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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199210

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed at comparing self-reported physical health and mental health among university students, workers, and working students aged between 19 years and 29 years. METHOD: Using data from National Health Surveys held in 2005 and 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 18,612 Italian emerging adults grouped into three groups: university students, workers, and working students. The odds ratios of self-reported anxiety or depression, poor general health, and poor mental health and physical health (as assessed through SF-12) were estimated through logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Compared with workers, students showed an increased risk of anxiety or depression and a lower risk of poor general health. Students and working students showed an increased risk of reporting weak mental health compared with that in workers, while students displayed a lower risk of poor physical health. Significant differences were not found between the 2005 and 2013 surveys. CONCLUSIONS: These results are of considerable importance for psychologists as well as educational and occupation-based institutions for planning prevention programs and clinical interventions.


Asunto(s)
Distrés Psicológico , Universidades , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(26): 947-952, 2021 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197362

RESUMEN

Increases in mental health conditions have been documented among the general population and health care workers since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (1-3). Public health workers might be at similar risk for negative mental health consequences because of the prolonged demand for responding to the pandemic and for implementing an unprecedented vaccination campaign. The extent of mental health conditions among public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, is uncertain. A 2014 survey estimated that there were nearly 250,000 state and local public health workers in the United States (4). To evaluate mental health conditions among these workers, a nonprobability-based online survey was conducted during March 29-April 16, 2021, to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation among public health workers in state, tribal, local, and territorial public health departments. Among 26,174 respondents, 53.0% reported symptoms of at least one mental health condition in the preceding 2 weeks, including depression (32.0%), anxiety (30.3%), PTSD (36.8%), or suicidal ideation (8.4%). The highest prevalence of symptoms of a mental health condition was among respondents aged ≤29 years (range = 13.6%-47.4%) and transgender or nonbinary persons (i.e., those who identified as neither male nor female) of all ages (range = 30.4%-65.5%). Public health workers who reported being unable to take time off from work were more likely to report adverse mental health symptoms. Severity of symptoms increased with increasing weekly work hours and percentage of work time dedicated to COVID-19 response activities. Implementing prevention and control practices that eliminate, reduce, and manage factors that cause or contribute to public health workers' poor mental health might improve mental health outcomes during emergencies.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Salud Pública , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Timely initiation of breastfeeding is the first step towards achieving recommended breastfeeding behaviours. Delayed breastfeeding initiation harms neonatal health and survival, including infection associated neonatal mortality. Eighty percent of neonatal deaths occur in the low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), where delayed breastfeeding initiation is the highest. Place and mode of childbirth are important factors determining the time of initiation of breastfeeding. In this study, we report the prevalence of delayed breastfeeding initiation from 58 LMICs and investigate the relationship between place and mode of childbirth and delayed breastfeeding initiation in each country. METHODS: We analysed data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) collected between 2012 and 2017 and reported by 2019. The study sample comprised all women who had a live birth in the 24 months preceding the survey. 'Delayed' initiation of breastfeeding was defined using WHO recommendations as starting breastfeeding after one hour of birth. We coded the stratifying variable for the place and mode of childbirth as "vaginal birth at a facility (VBF)", "caesarean section birth (CSB) ", and "vaginal birth at home (VBH)". We used respondent-level sampling weights to account for individual surveys and de-normalised the standard survey weights to ensure the appropriate contribution of data from each country. We report the prevalence and population attributable fractions with robust standard errors. The population attributable risk identifies the proportion of delayed initiation that we could avert among VBH and CSB if everyone had the same risk of delaying breastfeeding as in VBF. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of delayed initiation of breastfeeding was 53.8% (95% CI 53.3, 54.3), ranging from 15.0% (95% CI 13.8, 16.2) in Burundi to 83.4% (95% CI 80.6, 86.0) in Guinea. The prevalence of delayed initiation of breastfeeding was consistently high among women who experienced caesarean section births; however, there was no direct association with each country's national caesarean section rates. The prevalence of delayed initiation among women who experienced VBF was high in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, even though the CSB rates were low. In some countries, women who give birth vaginally in health facilities were more likely to delay breastfeeding initiation than women who did not. In many places, women who give birth by caesarean section were less likely to delay breastfeeding initiation. Population attributable risk percent for VBH ranged from -28.5% in Ukraine to 22.9% in Moldova, and for CSB, from 10.3% in Guinea to 54.8% in Burundi. On average, across all 58 countries, 24.4% of delayed initiation could be prevented if all women had the same risk of delaying breastfeeding initiation as in VBF. DISCUSSION: In general, women who give birth in a health facility were less likely to experience delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Programs could avert much of the delayed breastfeeding initiation in LMICs if the prevalence of delayed initiation amongst women who experience CSB were the same as amongst women who experience VBF. Crucial reforms of health facilities are required to ensure early breastfeeding practices and to create pro-breastfeeding supportive environments as recommended in intervention packages like the Baby-friendly hospital initiative and Early essential newborn care. The findings from this study will guide program managers to identify countries at varying levels of preparedness to establish and maintain a breastfeeding-friendly environment at health facilities. Thus, governments should prioritise intervention strategies to improve coverage and settings surrounding early initiation of breastfeeding while considering the complex role of place and mode of childbirth.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Cesárea , África del Sur del Sahara , Asia , Burundi , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Moldavia , Parto , Embarazo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ucrania
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199827

