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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 3-20, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002919

RESUMEN

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a good tool for researchers to understand the biological mechanisms and pathophysiology of the brain due to the translational characteristics of MRI methods. For the psychiatric illness, this kind of mental disorders usually have minor alterations when compared to traditional neurological disorders. Therefore the functional study, such as functional connectivity, would play a significant role for understanding the pathophysiology of mental disorders. This chapter would focus on the discussion of task MRI-based functional network studies in anxiety. For social anxiety disorder, the limbic system, such as the temporal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus, would show alterations in the functional connectivity with frontal regions, such as anterior cingulate, prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. PD has anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala alterations in fear conditioning, frontoparietal alterations in attention network task, and limbic-prefrontal alterations in emotional task. A similar amygdala-based aberrant functional connectivity in specific phobia is observed. The mesocorticolimbic and limbic-prefrontal functional alterations are found in generalized anxiety disorder. The major components of task MRI-based functional connectivity in anxiety include limbic and frontal regions which might play a vital role for the origination of anxiety under different scenarios and tasks.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Mapeo Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Humanos
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 21-34, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002920

RESUMEN

Network-based approach for psychological phenotypes assumes the dynamical interactions among the psychiatric symptoms, psychological characteristics, and neurocognitive performances arise, as they coexist, propagate, and inhibit other components within the network of mental phenomena. For differential types of dataset from which the phenotype network is to be estimated, a Gaussian graphical model, an Ising model, a directed acyclic graph, or an intraindividual covariance network could be used. Accordingly, these network-based approaches for anxiety-related psychological phenomena have been helpful in quantitative and pictorial understanding of qualitative dynamics among the diverse psychological phenomena as well as mind-environment interactions. Brain structural covariance refers to the correlative patterns of diverse brain morphological features among differential brain regions comprising the brain, as calculated per participant or across the participants. These covarying patterns of brain morphology partly overlap with longitudinal patterns of brain cortical maturation and also with propagating pattern of brain morphological changes such as cortical thinning and brain volume reduction in patients diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders along the trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies that used the brain structural covariance network could show neural correlates of specific anxiety disorder such as panic disorder and also elucidate the neural underpinning of anxiety symptom severity in diverse psychiatric and neurologic disorder patients.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/patología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/patología , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/patología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Fenotipo , Humanos , Vías Nerviosas
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 35-59, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002921

RESUMEN

Electrocortical network dynamics are integral to brain function. Linear and nonlinear connectivity applications enrich neurophysiological investigations into anxiety disorders. Discrete EEG-based connectivity networks are unfolding with some homogeneity for anxiety disorder subtypes. Attenuated delta/theta/beta connectivity networks, pertaining to anterior-posterior nodes, characterize panic disorder. Nonlinear measures suggest reduced connectivity of ACC as an executive neuro-regulator in germane "fear circuitry networks" might be more central than considered. Enhanced network complexity and theta network efficiency at rest define generalized anxiety disorder, with similar tonic hyperexcitability apparent in social anxiety disorder further extending to task-related/state functioning. Dysregulated alpha connectivity and integration of mPFC-ACC/mPFC-PCC relays implicated with attentional flexibility and choice execution/congruence neurocircuitry are observed in trait anxiety. Conversely, state anxiety appears to recruit converging delta and beta connectivity networks as panic, suggesting trait and state anxiety are modulated by discrete neurobiological mechanisms. Furthermore, EEG connectivity dynamics distinguish anxiety from depression, despite prevalent clinical comorbidity. Rethinking mechanisms implicated in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety from the perspective of EEG network science across micro- and macroscales serves to shed light and move the field forward.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Electroencefalografía , Red Nerviosa , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/fisiopatología , Miedo , Humanos
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 71-90, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002923

