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1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578881

RESUMEN

Food preferences are among the most influential factors of food habits in the vulnerable period of adolescence; in addition, gender-dependent differences in food preferences are also observed. The aim of the present study was to analyze differences in food habits between individuals stratified based on their food preferences in a population-based sample of adolescents aged 15-20. The study was conducted within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population in a group of 2419 secondary school students who were randomly chosen to participate in the study using a random quota sampling procedure. The food preferences were determined on the basis of a validated Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) (which enables assessing preference of vegetables, fruit, meat/fish, dairy, snacks, and starches), whereas food habits were determined on the basis of the Adolescents' Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) (which enables assessing food purchase, preparation, and consumption habits). The analysis involved three homogenous clusters ('low-preferring', 'hedonists', and 'high-preferring'), which were identified using the k-means algorithm. It was found that for a number of the assessed food purchase, preparation, and consumption habits, there were statistically significant differences between the 'low-preferring', 'hedonists', and 'high-preferring' clusters. Within food purchase habits, the food preference influenced frequency of buying pastries/cakes and frequency of eating takeaway meals for all the respondents, while for female respondents, it influenced also choice of desserts in restaurants, and for male respondents, it influenced choosing a low-fat lunch away from home (p < 0.05). Within food preparation habits, the food preference influenced the fat content in desserts at home, the frequency of eating at least one serving of vegetables/salad with an evening meal, the frequency of spreading butter/margarine on bread thinly, and the frequency of having cream on desserts for all the respondents; meanwhile, for female respondents, it also influenced the frequency of avoiding fried foods and the frequency of including chocolate/biscuits in their packed lunch (p < 0.05). Within food consumption habits, the food preference influenced the frequency of eating a dessert/pudding, eating at least one serving of fruit a day, eating at least one serving of vegetables/salad a day, avoiding sausages/burgers, trying to ensure they eat plenty of fruit and vegetables, and frequency of choosing fruit as a snack for all the respondents; meanwhile, for male respondents, it also influenced the frequency of eating sweet snacks and eating at least three servings of fruit most days (p < 0.05). Taking into account that some improper food habits may be typical for the specific clusters, there is an urgent need to analyze and address them for the purposes of public health and to bear in mind that some of those habits are gender-dependent.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Preferencias Alimentarias/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Polonia , Adulto Joven
2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579073

RESUMEN

This cross-sectional online survey performed in Poland aimed to improve understanding of how COVID-19 pandemic restrictions affected complementary feeding practices among parents of infants aged 4 to 12 months. Self-selected parents were recruited through the internet. The anonymous questionnaire was opened during two intervals during COVID-19 restrictions. The primary outcome was an assessment of sources of information and infant feeding practices in the context of COVID-19 restrictions. Data from 6934 responders (92.2% mothers) were analyzed. Most responders received information from multiple sources, with other parents, family members, or friends being the most frequently reported (48.6%), followed by webinars and experts' recommendations (40.8%). COVID-19 restrictions largely did not impact the method of feeding, changes in feeding patterns, or complementary feeding introduction, although the latter was more likely to be impacted in families with average versus the best financial situations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis also most consistently showed that parents with a tertiary education and living in a city above 500 k were at higher odds of using webinars/experts' recommendations, internet/apps, and professional expert guides and lower odds of claiming no need to deepen knowledge. This study clarifies major issues associated with complementary feeding practices during the implementation of COVID-19 restrictions in Poland.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Alimentaria , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Padres , Polonia , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3875-3883, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468680

RESUMEN

The scope of the study was to evaluate the probability of the adequacy of water intake among residents of São Paulo, and to investigate if the quality of diet differs according to the adequacy of water intake. Data were extracted from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional, population-based study. Water intake (drinking water beverages and food) was evaluated using two 24-hours dietary recalls and a supplementary dietary intake questionnaire. Adequacy and classification of water intake was assessed using the corresponding Adequate Intake for sex and age of the individual. Dietary quality was evaluated using the revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI). The associations were tested using the Theil-Sen median test and logistic regression models. A low probability of adequate water intake was observed, and this decreased with advancing age. Except among the elderly, among whom no association was observed, a positive association between water intake and the BHEI was observed, and for the total and integral fruit components, which was maintained after confusion adjustments. Among adults, it was observed that those who ingested less water had even lower scores for saturated fats. The residents of São Paulo have low water intake, and the quality of diet is worse among those who drink less water.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ingestión de Líquidos , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Frutas , Humanos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444852