RESUMEN

Oral health is closely related to subjective general health and systemic diseases. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors related to oral symptoms and their worsening in relation to psychosocial factors after the Great East Japan Earthquake. In this study, 64,186 residents aged 15-101 years old, who experienced the earthquake on 11 March 2011, were surveyed regarding their oral symptoms; psychological factors, such as post-traumatic reactions and psychological distress; and social factors such as evacuation, work change, and loss of a close person; history of systemic diseases; and lifestyle. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were established for each factor associated with prevalent and exacerbated oral symptoms. The proportions of participants with prevalent and exacerbated oral symptoms were 10.3% and 1.6%, respectively. The multivariate odds ratios and 95% CI of psychosocial factors associated with exacerbated oral symptoms were as follows: post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, 2.24 (1.64-3.06); work changes, 1.88 (1.34-2.65); history of dyslipidemia, 1.74 (1.27-2.39); and subjective current poor health condition, 2.73 (2.00-3.75). Psychological factors, social factors, and physical factors were associated with both prevalent and exacerbated oral symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Terremotos , Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto Joven
6.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61(1): 41, 2021 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193303

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals faced psychological stress caused by fear and anxiety due to the high transmission and mortality rate of the disease, the social isolation, economic problems, and difficulties in reaching health services. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic centralized pain sensitivity disorder. Psychological, physical and/or autoimmune stressors were found to increase FM symptoms. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the COVID-19 fear and anxiety level, and to examine their effect on disease severity, sleep quality, and mood in FM patients compared to control group. METHODS: This pilot study conducted as a cross-sectional study, and included 62 participants. Participants were divided into two groups: FM patient group (n = 31) and control group (n = 31). Symptom severity, sleep quality, and mood were determined using the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), Pitsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. In order to evaluate the level of COVID-19 fear and anxiety, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) were used compared to control group. RESULTS: FIQR, PSQI, HAD-A, HAD-D, FCV-19S and CAS scores were significantly higher in the FM group (p = 0.01). A positive significant correlation was found between FCV-19S and CAS results and FIQR, PSQI, and HAD-anx results in FM patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This pilot study showed that, the individuals with FM can be more affected by psychological stress, and this situation negatively affects the symptom severity, sleep quality, and mood in FM patients, so these patients should be closely monitored in terms of psychological stressors and their effects during pandemics. More studies with more participants are necessary to describe the challenges lived by fibromyalgia population.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , COVID-19/psicología , Miedo , Fibromialgia/psicología , Sueño , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205375