RESUMEN

Anxiety disorders include a variety of different disorders including panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and phobias. We here focus our review on GAD, SAD, and PD and put a specific emphasis on resting state networks and the coupling between the brain and the heart as all anxiety disorders exhibit abnormal perception of their own heartbeat in some way or the other. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) studies demonstrate abnormalities in default-mode network (DMN) in all anxiety disorders, e.g., mostly decreases in rsFC of DMN. In contrast, resting state fMRI shows increased rsFC in salience network (SN) (SAD, GAD) and/or somato-motor/sensory network (SMN) (PD). Since rsFC is coherence- or phase-based operating in the infraslow frequency domain (0.01-0.1 Hz), these data suggest spatiotemporal hypo- or hyper-synchronization in DMN and SMN/SN, respectively. These abnormalities in the neural network's spatiotemporal synchronization may, in turn, impact phase-based temporal synchronization of neural and cardiac activities resulting in decreased (DMN) or increased (SMN/SN) neuro-cardiac coupling in anxiety disorders. That, in turn, may be related to the various psychopathological symptoms like unstable sense of self (as based on unstable DMN showing spatiotemporal hypo-synchronization), increased emotions and specifically anxiety (as related to increased SN showing spatiotemporal hyper-synchronization), and increased bodily awareness (mediated by increased SMN with spatiotemporal hyper-synchronization) in anxiety disorders. Taken together, we here suggest altered spatiotemporal synchronization of neural and cardiac activity within the brain's resting state to underlie various psychopathological symptoms in anxiety disorders. Such spatiotemporal basis of psychopathological symptoms is well compatible with the recently suggested "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology."


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Psicopatología , Descanso , Mapeo Encefálico , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 155-167, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002928

RESUMEN

Anxiety disorders are a complex set of illnesses in which genetic factors, particularly stress, play a role in the etiopathogenesis. In recent years, inflammation and intestinal microbiota have also been included in this complex network of relationships. The functions associated with tryptophan catabolism and serotonin biosynthesis have long been associated with anxiety disorders. Tryptophan catabolism progresses toward the path of the kynurenine in the presence of stress and inflammation. The catabolism of kynurenine is a pathway in which many enzymes play a role and a large number of catabolites with neuroactive properties occur. The body's serotonin biosynthesis is primarily performed by enterochromaffin cells located in the intestines. A change in the intestinal microbiota composition (dysbiosis) directly affects the serotonin biosynthesis. Stress, unhealthy nutrition, and the use of antibiotics cause dysbiosis. In the light of this new perspective, the role of dysbiosis-induced inflammation and kynurenine pathway catabolites activated sequentially come into prominence in the etiopathogenesis of anxiety disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/metabolismo , Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Quinurenina/metabolismo , Disbiosis/metabolismo , Disbiosis/microbiología , Humanos , Serotonina/biosíntesis , Serotonina/metabolismo
6.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 587-600, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006375

RESUMEN

Characterized by a wide range of behavioural, social and language problems, autism is a complex developmental disability that affects an individual's capacity to communicate and interact with others. Although the real causes that lead to the development of autism are still unclear, the gastrointestinal tract has been found to play a major role in the development of autism. Alterations in macrobiotic compositions have been reported in autistic children. Irregularities in carbohydrate digestion and absorption could also explain some of the gastrointestinal problems reported in autistic patients, although their role in the neurological and behavioural problems remains uncertain. A relationship between improved gut health and decrease of symptoms in autism has been reported as well. Studies done to evaluate the gluten-free diets, casein-free diets, pre- and probiotic and multivitamin supplementation have shown promising results. Probiotics have been thought to alleviate the progression of autism and reduce cognitive and behavioural deficits.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico/dietoterapia , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiopatología , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Autístico/metabolismo , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos
7.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 615-646, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006377

