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3.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(10): 61-63, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016826
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200098, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027435

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the impact of oral health on daily life and sociodemographic variables with oral parameters in adolescents living in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from 5,409 adolescents who participated in the "State Oral Health Survey of São Paulo - OH", 2015. The impact of oral health on daily life was assessed by the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) index, prevalence (presence or absence of impact) and severity of impact (OIDP scores). The negative binomial regression model (zeros-inflated) was used, considering the complex sampling and the sample weights. Prevalence ratio (PR), ratio of means (ROM) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of impact was 37.4%. After adjusting for the model, the impact was more prevalent (PR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.22 ‒ 1.81) and more severe (RR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.22 ‒ 1.81) among females. Compared to white-skin people, all remaining groups had a higher prevalence of impact. Among socioeconomic characteristics, family income higher than R$ 2,501 (RR = 0.79; 95%CI 0.64 ‒ 0.98) and household crowding (RR = 1.18; 95%CI 1.00 ‒ 1.39) were associated with the severity of impact. In the oral health conditions, untreated caries (PR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.23 ‒ 1.74) and gingival bleeding (PR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.14 ‒ 1.60) were associated with higher prevalence of impact. CONCLUSION: Females, non-whites, with untreated caries and gingival bleeding were associated with higher impact of oral health on daily life. Family income higher than R$ 2,500 and living in less crowded households were factors associated with less impact.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Enfermedades de la Boca/epidemiología , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200101, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027436

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in Brazil and the associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional household-based epidemiological survey. Data were collected from the National Health Survey (PNS), conducted in 2013, by carrying out creatinine blood test and GFR calculation (n = 7,457). The groups of explanatory variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, chronic diseases, anthropometry, and health assessment. The prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and the respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the Poisson regression to calculate the crude and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR and adjPR) by age, sex, education level, and region. RESULTS: The prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 6.48% (95%CI 5.88 - 7.09). After the adjustment, the following aspects remained associated: women (PR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.16 - 1.68), age of 45-59 years (adjPR = 7.27; 95%CI 3.8 - 14.1), 60 years or older (adjPR = 33.55; 95%CI 17.8 - 63.4), obesity (PR = 1.32 (95%CI 1.1 - 1.7), diabetes (PR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.2 - 1.8), poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.2 - 1.9); and the lowest adjPR was found for the Northeast and Southeast regions, among smokers with high salt intake. CONCLUSION: GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was higher in women, increased with age, in addition to being associated with obesity, diabetes, and poor self-rated health. Knowing the prevalence of chronic kidney disease through biochemical tests and risk and protective factors are paramount to support public health policies.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
8.
San Salvador; Guillermo Alfonso Aguirre Escobar; Primera Edición; 08.10.2020. 70 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122047

RESUMEN

Introducción: Considerando la revisión bibliográfica realizada y los datos oficiales disponibles, se podría afirmar que El Salvador sufre un analfabetismo epidemiológico en lo referente a las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático, debido entre otras múltiples causas a la carencia o limitado número de estudios con rigor científico-metodológico, que reflejen la situación global de las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático en diferentes grupos etarios. Ante ello, se realiza la primera encuesta de salud bucal a nivel nacional, apegada a lo establecido metodológicamente por la OMS, criterios actualizados y considerando muestras representativas de diferentes edades, zonas geográficas del país y condiciones sociodemográficas. Objetivos: Determinar la condición de salud bucal y las necesidades de tratamiento de la población salvadoreña a través de la aplicación de diferentes indicadores epidemiológicos, caracterizar la población según condición sociodemográfica, identificar sus conocimientos y prácticas en salud bucal. Metodología: El diseño corresponde a un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, característico de una encuesta de salud oral y metodología Pathfinder según OMS. El trabajo de campo se efectuó en 24 municipios de El Salvador, entre 2016 y 2017. La muestra total fue de 3881 salvadoreños, de ambos sexos, distribuidos en seis grupos etarios (2-5, 5-6, 6-12, 13-17,18-30, 31-45 y 60 a más), siguiendo la técnica de muestreo estratificado por conglomerados sugerida por el Manual de Encuestas de Salud Bucodental de la OMS, 2013. Los datos fueron analizados en SPSS V25, donde fueron calculadas las medias, desviaciones estándar y porcentajes de las variables analizadas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Encuestas de Salud Bucal , Salud Bucal , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Índice de Higiene Oral , Índice Periodontal , Caries Dental , Fluorosis Dental
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 90, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027343

