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1.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 33(2): 197-209, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750651

RESUMEN

The delineation of excessive gingival display and review of current treatment options. Discussion over periodontal and prosthetic treatments, mucosal stripping procedures, myotomies, Botox therapy, and orthognathic procedures for correction of the "gummy smile."


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Estética Dental , Encía/cirugía , Humanos , Labio , Sonrisa
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(3): 313-320, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723103

RESUMEN

Background: Dental plaque is a major oral health problem with severe consequences. Oral antiseptics provide important means for controlling dental plaque formation and are widely used by the public. However, some of these antiseptics have been shown to have side effects on oral tissues. Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the time and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of various antiseptics on primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Methods: HGF cells were obtained using primary culture techniques. The effects of various doses of 5 antiseptics containing Chlorhexidine-Gluconate (CHX), CHX with Benzydamine-Hydrochloride (Benzydamine-HCl), Povidone-Iodine (PVP-I), Benzydamine-HCl and Essential-Oil on HGFs were analyzed by using 2,3-bis (2-metoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide cell viability assay after 30, 60, and 180 s of exposure. Results: Cell viability analyses showed that cell death increased in an application time and dose-dependent manner. There was a statistically significant difference in the effects of each antiseptic on live-cell densities compared to the control group and each other (P < 0.001). Antiseptic containing 0.2% CHX showed the highest cytotoxicity on cells. The remaining viable cell density after administration of 0.2% CHX at a dose of 12.5% for 30 s is 35.19%. The high cytotoxic effect of 0.2% CHX was followed by 0.12% CHX with 0.15% Benzydamine-HCl, PVP-I and 0.15% Benzydamine-HCl groups. The lowest cytotoxic effect was observed for the Essential-Oil containing antiseptic solution. Conclusions: The results of this study show that these five antiseptic agents have variable effects on in vitro HGF proliferation. The doses and administration times of antiseptics should be controlled carefully during dental applications.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales , Antineoplásicos , Bencidamina , Antiinfecciosos Locales/toxicidad , Clorhexidina/toxicidad , Encía , Humanos , Povidona Yodada/toxicidad
3.
Quintessence Int ; 52(4): 284-291, 2021 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655740

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding the effect of root coverage procedures on tooth survival and periodontal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of the literature was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. A PICO-based search strategy was performed in six databases. Eligibility criteria included studies comparing tooth survival and periodontal outcomes of teeth treated with root coverage procedures versus teeth that had no treatment. The search resulted in 3,646 articles; 212 articles were downloaded for review, and six articles (three studies) were included. Only a single study reported on tooth survival and found no difference between teeth that underwent root coverage procedures versus those that did not. Although the surgeries described in each study were mostly successful in reducing recession and increasing keratinized gingiva, teeth which did not undergo surgery did not seem to have a clinically significant change in recession. The study with the longest follow-up (18 to 35 years) showed an average increase in recession of 0.5 ± 0.9 mm and a decrease in keratinized tissue of 0.3 ± 0.8 mm in the control group. CONCLUSION: This systematic review highlights the need for randomized controlled trials to assess the influence of root coverage surgeries on tooth longevity in order to better inform evidence-based practice. When compared to no surgical intervention, there is presently no evidence to suggest that root coverage surgeries increase tooth longevity. Furthermore, the amount of recession does not appear to increase a clinically significant amount over time without surgical intervention in the presence of proper maintenance and home care.