RESUMEN

We aimed to observe the combined effects of Gaussian graphical model (GGM)-derived dietary patterns and the gastric microbiome on the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in a Korean population. The study included 268 patients with GC and 288 healthy controls. Food intake was assessed using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. GGMs were applied to derive dietary pattern networks. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed using DNA extracted from gastric biopsy samples. The fruit pattern network was inversely associated with the risk of GC for the highest vs. lowest tertiles in the total population (odds ratio (OR): 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28-0.77; p for trend = 0.003) and in females (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.17-0.83; p for trend = 0.021). Males who had a low microbial dysbiosis index (MDI) and high vegetable and seafood pattern score showed a significantly reduced risk of GC (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.22-0.91; p-interaction = 0.021). Females who had a low MDI and high dairy pattern score showed a significantly reduced risk of GC (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.07-0.76; p-interaction = 0.018). Our novel findings revealed that vegetable and seafood pattern might interact with dysbiosis to attenuate the risk of GC in males, whereas the dairy pattern might interact with dysbiosis to reduce the GC risk in females.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/efectos adversos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiología , Estómago/microbiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Disbiosis/complicaciones , Disbiosis/fisiopatología , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , ARN Ribosómico 16S/análisis , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiología , Verduras
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444879

RESUMEN

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism, causing a build-up of Phe in the body. Treatment consists of a Phe-restricted diet for life and regular determination of blood Phe levels to monitor the intake of Phe. Despite the fact that diet is the cornerstone of treatment, there are no studies examining common knowledge about food items and whether they are allowed as part of the PKU diet. Improving parents' and patients' knowledge and competence about the diet enables them to make appropriate food choices. This study validates a food-knowledge questionnaire first developed in Spanish and modified for English speaking populations. The questionnaire potentially helps parents to prepare appropriate meals and healthcare providers to create individualized educational programs about PKU for children and adolescents with this disorder.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta con Restricción de Proteínas/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Fenilcetonurias/dietoterapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenilcetonurias/psicología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Traducciones
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444882

RESUMEN

Plant sterols are compounds with multiple biological functions, mainly cholesterol-reducing. There are no comprehensive databases on plant sterols, which makes it difficult to estimate their intake in the Polish population. This work attempted to use international food databases, additionally supplemented by scientific data from the literature, to create a database of plant sterols, which would cover various kinds of foods and dishes consumed in Poland. The aim was to assess the size and sources of dietary plant sterols in the adult population of Poland. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify possible sources of published food composition data for plant sterols. The study group consisted of 5690 participants of the WOBASZ II survey. We identified 361 dietary sources of plant sterols based on the consumption of foods and dishes reported by participants. Cereals and fats provided 61% of the total plant sterols, and together with vegetables and fruits, this totaled 80%. The median intake of plant sterols in the Polish population was 255.96 mg/day, and for men and women 291.76 and 230.61 mg/day, respectively. Canola oil provided the most plant sterols at 16.92%, followed by white bread at 16.65% and soft margarine at 8.33%. The study found that plant sterol intake in Poland is comparable to other populations, and women's diets are more dense in plant sterols. Due to the lack of literature sources on plant sterol content in some foods, future studies should expand and complete the databases on plant sterol content in foods.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas/métodos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Ingestión de Alimentos/etnología , Fitosteroles/análisis , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Dieta/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polonia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444913

RESUMEN

This study was performed to investigate the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a Korean population and examine whether the association can be altered by adjustment for intake of coffee additives. We conducted a case-control study involving 923 colorectal cancer cases and 1846 controls matched by sex and age (within 5 years). A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess coffee intakes. High coffee consumption was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer (≥3 cups/day vs. no drinks, OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96). When we additionally controlled for consumption of coffee additives including sugar and cream, the inverse association became stronger (≥3 cups/day vs. no drinks, OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.14-0.33), and a significant inverse linear trend was shown (Ptrend < 0.0001). The inverse associations were observed for proximal (Ptrend = 0.0001) and distal (Ptrend = 0.0003) colon cancer, and rectal cancer (Ptrend < 0.0001) in the stratified analysis by anatomical sub-sites. Regarding sex, inverse associations between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer were found for men (Ptrend < 0.0001) and women (Ptrend = 0.0021). In the stratified analysis by obese status of subjects, inverse linear trends were observed in both non-obese and obese people (Ptrend < 0.0001). High coffee consumption may be associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in the Korean population and the degree of decrease in the odds of developing colorectal cancer changes by adjustment for intake of coffee additives.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Café/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Colorrectales/etiología , Dieta/efectos adversos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Dieta/etnología , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Líquidos/etnología , Femenino , Aditivos Alimentarios/efectos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444947

