear transfer function emerges at strong coupling, nonlinearities are prominent at finite coupling, both at response onset and close to saturation. We derive a general framework to classify nonlinear responses in these networks and discuss which of them can be captured by rate models. This framework could help to understand the diversity of non-linearities observed in cortical networks.


Asunto(s)
Potenciales de Acción/fisiología , Modelos Neurológicos , Red Nerviosa/citología , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Animales , Encéfalo/citología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Biología Computacional , Haplorrinos , Ratones , Dinámicas no Lineales
17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008146, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970679

RESUMEN

According to the efficient coding hypothesis, sensory systems are adapted to maximize their ability to encode information about the environment. Sensory neurons play a key role in encoding by selectively modulating their firing rate for a subset of all possible stimuli. This pattern of modulation is often summarized via a tuning curve. The optimally efficient distribution of tuning curves has been calculated in variety of ways for one-dimensional (1-D) stimuli. However, many sensory neurons encode multiple stimulus dimensions simultaneously. It remains unclear how applicable existing models of 1-D tuning curves are for neurons tuned across multiple dimensions. We describe a mathematical generalization that builds on prior work in 1-D to predict optimally efficient multidimensional tuning curves. Our results have implications for interpreting observed properties of neuronal populations. For example, our results suggest that not all tuning curve attributes (such as gain and bandwidth) are equally useful for evaluating the encoding efficiency of a population.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional/métodos , Modelos Neurológicos , Células Receptoras Sensoriales/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Humanos
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008144, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886673

RESUMEN

At the macroscale, the brain operates as a network of interconnected neuronal populations, which display coordinated rhythmic dynamics that support interareal communication. Understanding how stimulation of different brain areas impacts such activity is important for gaining basic insights into brain function and for further developing therapeutic neurmodulation. However, the complexity of brain structure and dynamics hinders predictions regarding the downstream effects of focal stimulation. More specifically, little is known about how the collective oscillatory regime of brain network activity-in concert with network structure-affects the outcomes of perturbations. Here, we combine human connectome data and biophysical modeling to begin filling these gaps. By tuning parameters that control collective system dynamics, we identify distinct states of simulated brain activity and investigate how the distributed effects of stimulation manifest at different dynamical working points. When baseline oscillations are weak, the stimulated area exhibits enhanced power and frequency, and due to network interactions, activity in this excited frequency band propagates to nearby regions. Notably, beyond these linear effects, we further find that focal stimulation causes more distributed modifications to interareal coherence in a band containing regions' baseline oscillation frequencies. Importantly, depending on the dynamical state of the system, these broadband effects can be better predicted by functional rather than structural connectivity, emphasizing a complex interplay between anatomical organization, dynamics, and response to perturbation. In contrast, when the network operates in a regime of strong regional oscillations, stimulation causes only slight shifts in power and frequency, and structural connectivity becomes most predictive of stimulation-induced changes in network activity patterns. In sum, this work builds upon and extends previous computational studies investigating the impacts of stimulation, and underscores the fact that both the stimulation site, and, crucially, the regime of brain network dynamics, can influence the network-wide responses to local perturbations.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Conectoma , Modelos Neurológicos , Humanos , Neuronas/fisiología
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23477-23483, 2020 09 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900940

RESUMEN

We have long known that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere (LH) in most neurologically healthy adults. In contrast, findings on lateralization of function during development are more complex. As in adults, anatomical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies in infants and children indicate LH lateralization for language. However, in very young children, lesions to either hemisphere are equally likely to result in language deficits, suggesting that language is distributed symmetrically early in life. We address this apparent contradiction by examining patterns of functional MRI (fMRI) language activation in children (ages 4 through 13) and adults (ages 18 through 29). In contrast to previous studies, we focus not on lateralization per se but rather on patterns of left-hemisphere (LH) and right-hemisphere (RH) activation across individual participants over age. Our analyses show significant activation not only in the LH language network but also in their RH homologs in all of the youngest children (ages 4 through 6). The proportion of participants showing significant RH activation decreases over age, with over 60% of adults lacking any significant RH activation. A whole-brain correlation analysis revealed an age-related decrease in language activation only in the RH homolog of Broca's area. This correlation was independent of task difficulty. We conclude that, while language is left-lateralized throughout life, the RH contribution to language processing is also strong early in life and decreases through childhood. Importantly, this early RH language activation may represent a developmental mechanism for recovery following early LH injury.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mapeo Encefálico , Área de Broca/diagnóstico por imagen , Área de Broca/fisiología , Niño , Preescolar , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Lateralidad Funcional , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Joven
20.
Neuron ; 107(6): 1014-1028, 2020 09 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970996

RESUMEN

The recent advent of human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived 3D brain organoids has opened a window into aspects of human brain development that were not accessible before, allowing tractable monitoring and assessment of early developmental processes. However, their broad and effective use for modeling later stages of human brain development and disease is hampered by the lack of a stereotypic anatomical organization, which limits maturation processes dependent upon formation of unique cellular interactions and short- and long-range network connectivity. Emerging methods and technologies aimed at tighter regulatory control through bioengineering approaches, along with newer unbiased organoid analysis readouts, should resolve several of the current limitations. Here, we review recent advances in brain organoid generation and characterization with a focus on highlighting future directions utilizing interdisciplinary strategies that will be important for improving the physiological relevance of this model system.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/citología , Proyección Neuronal , Organoides/citología , Cultivo Primario de Células/métodos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiología , Genómica/métodos , Humanos , Células-Madre Neurales/citología , Células-Madre Neurales/metabolismo , Células-Madre Neurales/fisiología , Organoides/metabolismo , Organoides/fisiología
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