Asunto(s)
Recesión Gingival , Tejido Conectivo , Estudios de Seguimiento , Encía , Recesión Gingival/cirugía , Humanos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Raíz del Diente/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Gen Dent ; 69(2): 52-55, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661115

RESUMEN

A "gummy smile," considered to be exposure of more than 3.0 mm of gingival tissue during a forced smile, negatively affects smile esthetics. The present case series describes the clinical indications and technique for applying botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) to correct a gummy smile and assesses the outcomes and satisfaction levels of 3 patients. The patients were told about the risks and benefits of the procedure and advised that their gummy smile was likely to recur within 6 months posttreatment. After the exposed gingival tissue of the patients was measured with a ruler, photographs were taken, and the patients recorded their pretreatment level of satisfaction with their smile on a visual analog scale (VAS), the patients were treated with BoNTA. The BoNTA was diluted in 1 mL of sterile saline according to the manufacturer's instructions, and an extraoral point of application was marked 1 mm lateral to each of the patient's nasal wings, close to the insertion of the elevator muscles of the upper lip and the nasal wings. At each location, 4 U was injected by tilting the syringe 45° in relation to the skin. Fourteen days after treatment, the gingival tissue exposed during a smile was again measured with a ruler, new photographic records were taken, and the patients' level of satisfaction with the treatment and the esthetic result was determined. Repositioning of the upper lip was observed in all patients. No adverse effects or complaints were reported. All 3 patients reported that they were satisfied with the outcome and wanted to continue therapy with BoNTA as needed. The results of the reported cases suggest that the application of BoNTA constitutes a safe, effective treatment for the correction of gummy smile and is well accepted by patients. However, for the treatment to be successful, it is essential that clinicians master the facial topographic anatomy and the technique to be employed.


Asunto(s)
Estética Dental , Sonrisa , Encía , Gingivectomía , Humanos , Labio
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24924, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725852

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Orthodontic treatment can lead to microbial-induced gingival inflammation and aseptic periodontal inflammations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary pro-inflammatory cytokines levels with gingival health status and oral microbe loads among patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.The present investigation was a cross-sectional study among a sample of 111 consecutive orthodontic patients (mean age 18.4 ±â€Š4.4 years). Clinical examinations were conducted to assess the gingival health status employing the Modified Gingival Index, Gingival Bleeding Index, and Plaque Index. Salivary microbiological assessments of total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria count, streptococci count, and lactobacilli count were undertaken. Saliva immunological assessments included Interleukin-1Beta (IL-1ß) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) ELISA assays.The mean ±â€Šstandard deviation of salivary IL-1ß was 83.52 ±â€Š85.62 pg/ml and MIF was 4.12 ±â€Š0.96 ng/ml. Moderate positive correlations were found between salivary IL-1ß levels and total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria count, streptococci count, and lactobacilli count (r = 0.380-0.446, P < .001), and weak positive correlations between salivary MIF levels and total salivary aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts (r = 0.249-0.306, P < .01) were observed. A positive correlation was found between salivary IL-1ß levels and Bleeding Index (r = 0.216, P < .05).The level of salivary IL-1ß positively correlates with oral bacterial load among orthodontic patients; the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and oral microflora deserved further study.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis/diagnóstico , Interleucina-1beta/análisis , Aparatos Ortodóncicos/efectos adversos , Saliva/química , Adolescente , Carga Bacteriana , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encía/inmunología , Encía/microbiología , Gingivitis/inmunología , Gingivitis/microbiología , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/inmunología , Oxidorreductasas Intramoleculares/análisis , Oxidorreductasas Intramoleculares/inmunología , Factores Inhibidores de la Migración de Macrófagos/análisis , Factores Inhibidores de la Migración de Macrófagos/inmunología , Masculino , Microbiota/inmunología , Antisépticos Bucales/administración & dosificación , Adulto Joven
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(2): 233-239, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605914