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms ranging from lack of social interaction and communication deficits to rigid, repetitive, and stereotypic behavior. It has also been associated with comorbidities such as anxiety, aggression, epilepsy, deficit in sensory processing, as well as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Apart from several behavioral and cognitive complications arising as a result of central nervous system dysfunction, there are various physiological comorbidities such as immune system deregulation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and gastrointestinal complications which can worsen existing behavioral complications. There are no available treatments for these physiological comorbidities. The prevalence of gastrointestinal complications in ASD ranges from 9% to 70% and it correlates with behaviors consistent with the autistic endophenotype indicating that these are one of the major comorbidities associated with ASD. A strong connection of gut-brain cross talk occurs as a result of gut dysbiosis responsible for excessive production of short-chain fatty acids such as propanoic acid (PPA) by abnormal gut flora in ASD patients. This worsens behavioral, neurochemical, and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in ASD. These physiological comorbidities are responsible for the generation of free radical species that cause immune system dysfunction leading to synthesis of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This in turn causes activation of microglia. Dietary phytochemicals are thought to be safer and useful as an alternative neurotherapeutic moiety. These compounds provide neuroprotection by modulating signaling pathways such as Nrf2, NF-κB, MAPK pathway or Sirtuin-FoxO pathway. There has been recent evidence in scientific literature regarding the modulation of gut-brain cross talk responsible for behavioral, biochemical, and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as cellular and behavioral sensory alterations by dietary phytochemicals such as curcumin, resveratrol, naringenin, and sulforaphane. These dietary phytochemicals can be formulated in novel brain-targeted delivery systems which overcome their limitation of low oral bioavailability and short half-life leading to prolonged action. Till date, not much work has been done on the development of brain-targeted neurotherapeutics for ASD. In this chapter we discuss plausible mechanisms and evidence from our own and other scientific research for the utilization of curcumin, resveratrol, naringenin, and sulforaphane as neurotherapeutics for ASD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/fisiopatología , Fitoquímicos/administración & dosificación , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/complicaciones , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiopatología , Humanos
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(3): 182-186, 2020 Jan 21.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008283

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze morphological changes in central sulcus of the cerebral cortex in children with complete growth hormone deficiency (CGHD). Methods: Patients attending the Shandong Provincial Hospital who were diagnosed with CGHD or idiopathic short stature were recruited from January 2015 to January 2019. Thirty children with CGHD (18 males and 12 females, 5 to 14 years old) and 30 children with idiopathic short stature (22 males and 8 females, 5 to 14 years old) were included. Measurements of the central sulcus, including the average width, maximum depth, average depth, top length, bottom length and depth position-based profiles (DPP), were obtained using Brain VISA software. The significant differences between groups were statistically analyzed. Results: The average width of bilateral central sulci in children with CGHD (left: (2.26±0.41) mm; right: (2.19±0.34) mm) were significantly higher than those in children with idiopathic short stature (left: (2.10±0.27) mm; right: (2.02±0.18) mm) (P<0.05) ; The maximum depth of the left central sulcus ((19.67±1.29) mm) and the average depth of the right central sulcus ((14.18±1.41) mm) were significantly lower than those in children with idiopathic short stature (left maximum depth: (20.69±1.43) mm; right average depth: (14.92±1.21) mm) (P<0.05) . Children with CGHD had significantly lower DPP at the middle part of the left central sulcus (sites: 46-54) and the inferior part of the right central sulcus(sites: 91-98). Conclusion: There are significant morphological changes of the central sulcus in children with CGHD, which may represent the structural basis of their relatively slower development in motor, cognitive and linguistic functional performance.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/patología , Corteza Cerebral/anatomía & histología , Hormona del Crecimiento/deficiencia , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Mapeo Encefálico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18786, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011475

RESUMEN

Insomnia patients with different gender and age usually had different sleep experience. Primary insomnia (PI) has been considered to be a disorder of hyper-arousal in the physiologic, emotional, or cognitive network. Although the hyper-arousal brain regions can be shown by comparing the brain activity of PI patients with normal people at rest, whether the brain activity of PI patients varied according to age and gender and whether age and gender could affect the distribution of hyper-arousal brain regions are still worthy of further exploration. Hence, a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study (No. NCT02448602) was designed to observe the brain activity of thirty PI patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs). The brain activity in resting state was measured by calculating the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), which reflected the idiopathic activity level of neurons. Multiple regression was performed to investigate the age and gender-related differences of brain activity in PI patients (P < .001, Family Wise Error (FWE) correct P = .05, cluster size >50) with age and gender as covariates. The hyper-arousal brain regions were measured by comparing the fALFF of PI patients and HCs. Multiple regression (P < .001, FWE correct P = .05, cluster size >50) was also performed for PI patients and HCs with group, age, and gender as covariates.The results suggested that the gender-related difference of brain activity mainly existed in superior temporal gyrus, cerebellum posterior lobe, middle frontal gyrus, and the age-related difference mainly existed in cerebellum anterior lobe, superior temporal gyrus, brainstem, parahippocampa gyrus, anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus. In addition, the altered fALFF regions between PI and HCs mainly existed in superior temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the gender factor could not influence the distribution of the altered regions. While the age factor could affect the distribution of the altered regions.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Caracteres Sexuales , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Descanso , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
10.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(1): 35-40, 2020 Jan 02.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905474