RESUMEN

Understanding the specific geographical distribution of stunting is essential for planning and implementing targeted public health interventions in high-burdened countries. This study investigated geographical variations in the prevalence of stunting sub-nationally, and the determinants of stunting among children under 5 years of age in Ethiopia. We used the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) dataset for children aged 0-59 months with valid anthropometric measurements and geographic coordinates (n = 9089). We modelled the prevalence of stunting and its determinants using Bayesian geospatially explicit regression models. The prevalence of stunting among children under five years was 36.3% (95% credible interval (CrI); 22.6%, 51.4%) in Ethiopia, with wide variations sub-nationally and by age group. The prevalence of childhood stunting ranged from 56.6% (37.4-74.6%) in the Mekelle Special zone of the Tigray region to 25.5% (10.5-48.9%) in the Sheka zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples region. Factors associated with a reduced likelihood of stunting in Ethiopia included non-receipt of breastmilk, mother's BMI (overweight/obese), employment status (employed), and higher household wealth, while the enablers were residence in the "arid" geographic areas, small birth size of the child, and mother's BMI (underweight). The prevalence and determinants of stunting varied across Ethiopia. Efforts to reduce the burden of childhood stunting should consider geographical heterogeneity and modifiable risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Preescolar , Clima , Dieta , Empleo , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Madres , Estado Nutricional , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(3): 181-188, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212699

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients varies between 19.8% and 50%, with approximately 31% of all hospital patients considered malnourished or at nutritional risk, both in European and in Italian hospitals. Nutritional screening is necessary to identify nutrition-related problems, but it is not largely performed at the admission or during hospitalization. OBJECTIVES: to identify factors associated with the probability of performing nutritional screening during hospitalization and to describe BMI among inpatients in acute facilities of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) Region (Northern Italy). DESIGN: point prevalence survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study was conducted in all the 18 hospitals of the FVG regional healthcare system; 58 trained surveyors collected data from 2nd to 30th October 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: weight and height, presence of parenteral and enteral nutrition data of 2,553 patients were collected. RESULTS: BMI was determinable for 77.2% of people under study. Negative predictors for BMI screening were: spoke hospital (p<0.001), age over 65 years (p=0.005), both 'ultimately fatal' (p<0.001) and 'rapidly fatal' (p<0.001) McCabe score, presence of minimally invasive surgery (p=0.02); major surgery was a positive predictor (p<0.001). Prevalence of parenteral and enteral nutrition prescription was 4.0% and 3.6%, respectively; statistical differences were found according to care units and McCabe score (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: globally, BMI for inpatients in the surveyed hospitals is often assessed, but more investigations are needed to understand the reasons why the reported differences exist.


Asunto(s)
Pacientes Internos , Desnutrición , Evaluación Nutricional , Anciano , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Hospitalización , Humanos , Pacientes Internos/estadística & datos numéricos , Italia/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Prevalencia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201793

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a high-risk non-communicable disease with an emerging burden for the European Union (EU) member states in the past decades. The unfavorable trend of the burden is striking compared to the declining disease burden due to cardiovascular diseases or stagnation of neoplasms. The goal of this study is to describe the temporal changes of diabetes in the adult population of Slovakia through the three European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) waves and to assess the association between DM and socioeconomic and/or lifestyle characteristics. These cross-sectional studies were carried out using microdata derived from Slovakia's EHISs conducted in the years 2009 (n = 4972), 2014 (n = 5490), and 2019 (n = 5527). The DM variable was compared to the independent variables such as sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics including dietary patterns and physical activity. DM prevalence for the EHIS in 2009, 2014, and 2019 were 6.1%, 8.2%, and 9.8%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, the relationship between DM and age, education level, job status, BMI, walking for at least 10 min, and physical activity was significant in the three EHISs. In 2014 and 2019, there was an inverse association between the risk of DM and walking regularly. There was no association between the frequency of eating fruits or vegetables and DM, with the exception of 2009, where a negative association between eating vegetables one to six times a week and DM was observed. Present health policies and activities in Slovakia were unable to reverse the increasing DM burden, indicating that a more systematic approach is needed. Complex policy strategies and legislative measures must be developed and implemented at both the national and EU levels.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Entrevistas como Asunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Eslovaquia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 170-176, Junio 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222869