RESUMEN

Background: Antibiotic use in research volunteers partaking in dental studies varies widely, as inclusion and exclusion criteria used in participant selection lack strict rules. Aim: We aimed to investigate the most appropriate ending time of amoxicillin therapy in healthy subjects before their recruitment and participation in oral histology trials. A cross-sectional design study was conducted in Istanbul, Turkey, between October 2018 and June 2019. Subjects and Methods: Study participants who had undergone a previous course of amoxicillin were divided into three groups according to the amount of time since their last antibiotic dose: group I, within 1 month; group II, within 4-6 months; and group III, within 7-12 months. Periodontal parameters were measured, and smear samples were obtained from buccal mucosa and keratinized gingiva. Gingival biopsies were taken from the upper premolars. Genetic damage and histopathological damage were analyzed with Feulgen reaction and with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and the Pearson Chi-square tests. Results: There were no significant differences in the periodontal parameters and sociodemographic characteristics between the groups (P > 0.05). Higher genetic and histopathological damage scores were observed in group I, which were significantly different compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between groups II and III (P > 0.05). Conclusions: When selecting healthy participants for oral histology trials, at least 3 months should pass after the final dose of amoxicillin is taken to avoid negative effects on gingival tissue and smear samples.


Asunto(s)
Amoxicilina , Encía , Biopsia , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Turquia
9.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(2): 269-276, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605919

RESUMEN

Background: Diabetes and periodontitis are two chronic inflammatory diseases sharing specific etiopathogenetic mechanisms, and both cause severe inflammation and destruction. Aims: The present study aimed to determine the receptor expressions of peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, retinoid X receptor (RXR)-α, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expressions in healthy gingiva and diseased gingival samples with or without diabetes. Methods: Forty-five participants as (1) healthy controls (C), (2) periodontitis group (P), and (3) diabetes and periodontitis group (DP) were enrolled. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment levels (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded in all participants. Two gingival biopsies from each participant were obtained, and one underwent histological tissue processing while the other underwent qRT-PCR analysis of nuclear receptors. Inflammatory and fibroblast cell counts, PPAR-γ, RXR-α, VDR, and NF-κB were evaluated. Results: Fibroblast cells were lowest in the DP group and highest in the healthy group. PPAR-γ, VDR, RXR, and NF-κB expressions were higher in the healthy controls in the qRT-PCR analysis and similar in the other groups. Immunohistochemistry analysis also showed similar results. Conclusion: qRT-PCR results concluded that healthy gingival samples had higher PPAR-γ, RXR, VDR, and NF-κB expressions, and immunohistochemistry findings supported the results. In addition, healthy gingiva contained higher fibroblast cells and lower inflammatory cells.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Periodontitis , Diente , Encía , Humanos , Índice Periodontal
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 725-740, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542627

RESUMEN

Purpose: As a dental material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is bioinert that does not induce cellular response and bone/gingival tissues regeneration. This study was to develop bioactive coating on PEEK and investigate the effects of coating on cellular response. Materials and Methods: Tantalum pentoxide (TP) coating was fabricated on PEEK surface by vacuum evaporation and responses of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem (RBMS) cells/human gingival epithelial (HGE) were studied. Results: A dense coating (around 400 nm in thickness) of TP was closely combined with PEEK (PKTP). Moreover, the coating was non-crystalline TP, which contained many small humps (around 10 nm in size), exhibiting a nanostructured surface. In addition, the roughness, hydrophilicity, surface energy, and protein adsorption of PKTP were remarkably higher than that of PEEK. Furthermore, the responses (adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic gene expression) of RBMS cells, and responses (adhesion and proliferation) of HGE cells to PKTP were remarkably improved in comparison with PEEK. It could be suggested that the nanostructured coating of TP on PEEK played crucial roles in inducing the responses of RBMS/HGE cells. Conclusion: PKTP with elevated surface performances and outstanding cytocompatibility might have enormous potential for dental implant application.


Asunto(s)
Células Epiteliales/citología , Encía/citología , Cetonas/farmacología , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/citología , Nanoestructuras/química , Óxidos/farmacología , Polietilenglicoles/farmacología , Tantalio/farmacología , Adsorción , Fosfatasa Alcalina/metabolismo , Animales , Adhesión Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Forma de la Célula/efectos de los fármacos , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Epiteliales/ultraestructura , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Masculino , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/enzimología , Nanoestructuras/ultraestructura , Osteogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Osteogénesis/genética , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Propiedades de Superficie , Difracción de Rayos X
11.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 36(1): 86-93, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600527