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the genotype and phenotype of children with KCNA2 gene related developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Methods: Clinical data including the manifestations and electroencephalogram of 8 children with KCNA2 variants treated in the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from March 2017 to June 2019 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results: Among the 8 epileptic patients with KCNA2 variants, 5 were males and 3 were females. The age of onset was from 1 day to 11 months. The age at last follow-up ranged from 4 months to 86 months. Two variants including c.1214C>T (loss-of-function) and c.1120A>G (gain-and loss-of-function) were identified. The variant of c.1214C>T was found in six patients (case 1-6). For these patients, the age of onset was from 5 to 11 months and they were characterized by multiple seizure types. All had focal seizures and had normal development before seizure onset with developmental regression after seizure onset. The first electroencephalogram showed epileptic discharges in Rolandic region in two, epileptic discharges in Rolandic region combined with generalized discharge in one, generalized discharge with posterior predominance in two (combined with or transferred to Rolandic region during the course) and epileptic discharges in posterior region combined with generalized discharge in one. And in 5 of them the Rolandic discharges developed into epileptic electrical status (ESES) during sleep. All the six patients were still treated with a combination of multiple antiepileptic drugs. Two of them had seizure controlled at 80 months and 68 months, respectively. The variant of c.1120A>G were identified in two of eight patients (case 7 and 8) and they had seizure onset on the 1st day after birth. Their epileptic seizures were frequent and difficult to control. They had remarkably developmental delay and microcephaly since birth. One case (case 8) had a wide forehead. They had frequent seizures up to the last follow-up. In case 7, the early electroencephalogram showed epileptic discharges in temporal region, and interictal electroencephalogram at 3 months of age showed multifocal discharge with posterior and temporal region predominance. In case 8, the early electroencephalogram was normal and electroencephalogram showed burst suppression at 2 months of age, and it developed epileptiform discharge in posterior region at 1 year of age. Conclusions: KCNA2 gene variants can lead to DEE with multiple seizures types. Among them, loss-of-function c.1214C>T is the most common, and these patients have seizure onset at infancy with Rolandic discharges tended to develop into to ESES pattern. The variant of c.1120A>G is a gain-of- and loss-of-function variant, patients with c.1120A>G have seizure onset in neonatal period, the phenotype overlaps with the former but is more severe.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatías/genética , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Canal de Potasio Kv.1.2/genética , Convulsiones , Edad de Inicio , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Encefalopatías/fisiopatología , Niño , Preescolar , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/fisiopatología , Epilepsia/complicaciones , Epilepsia/genética , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Fenotipo , Estudios Retrospectivos
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 11-17, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893388

RESUMEN

In the adult brain, it is well known that increases in local neural activity trigger changes in regional blood flow and, thus, changes in cerebral energy metabolism. This regulation mechanism is called neurovascular coupling (NVC). It is not yet clear to what extent this mechanism is present in the premature brain. In this study, we explore the use of transfer entropy (TE) in order to compute the nonlinear coupling between changes in brain function, assessed by means of EEG, and changes in brain oxygenation, assessed by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In a previous study, we measured the coupling between both variables using a linear model to compute TE. The results indicated that changes in brain oxygenation were likely to precede changes in EEG activity. However, using a nonlinear and nonparametric approach to compute TE, the results indicate an opposite directionality of this coupling. The source of the different results provided by the linear and nonlinear TE is unclear and needs further research. In this study, we present the results from a cohort of 21 premature neonates. Results indicate that TE values computed using the nonlinear approach are able to discriminate between neonates with brain abnormalities and healthy neonates, indicating a less functional NVC in neonates with brain abnormalities.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Acoplamiento Neurovascular , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Encefalopatías/diagnóstico , Encefalopatías/fisiopatología , Electroencefalografía , Entropía , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Acoplamiento Neurovascular/fisiología
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 121-128, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915347