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with diarrheal disease in the rural Caribbean region of Colombia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study conducted in the rural area of the Cesar Department, Colombia, between November 2017 and June 2018. Self-reported cases of diarrheal disease were surveyed, and water samples from 42 households were collected and analyzed. Descriptive statistics were employed in the analysis of socioeconomic status, environmental and sanitary conditions, and we evaluated their association with the diarrheal disease using the Poisson regression models. Each model was adjusted with variables suggested by specific directed acyclic graphs. RESULTS: Poor water supply conditions, hygiene and basic sanitation were reported in the study area. All water samples were classified either as high risk for health problems or unfit for human consumption. The diarrheal disease had a prevalence of 7.5% across all ages and of 23.5% in children under five years old. The variables rainy season (PR = 0.24; 95%CI 0.07-0.85), children under five years old (PR = 4.05; 95%CI 1.70-9.68), water from deep wells (PR = 16.90; 95%CI 2.45-116.67), water from artificial ponds (PR = 11.47; 95%CI 1.27-103.29), toilets availability (PRA = 0.23; 95%CI 0.06-0.96), and swine presence (PR = 0.20; 95%CI 0.05-0.74) were significantly associated with the occurrence of diarrheal disease. CONCLUSION: Water supply, hygiene and basic sanitation conditions have been associated with the diarrheal disease, affecting almost a quarter of the population under five years old. There is an urge for the design of effective policies that improve environmental and sanitation conditions in rural areas.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/epidemiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e21915, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931444

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with common mental health problems. However, evidence for the association between fear of COVID-19 and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine if fear of negative events affects Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores in the context of a COVID-19-fear-invoking environment. METHODS: All participants were medical university students and voluntarily completed three surveys via smartphone or computer. Survey 1 was conducted on February 8, 2020, following a 2-week-long quarantine period without classes; survey 2 was conducted on March 25, 2020, when participants had been taking online courses for 2 weeks; and survey 3 was conducted on April 28, 2020, when no new cases had been reported for 2 weeks. The surveys comprised the Y-BOCS and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS); additional items included questions on demographics (age, gender, only child vs siblings, enrollment year, major), knowledge of COVID-19, and level of fear pertaining to COVID-19. RESULTS: In survey 1, 11.3% of participants (1519/13,478) scored ≥16 on the Y-BOCS (defined as possible OCD). In surveys 2 and 3, 3.6% (305/8162) and 3.5% (305/8511) of participants had scores indicative of possible OCD, respectively. The Y-BOCS score, anxiety level, quarantine level, and intensity of fear were significantly lower at surveys 2 and 3 than at survey 1 (P<.001 for all). Compared to those with a lower Y-BOCS score (<16), participants with possible OCD expressed greater intensity of fear and had higher SAS standard scores (P<.001). The regression linear analysis indicated that intensity of fear was positively correlated to the rate of possible OCD and the average total scores for the Y-BOCS in each survey (P<.001 for all). Multiple regressions showed that those with a higher intensity of fear, a higher anxiety level, of male gender, with sibling(s), and majoring in a nonmedicine discipline had a greater chance of having a higher Y-BOCS score in all surveys. These results were redemonstrated in the 5827 participants who completed both surveys 1 and 2 and in the 4006 participants who completed all three surveys. Furthermore, in matched participants, the Y-BOCS score was negatively correlated to changes in intensity of fear (r=0.74 for survey 2, P<.001; r=0.63 for survey 3, P=.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that fear of COVID-19 was associated with a greater Y-BOCS score, suggesting that an environment (COVID-19 pandemic) × psychology (fear and/or anxiety) interaction might be involved in OCD and that a fear of negative events might play a role in the etiology of OCD.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/psicología , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Adulto Joven
11.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1048-1053, 2020 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970553