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Gingiva-resident memory B cells found recently in healthy periodontal tissue may play important roles in maintaining homeostasis against bacterial plaque. Whether resident memory B cells exist in healthy peri-implant tissue and how they respond in peri-implantitis lesions are of interest. The aim of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether memory B cell activities are related to inflamed or healthy peri-implant status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with peri-implantitis or healed implants were recruited. The gingiva samples were collected and divided into inflamed (n = 4), treated (n = 4), and healed (n = 3) groups, followed by a flow cytometry analysis staining with CD3, CD19, CD27, CD38, and RANKL. The biopsy samples were also cryo-embedded for immunofluorescent double staining of CD19 and CD27. RESULTS: CD27+ CD38+ ASC comprised 83.3% ± 3.3% of the total B cells in the inflamed group, and this proportion in the treated group was reduced to 44.5% ± 13.4%. The proportion of CD27+ CD3+ T cells was found to be unchanged between the inflamed and treated groups. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that CD19+ CD27+ population infiltrated peri-implant connective tissue. RANKL was expressed by almost all B cells and a portion of T cells in the inflamed group, while the proportions of RANKL+ B and T cells were significantly reduced in the treated group. Barely any memory B cells were detected in the healed group. CONCLUSION: Memory B cells were markedly activated in peri-implantitis and responded to the suprastructure removal treatment. The lack of gingiva-resident memory B cells in the clinically healed implants serves as a hint for the weakness of peri-implant tissue against bacterial plaque.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Periimplantitis , Linfocitos B , Encía , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto
12.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(2): 152-157, 2021 Feb 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557498

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the factors associated with the gingival papilla deficiencies of different degrees between maxillary anterior teeth showing alveolar ridge absorption. Methods: A total of 64 gingival papillae between maxillary anterior teeth of 14 patients with periodontitis, who received periodontal treatment and regular review in the Department of Periodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from June 2019 to December 2019, were observed in the present study. Indices were measured by using standardized clinical photographs and cone-beam CT images. The correlations between the gingival papilla deficiencies of different degrees and the distance from contact point to bone crest (CP-BC), the distance from proximal cemento-enamel junction to bone crest (pCEJ-BC), interproximal distance between roots (RD), the width of bone crest (BCW) and the height of gingival papilla (PH) were evaluated. Statistical analyses such as t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and so on were conducted. Results: The rate of maxillary anterior gingival papilla completely filled the adjacent spaces between anterior teeth was 28% (18/64) and the rate of gingival papilla with deficiencies was 72% (46/64). The mild, moderate and severe deficiencies were 36% (23/64), 27% (17/64) and 9% (6/64) respectively. When CP-BC≥7.0 mm or pCEJ-BC≥4.5 mm, only moderate or severe deficiencies appeared. However, when CP-BC<5.0 mm or pCEJ-BC<1.5 mm, only completely filled adjacent tooth space or mild deficiency appeared. There was a strong positive correlation between CP-BC and pCEJ-BC. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.812 (P<0.01), and the linear fitting coefficient was 0.93 (R2=0.659) (64 gingival papillae). There was no significant difference of RD for gingival papilla deficiencies of different degrees between maxillary anterior teeth (P>0.05). BCW at the crest level increased slightly with the increase of the degree of gingival papilla deficiency, and the difference was statistically significant between completely filled adjacent tooth space and moderate or severe deficiency (P<0.05). However, PH at the crest level decreased slightly with the increase of the degree of gingival papilla deficiency, and the difference was statistically significant between completely filled adjacent tooth space and moderate or severe deficiency (P<0.05). Conclusions: When the alveolar ridge is absorbed, the rate of deficiency is significantly higher than the completely filled adjacent tooth space. The gingival papilla deficiencies of different degrees between maxillary anterior teeth are mainly associated with the absorption of bone crest.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Periodontitis , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Proceso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Encía , Humanos , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Periodontitis/complicaciones
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528450