RESUMEN

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease associated with airways inflammation and lung parenchyma fibrosis. The primary goals of COPD treatment are to reduce symptoms and risk of exacerbations, therefore pulmonary rehabilitation is considered the key component of managing COPD patients. Oxidative airway damage, inflammation and reduction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes are known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Recently, also natural antioxidants have been considered as they play an important role in metabolism, DNA repair and fighting the effects of oxidative stress. In this paper we evaluated the response of 105 elderly COPD patients to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), based on high or low vegetable consumption, by analyzing clinical parameters and biological measurements at baseline and after completion of the three weeks PR. We found that daily vegetable intake in normal diet, without any specific intervention, can increase the probability to successfully respond to rehabilitation (65.4% of responders ate vegetables daily vs. 40.0% of non-responders, p = 0.033). The association was especially evident in subjects ≥ 80 year of age (OR = 17.0; p < 0.019). Three weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation are probably too short to reveal a reduction of the oxidative stress and DNA damage, but are enough to show an improvement in the patient's inflammatory state.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable/métodos , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Anciano/fisiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/rehabilitación , Verduras , Administración por Inhalación , Corticoesteroides/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Broncodilatadores/administración & dosificación , Daño del ADN/fisiología , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación , Pulmón/metabolismo , Masculino , Estrés Oxidativo/fisiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445024

RESUMEN

Overweight and obesity are rapidly rising in Sub-Saharan Africa including in rural areas. However, most studies focus on urban centers, and have attributed this epidemic to the consumption of processed foods without their clear characterization. This study investigated food intake patterns defined by food processing levels and their association with overweight/obesity in rural areas. Four 24-h dietary recalls, anthropometric measurements, and socio-demographic characteristics were collected from 1152 women in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The PCA method was used to extract patterns characterized by food processing levels. The association between patterns and overweight/obesity was ascertained with regression models. The overweight/obesity rate was 47%, 42%, 26%, and 38% in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and East Africa (as pooled data), respectively. Several patterns were identified, yet a "plant-based pattern" largely characterized by unprocessed and minimally processed foods and a "purchase pattern" mainly distinguished by highly processed foods were dominant. The "plant-based pattern" was inversely or not associated with overweight/obesity, while the "purchase pattern" had a positive association or no association. A clear distinction on processed foods as healthy and unhealthy should be made based on their nutrient provision to avoid their mischaracterization as unhealthy. Policies to reverse consumption of unhealthy processed foods while promoting healthy ones should be pursued.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ingestión de Alimentos , Conducta Alimentaria , Manipulación de Alimentos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Salud Rural , Salud de la Mujer , Adolescente , Adulto , África Oriental/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/efectos adversos , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta Saludable , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/psicología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445059

RESUMEN

Few Australians consume a healthy, equitable and more sustainable diet consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). Low socioeconomic groups (SEGs) suffer particularly poor diet-related health problems. However, granular information on dietary intakes and affordability of recommended diets was lacking for low SEGs. The Healthy Diets Australian Standardised Affordability and Pricing protocol was modified for low SEGs to align with relevant dietary intakes reported in the National Nutrition Survey 2011-2012(which included less healthy and more discretionary options than the broader population), household structures, food purchasing habits, and incomes. Cost and affordability of habitual and recommended diets of low SEGs were calculated using prices of 'standard brands' and 'cheapest options'. With 'standard brands', recommended diets cost less than habitual diets, but were unaffordable for low SEGs. With 'cheapest options', both diets were more affordable, but recommended diets cost more than habitual diets for some low SEGs, potentially contributing to perceptions that healthy food is unaffordable. The study confirms the need for an equity lens to better target dietary guidelines for low SEGs. It also highlights urgent policy action is needed to help improve affordability of recommended diets.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable/economía , Inseguridad Alimentaria/economía , Renta , Valor Nutritivo , Clase Social , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/economía , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Australia , Niño , Preescolar , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada/economía , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444901