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The unfolding COVID-19 pandemic has predictably followed the familiar contours of well established socioeconomic health inequities, exposing and often amplifying preexisting disparities. People living in homeless shelters are at higher risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to identify shelter characteristics that may be associated with higher transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of five congregate shelters in Rhode Island. Shelter residents 18 years old and older were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from April 19-April 24, 2020. At time of testing, we collected participant characteristics, symptomatology, and vital signs. Shelter characteristics and infection control strategies were collected through a structured phone questionnaire with shelter administrators. RESULTS: A total of 299 shelter residents (99%, 299/302) participated. Thirty-five (11.7%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Shelter-level prevalence ranged from zero to 35%. Symptom prevalence did not vary by test result. Shelters with positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 were in more densely populated areas, had more transient resident populations, and instituted fewer physical distancing practices compared to shelters with no cases. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 prevalence varies with shelter characteristics but not individual symptoms. Policies that promote resident stability and physical distancing may help reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Symptom screening alone is insufficient to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Frequent universal testing and congregate housing alternatives that promote stability may help reduce spread of infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Vivienda/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Política de Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Prevalencia , Rhode Island/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e17242, 2020 09 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909955

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the influenza epidemiology among primary care workers could guide future recommendations to prevent transmission in primary care practices. Therefore, we designed a pilot study to assess the feasibility of using a work-based online influenza surveillance system among primary care workers. Such an approach is of particular relevance in the context of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, as its findings could apply to other infectious diseases with similar mechanisms of transmission. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the feasibility of using a work-based online influenza surveillance system for primary care workers in Switzerland. METHODS: Physicians and staff of one walk-in clinic and two selected primary care practices were enrolled in this observational prospective pilot study during the 2017-2018 influenza season. They were invited to record symptoms of influenza-like illness in a weekly online survey sent by email and to self-collect a nasopharyngeal swab in case any symptoms were recorded. Samples were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for influenza A, influenza B, and a panel of respiratory pathogens. RESULTS: Among 67 eligible staff members, 58% (n=39) consented to the study and 53% (n=36) provided data. From the time all participants were included, the weekly survey response rate stayed close to 100% until the end of the study. Of 79 symptomatic episodes (mean 2.2 episodes per participant), 10 episodes in 7 participants fitted the definition of an influenza-like illness case (attack rate: 7/36, 19%). One swab tested positive for influenza A H1N1 (attack rate: 3%, 95% CI 0%-18%). Swabbing was considered relatively easy. CONCLUSIONS: A work-based online influenza surveillance system is feasible for use among primary care workers. This promising methodology could be broadly used in future studies to improve the understanding of influenza epidemiology and other diseases such as COVID-19. This could prove to be highly useful in primary care settings and guide future recommendations to prevent transmission. A larger study will also help to assess asymptomatic infections.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Sistemas en Línea , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Proyectos Piloto , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Suiza
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1362, 2020 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891120

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An estimate of 2-3 million children under 5 die in the world annually due to vaccine-preventable disease. In Ethiopia, incomplete immunization accounts for nearly 16% of under-five mortality, and there is spatial variation for vaccination of children in Ethiopia. Spatial variation of vaccination can create hotspot of under vaccination and delay control and elimination of vaccine preventable disease. Thus, this study aims to assess the spatial distribution of incomplete immunization among children in Ethiopia from the three consecutive Ethiopia demographic and health survey data. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was employed from Ethiopia demographic and health survey (2005, 2011and 2016) data. In total, 7901mothers who have children aged (12-35) months were included in this study. ArcGIS 10.5 Software was used for global and local statistics analysis and mapping. In addition, a Bernoulli model was used to analyze the purely spatial cluster detection of incomplete immunization. GWR version 4 Software was used to model spatial relationships. RESULT: The proportion of incomplete immunization was 74.6% in 2005, 71.4% in 2011, and 55.1% in 2016. The spatial distribution of incomplete immunization was clustered in all the study periods (2005, 2011, and 2016) with global Moran's I of 0.3629, 1.0700, and 0.8796 respectively. Getis-Ord analysis pointed out high-risk regions for incomplete immunization: In 2005, hot spot (high risk) regions were detected in Kefa, Gamogofa, KembataTemibaro, and Hadya zones of SNNPR region, Jimma zone of Oromiya region. Similarly, Kefa, Gamogofa, Kembatatemibaro, Dawuro, and Hadya zones of SNNPR region; Jimma and West Arsi zones of Oromiya region were hot spot regions. In 2016, Afder, Gode, Korahe, Warder Zones of Somali region were hot spot regions. Geographically weighted regression identified different significant variables; being not educated and poor wealth index were the two common for incomplete immunization in different parts of the country in all the three surveys. CONCLUSION: Incomplete immunization was reduced overtime across the study periods. The spatial distribution of incomplete immunization was clustered and High-risk areas were identified in all the study periods. Predictors of incomplete immunization were identified in the three consecutive surveys.