RESUMEN

Introducción. Los jóvenes no fueron muy afectados desde el punto de vista infeccioso por la pandemia de COVID-19. Sin embargo, las medidas de aislamiento social modificaron de manera profunda su estilo de vida, y se cree que esto los afecta psicológicamente. El objetivo fue evaluar el impacto del aislamiento por COVID-19en la salud emocional de jóvenes en escolaridad primaria o secundaria.Población y métodos. Participaron del estudio padres de jóvenes de San Carlos de Bariloche. Se evaluó la percepción del adulto sobre el impacto emocional y de comportamiento del aislamiento sobre el joven, cambio de hábitos de sueño, uso de pantallas, actividades deportivas y alimentación y de asistencia a consulta médica.Resultados. Se incluyeron 267 padres. El 96,3 % observó cambios emocionales y de comportamiento. Los más frecuentes fueron que estaban más aburridos (el 76,8 %), irritables (el 59,2 %), desganados (el 56,9 %) y enojados (el 54,7 %). Se observó que se levantaban y acostaban más tarde y dormían 30 minutos más. Además, el uso de pantallas por esparcimiento aumentó 3 horas durante los días hábiles. El tiempo dedicado a la actividad física no varió, pero sí cambió el tipo de actividades: la natación y los deportes de equipo fueron reemplazados por ciclismo, caminatas y esquí.Conclusiones. El aislamiento por COVID-19impactó sobre la salud emocional y los hábitos de los jóvenes. El aburrimiento, la irritabilidad y el desgano estuvieron más presentes durante el aislamiento. La posibilidad de realizar actividades al aire libre permitió que continuaran practicando deportes.


Introduction. From an infectious perspective, children and adolescents were not highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social isolation measures have deeply changed their lifestyle, which is believed to have a psychological impact on them. The objective was to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the emotional health of children and adolescents attending primary or secondary school.Population and methods. Parents of children and adolescents from San Carlos de Bariloche participated in the study. Adults' perception of the emotional and behavioral impact of lockdown on children and adolescents, changes in sleeping habits, screen use, sports-related activities, eating, and medical consultations, was assessed.Results. A total of 267 parents were included. Of them, 96.3 % noticed emotional and behavioral changes. The most common ones were that their children were more bored (76.8 %), more irritable (59.2 %), more reluctant (56.9 %), and angrier (54.7 %). It was observed that they woke up and went to bed later, and slept 30 minutes more. Moreover, leisure screen use increased by 3 hours on weekdays. Time dedicated to physical activities did not change, but the type of activities did: swimming and team sports were replaced by biking, walking, and skiing.Conclusions. COVID-19 lockdown affected the emotional health and habits of children and adolescents. Boredom, irritability, and reluctance were more present during lockdown. The possibility of doing outdoor physical activities allowed them to keep practicing sports


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Educación a Distancia , COVID-19/prevención & control , Padres , Argentina/epidemiología , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Salud Mental/tendencias , Salud del Niño/tendencias , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Salud del Adolescente/tendencias , Pandemias , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología
11.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 50(6): 388-393, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059849

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Immunisation uptake in Australian older adults is suboptimal. General practice registrars are responsible for a significant proportion of immunisations in this age group and are also in the process of developing patterns of practice. Despite their role, little is known about general practice registrars' attitudes towards immunisation of older adults, the barriers faced, and the role supervisors play in developing adult immunisation skills. METHOD: This was a qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with general practice registrars and supervisors purposively sampled from around Australia. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The five key themes were grouped in terms of perceptions of registrars' role in immunisation of older adults, consultation barriers, health system barriers, managing vaccine hesitancy, and a team approach to vaccination. DISCUSSION: Vaccine positivity is an important attitude to cultivate within the general practice environment as it has an impact on registrar behaviour. Immunisation-skilled nurses could play a role in training general practice registrars in immunisation. Findings from the present study may be useful in improving vaccine uptake in the elderly in the context of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Médicos Generales/psicología , Rol del Médico , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Competencia Clínica , Barreras de Comunicación , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Rol de la Enfermera , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 241, 2021 06 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118922