RESUMEN

There is a need to modify the definition of attached gingiva (AG) as it applies to healthy and diseased teeth and implants. There are two parts to this new definition: Part A is when the biologic width is supracrestal (epithelial attachment and gingival fibers) and is attached to a healthy tooth or tissue-level implant, and the zone of AG is measured from the base of the sulcus to the mucogingival junction (MGJ); Part B is when the biologic width is subcrestal-as with infrabony defects on periodontally involved teeth, periodontally involved tissue-level implants, and bone-level implants placed at or below the bone crest-and the zone of AG is measured from the bone crest (not the base of the sulcus) to the MGJ. Further, what the AG is actually attached to around teeth and different types of implants, and the clinical significance of these differences, are thoroughly discussed.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Diente , Inserción Epitelial , Encía , Humanos
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528461

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to determine the normal values of faciolingual thickness (FLT) of the papilla base, papilla height (PH), and gingival angle (GA) among Chinese adults and the association of FLT with the gingival phenotype. The periodontal phenotypes of 105 volunteers were confirmed by Kan et al's periodontal probe transmission method and classification. All volunteers received complete supragingival scaling and were recalled after 1 week for clinical examination and for recording various periodontal indices, including Plaque Index, Gingival Index, and periodontal depth. The FLT, PH, and GA of maxillary anterior teeth were measured, and their associations were analyzed. The mean FLT of papilla between the right canine (CA) and lateral incisor (LI) was 8.11 ± 0.64 mm; between the right LI and central incisor (CI) was 7.77 ± 0.64 mm; between the right CI and left CI was 8.49 ± 0.66 mm; between the left CI and LI was 7.62 ± 0.63 mm; and between the left LI and CA was 8.17 ± 0.63 mm. The thin-phenotype group showed a greater PH and FLT than the thick phenotype group. Inversely, the GA of the thick-phenotype group was greater than the corresponding values for the thin-phenotype group. In Chinese residents, the high and thick papilla are associated with the thin phenotype, while the low and thin papilla are associated with the thick phenotype. The GA is negatively correlated with PH. A weak correlation exists between the GA and FLT of papilla.


Asunto(s)
Encía , Maxilar , Adulto , China , Humanos , Incisivo , Fenotipo
15.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 0, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533238

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Transgingival probing is often used in the clinic to assess gingival thickness. However, what is not completely known is how well this method represents the true value of soft tissue thickness. The aim of this study was to assess differences and variation in gingival thickness when measured with transgingival probing or scanned with an intraoral device. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This ex vivo study evaluated gingival thickness on 20 porcine cadavers. Gingival thickness was assessed at both central and lateral mandibular incisors through transgingival probing with a standard metal periodontal probe and also using intraoral scanning, which was considered as the method providing the 'true value' of soft tissue thickness. Intra-examiner repeatability and method error were evaluated. RESULTS: No evidence of systematic difference for any of the mandibular central or lateral incisors (mandibular right incisors: mean difference -0.17 to -0.01 mm, and mandibular left incisors: mean difference -0.11 to 0.04 mm) was observed between the periodontal probe and intraoral scanning methods. The absolute differences between the repeated measurements with intraoral scanning for each tooth type (n = 30) were calculated: the overall median was 0.089 mm and the interquartile range was 0.080 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Transgingival probing with a standard metal periodontal probe for assessing gingival thickness is a reliable method, with values very close to the true gingival thickness, and it can thus be considered as the clinical gold standard.