Asunto(s)
Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Escolaridad , Etiopía , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social , Análisis Espacial , Regresión Espacial , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cobertura de Vacunación
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21884, 2020 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957309

RESUMEN

The Dulong nationality is one of the 5 smallest ethnic minorities in China. The suicide rate among people of the Dulong nationality is very serious. To address this issue, we conducted cross-sectional epidemiological studies on the prevalence of mental disorders in ethnic groups. Studying the unique situation of ethnic minorities can help us better understand their mental state and improve their quality of life.We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey on a minority group in Southwest China. We used the cluster sampling method, and 2129 people were included in the study.The highest 1-month disorder prevalence was for alcohol dependence/abuse (4.16%), and the prevalence of lifelong mood disorders was 9.82%. The results of multivariate analysis showed that women faced a higher risk of mood disorders and anxiety disorders.This epidemiological survey of the prevalence of mental disorders in ethnic minorities in Southwest China provides a significant reference for mental health interventions for other ethnic minorities around the world.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/etnología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Alcoholismo/etnología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
15.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020407, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997069

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe lifestyle changes with regard to consumption of tobacco and alcohol, food intake and physical activity, in the period of social restriction resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil with data from the ConVid online health behavior survey. The data were collected via an online questionnaire answered by the survey participants. Post-stratification procedures were used to calculate prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 45,161 individuals aged 18 years or more participated. During the period of social restriction participants reported a decrease in practicing physical activity and an increase in time spent using computers or tablets or watching TV, intake of ultra-processed foods, number of cigarettes smoked and alcoholic beverage consumption. Differences were observed according to sex and age group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a worsening of lifestyles and an increase in health risk behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Calidad de los Alimentos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Conducta Sedentaria , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/epidemiología , Bocadillos , Adulto Joven
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957702

RESUMEN

Mental health effects secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic were till recently considered less important or were neglected. Portugal and Brazil are facing the pandemic in quite different ways. This study aimed to describe the mental health status of the general adult population in Portugal and Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic and analyze the differences between the two countries. A cross-sectional quantitative study was based on an online questionnaire. Socio-demographic data were collected in addition to four validated scales: CAGE (acronym cut-annoyed-guilty-eye) Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire-2. For each outcome, a multiple linear regression was performed. Five hundred and fifty people answered the questionnaire (435 women). The median age was 38 (Q1, Q3: 30, 47) years, 52.5% resided in Brazil and 47.5% in Portugal. The prevalence of anxiety was 71.3% (mild anxiety was present in 43.1%), the prevalence of depression was 24.7% and 23.8% of the sample had both depression and anxiety. Isolation was a significant factor for depression but not for anxiety. Well-being was below average. Mental illness was considerably higher than pre-COVID-19 levels. Portugal and Brazil will have to be prepared for future consequences of poor mental health and contribute immediate psychological support to their adult populations.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Portugal/epidemiología
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19716, 2020 09 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975521