RESUMEN

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non- progressive disorder of movement and posture due to a lesion of the developing brain. It is the commonest physical disability in childhood that affects function and development. Neuro imaging is currently recommended as a standard evaluation in children with cerebral palsy. This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in Paediatric Neurology out-patient department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2015 to December 2015 to see the frequency and pattern of neuro-imaging findings in children with cerebral palsy. A total of 130 cases those who were attended and diagnosed as cerebral palsy based on history, clinical examination and neuro developmental assessment included in this study. All patients were sent to radiology & imaging department of same hospital for CT scan of brain. Among total 130 cerebral palsy patients male were more affected than female (88 boys and 42 girls) with male to female ratio 2.09: 1. Their ages ranged between 6-72 months with a mean age 25.6 months. The commonest age group was 6-24 months (46.9%). Common mode of delivery was normal vaginal delivery (62.3%) & Perinatal asphyxia (PNA) occurred in 66.9% cases. The commonest type of cerebral palsy was spastic form. Among them most cases were quadriplegic type, 64 cases (53.3%). Other cases were hemiplegic 27(20.7%) diplegic 13(10.0%). Total 84.7% had documented cerebral neuroimaging abnormalities; among them, diffuse cortical atrophy (46.9%), encephalomalacic change (19.9%), malformation (6.1%), and calcification (5.3%). CT scan was normal in 15.3% cases of cerebral palsy. The commonest co morbidity was speech delay (50%). Most of the patient with CP had abnormal CT scan finding though some patient had normal CT scan. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and encephalomalacic changes constitute frequent CT neuroimaging findings and commonly found in quadriplegic type of cerebral pulsy patients. Though diagnosis of cerebral palsy is essentially clinical, neuro imaging improves the understanding of the neuro-anatomical basis for function in CP. Etiology, type of CP and extent of motor impairments can easily be identified by the neuro imaging.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Parálisis Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Neuroimagen/métodos , Bangladesh , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Neurología
13.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 16(1): 43-55, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772339

RESUMEN

Language impairment, or aphasia, is a disabling symptom that affects at least one third of individuals after stroke. Some affected individuals will spontaneously recover partial language function. However, despite a growing number of investigations, our understanding of how and why this recovery occurs is very limited. This Review proposes that existing hypotheses about language recovery after stroke can be conceptualized as specific examples of two fundamental principles. The first principle, degeneracy, dictates that different neural networks are able to adapt to perform similar cognitive functions, which would enable the brain to compensate for damage to any individual network. The second principle, variable neuro-displacement, dictates that there is spare capacity within or between neural networks, which, to save energy, is not used under standard levels of performance demand, but can be engaged under certain situations. These two principles are not mutually exclusive and might involve neural networks in both hemispheres. Most existing hypotheses are descriptive and lack a clear mechanistic account or concrete experimental evidence. Therefore, a better neurocomputational, mechanistic understanding of language recovery is required to inform research into new therapeutic interventions.


Asunto(s)
Afasia/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Recuperación de la Función/fisiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología , Afasia/diagnóstico , Afasia/etiología , Humanos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico
15.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 95-117, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265370

RESUMEN

This article explores how hypnotic strategies can be used within a polyvagal science framework to help create more secure attachment within the therapeutic relationship, as well as within the client in terms of ego-state relationships. Principles of safety and connection are emphasized, along with specific strategies to access the attachment circuits of the ventral vagal system, including the necessity of being present with the client without agenda. Uses of hypnosis related to safety and connection and methods to work with the center core self to facilitate empowerment, self-cohesion, and conflict-free experience are also reviewed. From an ego-state therapy perspective, a discussion of hypnosomatic approaches to connect with preverbal, nonverbal, and somatic aspects of self to accomplish developmental repair and facilitate secure attachment is also offered, along with case examples. A three-step model, which attempts to integrate polyvagal, somatic, and hypnotic approaches, is offered by the author to help structure corrective experiences for clients with trauma.


Asunto(s)
Ego , Hipnosis , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Apego a Objetos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/fisiopatología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Alianza Terapéutica
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 881-900, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646538

RESUMEN

Drosophila melanogaster, colloquially known as the fruit fly, is one of the most commonly used model organisms in scientific research. Although the final architecture of a fly and a human differs greatly, most of the fundamental biological mechanisms and pathways controlling development and survival are conserved through evolution between the two species. For this reason, Drosophila has been productively used as a model organism for over a century, to study a diverse range of biological processes, including development, learning, behavior and aging. Ca2+ signaling comprises complex pathways that impact on virtually every aspect of cellular physiology. Within such a complex field of study, Drosophila offers the advantages of consolidated molecular and genetic techniques, lack of genetic redundancy and a completely annotated genome since 2000. These and other characteristics provided the basis for the identification of many genes encoding Ca2+ signaling molecules and the disclosure of conserved Ca2+ signaling pathways. In this review, we will analyze the applications of Ca2+ imaging in the fruit fly model, highlighting in particular their impact on the study of normal brain function and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.