Asunto(s)
Encía , Incisivo , Animales , Humanos , Mandíbula , Examen Físico , Estándares de Referencia , Porcinos
16.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(4): 480-490, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563505

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic movement triggers a sequence of cellular and molecular events that may be affected by different systemic conditions. This study evaluated the effect of obesity on rat periodontal tissue remodeling induced by mechanical orthodontic force. METHODS: Thirty-two Holtzman rats were distributed into 4 groups: control, obesity induction (O), orthodontic movement (M), and obesity induction and orthodontic movement (OM). Obesity was induced by a high-fat diet for 90 days. After 15 days of orthodontic movement, the animals were killed. Obesity induction was confirmed by animal body weight, adipose tissue weight, and serologic analysis. Periodontal tissue remodeling was evaluated using microcomputed tomography and histologic analysis. The gene expression of adipokines and cytokines in gingival tissues was evaluated. RESULTS: An increase in body and adipose tissue weight was observed in the obesity induction groups. The O group presented an increase in lipids and blood glucose. The OM group showed a decrease in bone volume fraction and bone mineral density compared with all other groups and a tendency for more rapid tooth movement than the M group. The OM group showed a higher quantity of inflammatory cells and higher Mmp1 expression than the O group. The O and OM groups showed higher Nampt expression than the control group and lower Nampt expression than the M group. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity modulates periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic movement and results in more inflammation and bone loss than in nonobese animals.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Técnicas de Movimiento Dental , Animales , Remodelación Ósea , Encía , Ligamento Periodontal , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Microtomografía por Rayos X
17.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 0, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491397

RESUMEN

Objectives: Adequate gingival thickness provides a stable base for appropriate oral hygiene maintenance and mucogingival lesion prevention. The study aim was to assess attached gingiva thickness in relation to its width, probing depth, crowding, and tooth position in the arch during the early transitional dentition phase. Method and materials: A cross-sectional study in 193 children aged 7 years with healthy mucogingival complex was conducted, and PIROP ultrasonic biometer measurement of gingival thickness of mandibular incisors was applied. To compare qualitative variables across different dentition groups, chi-square test or Fisher exact test were used, and for quantitative variables Kruskal-Wallis test plus post-hoc analysis (Dunn test). Spearman correlation coefficient was used to correlate gingival thickness with width of attached gingiva, as well as Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc analysis to assess the relationship between gingival thickness and tooth position in the arch, type of incisor, and eruption phase. Results: The mean gingival thickness value was less than 1 mm in all incisor type groups. The thinnest gingiva was noticed at permanent newly erupted incisors (0.72 ± 0.36; P < .001). Thickness of attached gingiva positively correlated with its width and with probing depth (r = 0.164, P < .001). Gingival thickness was significantly thinner at incisors positioned labially. No correlation of attached gingiva thickness with transitional crowding in mandibular incisor segment was observed. Conclusions: The results revealed thin gingiva at mandibular incisors in white children during the early transitional dentition phase. Objective, ultrasound measurements were used for the first time in a pediatric population, and the device was simple and well tolerated.


Asunto(s)
Dentición Mixta , Encía , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435582

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to clarify whether orthodontic forces and periodontitis interact with respect to the anti-apoptotic molecules superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 3 (BIRC3). SOD2, BIRC3, and the apoptotic markers caspases 3 (CASP3) and 9 (CASP9) were analyzed in gingiva from periodontally healthy and periodontitis subjects by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. SOD2 and BIRC3 were also studied in gingiva from rats with experimental periodontitis and/or orthodontic tooth movement. Additionally, SOD2 and BIRC3 levels were examined in human periodontal fibroblasts incubated with Fusobacterium nucleatum and/or subjected to mechanical forces. Gingiva from periodontitis patients showed significantly higher SOD2, BIRC3, CASP3, and CASP9 levels than periodontally healthy gingiva. SOD2 and BIRC3 expressions were also significantly increased in the gingiva from rats with experimental periodontitis, but the upregulation of both molecules was significantly diminished in the concomitant presence of orthodontic tooth movement. In vitro, SOD2 and BIRC3 levels were significantly increased by F. nucleatum, but this stimulatory effect was also significantly inhibited by mechanical forces. Our study suggests that SOD2 and BIRC3 are produced in periodontal infection as a protective mechanism against exaggerated apoptosis. In the concomitant presence of orthodontic forces, this protective anti-apoptotic mechanism may get lost.