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most people who experience a potentially traumatic event (PTE) recover on their own. A small group of individuals develops psychological complaints, but this is often not detected in time or guidance to care is suboptimal. To identify these individuals and encourage them to seek help, a web-based self-help test called Mobile Insight in Risk, Resilience, and Online Referral (MIRROR) was developed. MIRROR takes an innovative approach since it integrates both negative and positive outcomes of PTEs and time since the event and provides direct feedback to the user. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess MIRROR's use, examine its psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity), and evaluate how well it classifies respondents into different outcome categories compared with reference measures. METHODS: MIRROR was embedded in the website of Victim Support Netherlands so visitors could use it. We compared MIRROR's outcomes to reference measures of PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), depression, anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21), psychological resilience (Resilience Evaluation Scale), and positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum Short Form). RESULTS: In 6 months, 1112 respondents completed MIRROR, of whom 663 also completed the reference measures. Results showed good internal consistency (interitem correlations range .24 to .55, corrected item-total correlations range .30 to .54, and Cronbach alpha coefficient range .62 to .68), and convergent and divergent validity (Pearson correlations range -.259 to .665). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA+CFA) yielded a 2-factor model with good model fit (CFA model fit indices: χ219=107.8, P<.001, CFI=.965, TLI=.948, RMSEA=.065), conceptual meaning, and parsimony. MIRROR correctly classified respondents into different outcome categories compared with the reference measures. CONCLUSIONS: MIRROR is a valid and reliable self-help test to identify negative (PTSD complaints) and positive outcomes (psychosocial functioning and resilience) of PTEs. MIRROR is an easily accessible online tool that can help people who have experienced a PTE to timely identify psychological complaints and find appropriate support, a tool that might be highly needed in times like the coronavirus pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Aplicaciones Móviles , Derivación y Consulta , Resiliencia Psicológica , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/normas , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Lista de Verificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22142, 2020 09 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877349

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In a global pandemic, digital technology offers innovative methods to disseminate public health messages. As an example, the messenger app WhatsApp was adopted by both the World Health Organization and government agencies to provide updates on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). During a time when rumors and excessive news threaten psychological well-being, these services allow for rapid transmission of information and may boost resilience. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to accomplish the following: (1) assess well-being during the pandemic; (2) replicate prior findings linking exposure to COVID-19 news with psychological distress; and (3) examine whether subscription to an official WhatsApp channel can mitigate this risk. METHODS: Across 8 weeks of the COVID-19 outbreak (March 7 to April 21, 2020), we conducted a survey of 1145 adults in Singapore. As the primary outcome measure, participants completed the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). As predictor variables, participants also answered questions pertaining to the following: (1) their exposure to COVID-19 news; (2) their use of the Singapore government's WhatsApp channel; and (3) their demographics. RESULTS: Within the sample, 7.9% of participants had severe or extremely severe symptoms on at least one DASS-21 subscale. Depression scores were associated with increased time spent receiving COVID-19 updates, whereas use of the official WhatsApp channel emerged as a protective factor (b=-0.07, t[863]=-2.04, P=.04). Similarly, increased anxiety scores were associated with increased exposure to both updates and rumors, but this risk was mitigated by trust in the government's WhatsApp messages (b=-0.05, t[863]=-2.13, P=.03). Finally, although stress symptoms increased with the amount of time spent receiving updates, these symptoms were not significantly related to WhatsApp use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that messenger apps may be an effective medium for disseminating pandemic-related information, allowing official agencies to reach a broad sector of the population rapidly. In turn, this use may promote public well-being amid an "infodemic." TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04305574; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04305574.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22817, 2020 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897868

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has generally increased levels of stress and depression among the public. However, the impact on college students in the United States has not been well-documented. OBJECTIVE: This paper surveys the mental health status and severity of depression and anxiety of college students in a large university system in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among undergraduate and graduate students recruited from Texas A&M University via email. The survey consisted of two standardized scales-the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the General Anxiety Disorder-7-for depression and anxiety, and additional multiple-choice and open-ended questions regarding stressors and coping mechanisms specific to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the 2031 participants, 48.14% (n=960) showed a moderate-to-severe level of depression, 38.48% (n=775) showed a moderate-to-severe level of anxiety, and 18.04% (n=366) had suicidal thoughts. A majority of participants (n=1443, 71.26%) indicated that their stress/anxiety levels had increased during the pandemic. Less than half of the participants (n=882, 43.25%) indicated that they were able to cope adequately with the stress related to the current situation. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of respondents showing depression, anxiety, and/or suicidal thoughts is alarming. Respondents reported academic-, health-, and lifestyle-related concerns caused by the pandemic. Given the unexpected length and severity of the outbreak, these concerns need to be further understood and addressed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Adulto Joven
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