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a defining human rights, development and public health issue of our time. Economic empowerment is one of the most promising interventions to reduce IPV in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the evidence around economic factors that are key to ensure a reduction in IPV are still mixed. Furthermore, there is a lack of clarity on what kinds of economic empowerment works for which population group. This paper seeks a more nuanced understanding, by investigating whether the associations between indicators of economic empowerment and physical and/or sexual IPV are similar between the general population of women and among urban versus rural and young, or middle aged women versus older women. METHODS: Using couples data from 25 DHS surveys across 15 countries (n = 70,993 women and men aged 15 and above at time of survey), we analyse how household wealth, men's and women's education and employment status, decision making on women's income, differences in education and employment of women and their partners and women's cash income are associated with physical and/or sexual IPV. We also provide sub-analyses for both urban and rural areas and for women aged, 15 to 24 25 to 34 and 35 to 49. RESULTS: Across all surveys, 20% of women reported physical and/or sexual IPV in the last 12 months. On the one hand, our findings reinforced certain well-established patterns between women's economic empowerment and IPV, with women's and men's higher levels of education and increased household wealth  associated with a decrease in IPV, and women's employment, especially if only the woman worked, and women earning more than her partner associated with an increase in IPV. Most patterns did not differ across urban and rural settings and age groups, but notable differences emerged regarding household wealth, women's and men's employment in the last 12 months and relative employment and education. CONCLUSIONS: Factors relating to women's economic empowerment are  vital in understanding and addressing IPV. Our analysis indicate however that future interventions need to consider the differing needs of urban and rural areas as well as be targeted to different age groups.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Violencia de Pareja , África del Sur del Sahara , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1033, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074275

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The increase in the elderly population, chronic and degenerative diseases, as well as accidents at work and on the road in Malaysia would result in an increased demand for informal care. This paper aimed to determine the associated factors of informal caregiving and its effects on health, work and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia. METHODS: The data from the 2019 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey with a two-stage stratified random sampling design, was used in this research. The study included respondents who were 18 years and older (n = 11,674). Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews using validated questionnaires. Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. RESULTS: 5.7% of the adult population were informal caregivers. Provision of informal care were significantly associated with the female sex (OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.21, 1.92]), those aged 36-59 years (OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.15, 2.25]), and those who reported illness in the past 2 weeks (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.38, 2.33]). The risk of having their health affected were associated with female caregivers (OR = 3.63, 95% CI [1.73, 7.61]), those who received training (OR = 2.10, 95% CI [1.10, 4.00]) and those who provided care for 2 years or more (OR = 1.91, 95% CI [1.08, 3.37]). The factors associated with the effects on work were ethnicity, received training and had no assistance to provide the care. In terms of effect on social activities, female caregivers (OR = 1.96, 95% CI [1.04, 3.69]) and caregivers who received training were more likely (OR = 2.19, 95% CI [1.22, 3.93]) to have their social activities affected. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that sex, age, and self-reported illness were factors associated with being an informal caregiver in Malaysia. Informal caregivers faced effects on their health, work, and social activities which may be detrimental to their well-being. This understanding is crucial for planning support for caregivers.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Morbilidad
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1041, 2021 06 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078338

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic overuse is the main modifiable driver of antibiotic resistance. Factors associated with overuse have been inconsistently reported and vary across populations. Given the burgeoning occurrence of infectious diseases around the world, there remains a great need to identify barriers and solutions to the control of infections. We examined whether knowledge about infections and antibiotic resistance is associated with antibiotic use in a northern European population sample. METHODS: The Health Survey Northern Ireland 2014/15 was completed by a cross-sectional sample of 4135 participants aged > 16 years. Participants were asked whether they had taken an antibiotic in the past 12 months; and six questions were asked concerning knowledge about infections and antibiotic resistance. Correct answers to the six knowledge questions defined a knowledge score (score range 0-6 correct answers). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of self-reported antibiotic use during the last 12 months in association with knowledge score (lowest score, 0/6, as referent), and response to each knowledge question. Covariates included sex, age group, smoking, alcohol drinking, deprivation index, self-rated health, and satisfaction with life. Results were outputted as Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). RESULTS: Antibiotic use in the past 12 months was reported by 39.0% (1614/4135); and 84.2% (3482/4135) scored < 6/6 correct on knowledge statements. Compared to the lowest knowledge score (0/6 correct), the highest knowledge score (6/6 correct) was associated with higher odds of antibiotic use (adjusted OR 2.03, 95% CI [1.46, 2.81], p < 0.001), with a P-value < 0.001 for trend with increasing knowledge score. Female sex, age, high deprivation, and poor general health, were independently associated with higher odds of antibiotic use. Stratified analyses showed sex and age group differences. CONCLUSION: Knowledge, and other modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, were positively associated with antibiotic use in the past 12 months. While the causal direction of these associations could not be determined, given the high prevalence of lesser knowledge, as well as independent contributions of other factors including socioeconomic characteristics, health literacy campaigns to raise awareness of antibiotic resistance should take a multi-pronged approach.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1082, 2021 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090417