Asunto(s)
Calcio , Drosophila melanogaster , Animales , Encéfalo/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Calcio/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiología , Humanos , Modelos Animales
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 985-1012, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646542

RESUMEN

Calcium (Ca2+) ions are highly versatile intracellular signaling molecules and are universal second messenger for regulating a variety of cellular and physiological functions including synaptic plasticity. Ca2+ homeostasis in the central nervous system endures subtle dysregulation with advancing age. Research has provided abundant evidence that brain aging is associated with altered neuronal Ca2+ regulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. Much of the work has focused on the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory, which is particularly susceptible to dysfunction during aging. The current chapter takes a specific perspective, assessing various Ca2+ sources and the influence of aging on Ca2+ sources and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Integrating the knowledge of the complexity of age-related alterations in neuronal Ca2+ signaling and synaptic plasticity mechanisms will positively shape the development of highly effective therapeutics to treat brain disorders including cognitive impairment associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Encéfalo , Señalización del Calcio , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Plasticidad Neuronal , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Hipocampo/fisiopatología , Humanos , Plasticidad Neuronal/fisiología
19.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(6): 301-305, 2019.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787680

RESUMEN

Accumulation of insoluble alpha-synuclein (αS) is a pathological hallmark of some progressive neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, collectively termed synucleinopathies. In diseased brain, αS forms ß-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils and it is accumulated in neurons or glial cells. A growing body of evidence suggests that spreading of αS pathology occur by prion-like propagation mechanisms. Our study revealed that intracerebral injection of synthetic αS amyloid fibrils into wild-type mice induced prion-like propagation of αS pathology at 1 month post injection, while injection of soluble αS did not induce αS pathology. Furthermore, injection of αS amyloid fibrils into αS knockout mice failed to induce any pathologies. We also have demonstrated that intracerebral injection of αS amyloid fibrils into small primates, adult common marmosets, resulted in spreading of αS pathologies and loss of TH-positive neurons. These in vivo experiments clearly indicate that αS amyloid fibrils has prion-like properties and it propagates through neural networks. The underlying mechanisms of αS propagation are poorly understood, however, αS propagation model animals would be useful in elucidating pathogenetic mechanisms and developing disease-modifying drugs for sporadic synucleinopathies.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Animales , Priones , alfa-Sinucleína/química , Animales , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados
20.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(6): 335-339, 2019.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787686

RESUMEN

Down syndrome caused by triplication of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) is the most frequent aneuploidy, resulting in mental retardation, intellectual disability and accelerated aging. Individuals with DS are at an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like dementia, with up to 75% of DS people in their 60s developing dementia. Oxidative stress is widely accepted as a mechanism underlying a number of DS symptoms, such as accelerated aging and cognitive decline. Superoxide disumutase 1 (Sod1) and amiloyd precursor protein (App) genes are suggested as the candidate genes in HSA21 underlying the enhanced oxidative stress in individuals with DS. However, we previously demonstrated that the Ts1Cje mouse model, which has a normal copy number of both candidate genes, also shows enhanced oxidative stress, suggesting that triplicated genes other than Sod1 and App likely enhance oxidative stress in the brain of DS people. To identify the molecules with enhanced oxidative stress in Ts1Cje mice, we performed several -omics analyses. Recently, we showed that copper was accumulated in the brain of adult Ts1Cje mice in an analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and a low-copper diet was able to improve the elevated levels of copper. The low-copper diet also resolved some anomalies, such as the enhanced oxidative stress, accumulation of phosphorylated tau and low anxiety. These findings suggest that the accumulation of copper in the DS brain may be a therapeutic target for ameliorating a number of abnormal phenotypes in individuals with DS.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Cobre/metabolismo , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatología , Adulto , Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Ratones
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