Asunto(s)
Proteína 3 que Contiene Repeticiones IAP de Baculovirus/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Periodoncio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/genética , Animales , Apoptosis/genética , Proteína 3 que Contiene Repeticiones IAP de Baculovirus/metabolismo , Caspasa 3/genética , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Caspasa 9/genética , Caspasa 9/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citología , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fusobacterium nucleatum/fisiología , Encía/citología , Encía/metabolismo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Ligamento Periodontal/citología , Ligamento Periodontal/microbiología , Periodoncio/citología , Periodoncio/microbiología , Ratas , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440877

RESUMEN

Allografts consisting of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) are supposed to retain the growth factors of native bone. However, it is not clear if transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) is maintained in the acid-extracted human bone. To this aim, the aqueous solutions of supernatants and acid lysates of OraGRAFT® Demineralized Cortical Particulate and OraGRAFT® Prime were prepared. Exposing fibroblasts to the aqueous solution caused a TGF-ß receptor type I kinase-inhibitor SB431542-dependent increase in interleukin 11 (IL11), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) expression. Interleukin 11 expression and the presence of TGF-ß1 in the aqueous solutions were confirmed by immunoassay. Immunofluorescence further confirmed the nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 when fibroblasts were exposed to the aqueous solutions of both allografts. Moreover, allografts released matrix metalloprotease-2 activity and blocking proteases diminished the cellular TGF-ß response to the supernatant. These results suggest that TGF-ß is preserved upon the processing of OraGRAFT® and released by proteolytic activity into the aqueous solution.


Asunto(s)
Matriz Ósea/metabolismo , Resorción Ósea/etiología , Resorción Ósea/metabolismo , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Aloinjertos , Benzamidas/farmacología , Biomarcadores , Matriz Ósea/patología , Células Cultivadas , Dioxoles/farmacología , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Encía/citología , Humanos , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacología , Receptores de Factores de Crecimiento Transformadores beta/antagonistas & inhibidores , Receptores de Factores de Crecimiento Transformadores beta/metabolismo
20.
J Periodontal Res ; 56(2): 397-407, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448057

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on developing gingival overgrowth (GO) and then introduced the antioxidant strategy to prevent, or even reduce GO. BACKGROUND: Gingival overgrowth is a common side effect of the patients receiving cyclosporine A (CsA), an immune suppressant. Although it has been broadly investigated, the exact pathogenesis of the induced GO is still uncertain. METHODS: We cultured human primary gingival fibroblasts and used animal model of GO to investigate the ameliorative effects of antioxidants on CsA-induced GO. To examine the CsA-induced oxidative stress, associated genes and protein expression, and the overgrown gingiva of rats by using immunocytochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, real-time PCR, ELISA, gelatin zymography, gingival morphological, and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: We found for the first time that ROS was responsible for the CsA-induced oxidative stress and TGF-ß1 expression in human primary gingival fibroblasts, as well as the GO of rats. The antioxidants (oxidative scavenger of vitamin E and an antioxidative enzyme inducer of hemin) ameliorated CsA-induced pathological and morphological alterations of GO without affected the CsA-suppressed il-2 expression in rats. CsA-induced oxidative stress, HO-1, TGF-ß1, and type II EMT were also rescued by antioxidants treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that CsA repetitively stimulating the production of ROS is the cause of CsA-GO which is ameliorated by treating antioxidants, including vitamin E and sulforaphane. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive effect of CsA is not interfered by antioxidant treatments in rats. This finding may thus help the clinician devise better prevention strategies in patients susceptible to GO.


Asunto(s)
Ciclosporina , Sobrecrecimiento Gingival , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Ciclosporina/toxicidad , Fibroblastos , Encía , Sobrecrecimiento Gingival/inducido químicamente , Sobrecrecimiento Gingival/tratamiento farmacológico , Sobrecrecimiento Gingival/prevención & control , Humanos , Inmunosupresores/efectos adversos , Ratas
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