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is prevalent and associated with both short- and long-term health problems. Previous studies have established child maltreatment as a risk factor for a wide range of problems over the life course such as mental- and somatic health problems, self-harm, alcohol- and drug abuse and decreased work-life participation. Still, there are few large and well-conducted longitudinal studies focusing on describing prevalence and identifying risk factors and long-term consequences of child maltreatment. The purpose of the current study is to recruit a large number of children and adolescents exposed to maltreatment and follow them long-term. METHODS/DESIGN: The current study is a longitudinal cohort study and will use a multi-informant design (child/adolescent, caregiver, and administrative data). Participants will be recruited from the Stine Sofie Centre (SSC), a learning and coping centre for children and adolescents (≤18 years) exposed to maltreatment, which includes physical and emotional abuse, neglect and/or sexual abuse. Questionnaire-based assessments from self-reports (as well as parent-reports) will be carried out at regular time intervals throughout their lives, on topics such as abuse, negative life events, mental and somatic health problems, resilience and coping, satisfaction with health services, social-, family-, and school function, as well as self-harm and substance abuse. Participants will be assessed upon entry to the centre and followed up annually until they reach 18 years and bi-annually after. Given written consent, participants' responses will be linked to relevant national registries in order to examine predictive factors and important outcomes in terms of subsequent health, education, criminal records and work affiliation. DISCUSSION: This study will examine short- and long-term consequences of child maltreatment across a range of health-related outcomes in a longitudinal perspective. Results from the current study might have implications for the development of preventive and intervention programs related to child maltreatment and the organization and follow-up of the services these children receive. The current study will hopefully contribute with knowledge of risk-factors, short- and long-term health-related and other issues that can contribute to practices aimed at improving the overall life-course for children and adolescents who have experienced childhood maltreatment.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Noruega/epidemiología
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1094, 2021 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098910

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Amongst the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit, the experience of food insecurity has been attributed to a lack of money to buy enough food of sufficient quality to sustain a family, although a preference for alcohol and tobacco over food has also been cited. The purpose of the article was to compare dietary patterns and expenditure on food, alcoholic beverages and tobacco between survey participants who reported food insecurity and those who did not. METHODS: A countrywide cross-sectional health survey was carried out among 1886 adult Greenlandic Inuit in 2018. Diet was estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Food insecurity status was based on the household hunger scale. Analyses were carried out by univariate general linear models adjusted for age, sex and social position. RESULTS: Nine percent of the participants reported food insecurity. Food insecurity was higher among younger participants, men and participants with low social position. Food insecure participants more often chose an unhealthy dietary pattern (43% vs. 32%) and they reported a higher energy intake. The food insecure spent the same amount of money on food as other participants but less on nutritious food and more on non-nutritious food. The cost per kilojoule (kJ) of the food of the food insecure was lower than that of the food secure (DKK 8.0 and 9.0 per 1000 kJ, respectively). The food insecure participants also spent considerably more on alcohol and tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that it is not only unemployment and lack of money that creates food insecurity and unhealthy dietary patterns in Greenland. Food insecure participants gave higher priority to buying non-nutritious food, alcohol and tobacco than did food secure participants. There seems to be at least two population subgroups in Greenland with poverty and substance use, respectively, as the immediate determinants for food insecurity. The results are important for the design of interventions against food insecurity and unhealthy dietary patterns.


Asunto(s)
Salud Poblacional , Tabaco , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Inseguridad Alimentaria , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Groenlandia/epidemiología , Gastos en Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Inuits , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1092, 2021 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098914

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More than 75% of neonatal deaths occurred in the first weeks of life as a result of adverse birth outcomes. Low birth weight, preterm births are associated with a variety of acute and long-term complications. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is insufficient evidence of adverse birth outcomes. Hence, this study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence and determinants of adverse birth outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHOD: Data of this study were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of ten Sub-African (SSA) countries. A total of 76,853 children born five years preceding the survey were included in the final analysis. A Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) were fitted and an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was computed to declare statistically significant determinants of adverse birth outcomes. RESULT: The pooled prevalence of adverse birth outcomes were 29.7% (95% CI: 29.4 to 30.03). Female child (AOR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.91 0.97), women attended secondary level of education (AOR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.82 0.92), middle (AOR = 0.94,95%CI: 0.90 0.98) and rich socioeconomic status (AOR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.90 0.99), intimate-partner physical violence (beating) (AOR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.14 1.22), big problems of long-distance travel (AOR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.04 1.11), antenatal care follow-ups (AOR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.83 0.86), multiparty (AOR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.84 0.91), twin births (AOR = 2.89, 95%CI: 2.67 3.14), and lack of women involvement in healthcare decision-making process (AOR = 1.10, 95%CI: 1.06 1.13) were determinants of adverse birth outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the magnitude of adverse birth outcomes was high, abnormal baby size and preterm births were the most common adverse birth outcomes. This finding suggests that encouraging antenatal care follow-ups and socio-economic conditions of women are essential. Moreover, special attention should be given to multiple pregnancies, improving healthcare accessibilities to rural areas, and women's involvement in healthcare decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Salud , Atención Prenatal , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Prevalencia
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 1): 2529-2541, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133632

RESUMEN

This paper aimed to describe health insurance coverage in Brazil. Data from the 2013 and 2019 editions of the National Health Survey (PNS) were analyzed. The medical or dental health insurance coverage was analyzed according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, work status, urban/rural area, and Federation Unit. Coverage of medical or dental health insurance was 27.9% (95% CI: 27.1-28.8) for 2013 and 28.5% (95% CI: 27.8-29.2) for 2019. The results show coverage is still concentrated in large urban centers, in the Southeast and South, among those with better socioeconomic status and some formal employment. In 2019, only 30.7% of formal workers reported the monthly payment is made directly to the providers, while 72.7% of informal workers reported this information. About 92% of medical health insurance covers hospitalization, and almost 20% of women with health insurance are not covered for labor. Only 11.7% of women aged between 15 and 44 are covered for childbirth by health insurance. The results show the health insurance coverage is still quite unequal, reinforcing the Unified Health System (SUS) importance for the Brazilian population.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Salud , Población Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 1): 2543-2556, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133633

RESUMEN

This paper examines the evolution of Brazil's Family Health Strategy coverage from the findings of the 2013 and 2019 National Health Survey censuses. Indicators included Family Health Clinic coverage of residents and households, frequency of visits by Community Health Workers, and usual source of care, all stratified by rural and urban areas, Brazilian regions, states, education of the household head, and income quintile. In 2019, 60.0% of households were enrolled in a Family Health Clinic, and population coverage was 62.6%. Coverage was higher in rural than in urban areas in the Northeast and South regions. Between 2013 and 2019, coverage increased by 11.6%, while monthly health worker visits decreased. Coverage was highest among the most vulnerable population, as defined by the household head education level or by the family income. Availability of usual source of care was highest among those enrolled in a Family Health Clinic. The 2019 National Health Survey findings confirm that Brazil's Family Health Strategy continues to be an equitable policy and the main SUS' Primary Health Care model. However, recent changes in the national policy guidance, which are weakening the community approach and the priority given to the Family Health Strategy Program, may jeopardize those gains.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Salud de la Familia , Brasil , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Renta
20.
J UOEH ; 43(2): 217-225, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092766

RESUMEN

The ever-changing social implications of the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in an urgent need to understand the working environments and health status of workers. We conducted a nationwide Internet-based health survey of Japanese workers in December 2020, in the midst the country's "third wave" of COVID-19 infection. Of 33,087 surveys collected, 6,051 were determined to have invalid responses. The 27,036 surveys included in the study were balanced in terms of geographical area, sex of participants, and type of work, according to the sampling plan. Men were more likely than women to have telecommuted, while women were more likely to have resigned since April 2020. Forty percent and 9.1% of respondents had a K6 score of 5 or higher and 13 or higher, respectively, and they did not exhibit extremely poor health. The present study describes the protocol used to conduct an Internet-based health survey of workers and a summary of its results during a period when COVID-19 was spreading rapidly in Japan. In the future, we plan to use this survey to examine the impact of COVID-19 on workers' work styles and health.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estado de Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/métodos , Internet , Salud Laboral , Teletrabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Tiempo
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