RESUMEN

Nutrient deficiency is a common cause of underperformance in endurance athletes, and supplement intake is frequently considered compensatory for vegan and vegetarian athletes specifically. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of supplement intake among vegan, vegetarian, and omnivorous distance (>10 km) runners and its association with age, sex, and race distance. From a total of 317 runners who participated in an online survey, 220 distance runners (mean age: 38.5 years; mean BMI: 21.75 kg/m2) were selected for the final sample after data clearance and assigned to 100 omnivores, 40 vegetarians, or 80 vegans. Sociodemographic information, racing experience, and patterns of supplement intake, including type, frequency, dosage, etc., were collected using a questionnaire. Macronutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. ANOVA and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The prevalence of supplement intake was 51% for total runners and 72% among vegan runners. Age, sex, and race distance had no significant effect on the type of supplement intake (p > 0.05). Compared to omnivores and vegetarians, vegan runners reported consuming more vitamin (but not carbohydrate/protein or mineral) supplements (p < 0.05). Vitamin B12, magnesium, and multivitamin had the most prevalent use amongst micronutrient supplements. This study points to a central role for supplementary nutritional strategies in different groups of distance runners. The present findings may help future investigations by design to identify specific requirements of endurance runners when adhering to specific kinds of diet particularly plant-based diets.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Suplementos Dietéticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Carrera/estadística & datos numéricos , Veganos/estadística & datos numéricos , Vegetarianos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/métodos , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Sustancias para Mejorar el Rendimiento/uso terapéutico , Resistencia Física , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444912

RESUMEN

Inhibitory control is the ability to control impulsive behavior. It is associated with a range of mental and physical health outcomes, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance dependence. Breastfeeding and healthy dietary patterns have been associated with better executive functions, of which inhibitory control is part. Additionally, breastfeeding has been associated with healthy dietary patterns. Following our preregistration in the Open Science Framework, we investigated the associations between breastfeeding history and inhibitory control at preschool age, with habitual diet quality as a potential mediating factor. A total of 72 families from a longitudinal study participated at child age 3. Breastfeeding questionnaires were administered at 2, 6, and 12 weeks, and at 12 and 36 months. Six inhibitory control tasks were performed during a home visit, and questionnaires were filled in by both parents. Diet quality at age 3 was assessed via three unannounced 24-h recalls. Structural equation modelling was performed in R. This study did not provide evidence that breastfeeding history is associated with inhibitory control in 3-year-old children. Furthermore, diet quality at age 3 did not mediate the link between breastfeeding history and inhibitory control. Previous studies have investigated broader aspects of inhibitory control, such as executive functions, and used different methods to assess nutritional intake, which might explain our differential findings. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on associations between nutrition and behavior. Future replications with larger and more diverse preschool samples are recommended.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/psicología , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Dieta Saludable/psicología , Inhibición Psicológica , Factores de Tiempo , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Preescolar , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta Saludable/estadística & datos numéricos , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444923

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional status, determinants of nutritional status, and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of older family caregivers (FC). Nutritional status was measured using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), plasma albumin, plasma pre-albumin, and blood hemoglobin concentrations. Dietary intake was assessed with a three-day food record. Comorbidity (B -0.283, 95% CI: -0.492, -0.073), quality of life (B 0.045, 95% CI: 0.018, 0.072) and energy intake (B 0.001, 95% CI: 0.000, 0.002) were significantly associated with the MNA scores of the older FCs (n = 125). It was common for FCs to have lower than recommended intakes of energy and several nutrients, independent of the risk of malnutrition assessed by the MNA. Over half of the FCs had inadequate intake of protein, vitamin A, folate, and fiber, and 25-40% of the FCs had a low intake of vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, magnesium, iron, and selenium. It is important to follow both the nutritional status and dietary intake of older FCs regularly to find those with lower than recommended nutrient intake and to avoid poor nutritional status and its adverse effects hampering their ability to serve as FCs.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Registros de Dieta , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Anciano , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica , Hemoglobinas/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación Nutricional , Necesidades Nutricionales , Prealbúmina/análisis , Calidad de Vida , Albúmina Sérica/análisis
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371854

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between maternal insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration and food consumption frequency and the birth parameters of the newborn. A total of 157 mother-newborn pairs participated in the study. The study showed that more frequent consumption of sweet and salty snacks as well as fruit and fruit or vegetable juices may promote greater weight gain in pregnancy and higher newborn birth weight. A significantly higher insulin concentration was found among overweight women according to body mass index (BMI), and a significantly lower concentration of IGF-1 was demonstrated among women ≥35 years of age. There was no significant correlation between the concentration of insulin and IGF-1 in the mother's blood plasma and the birth weight and length of the newborn. A significant relationship was only found between the concentration of IGF-1 in the mother's blood and the Ponderal index of the newborn. A woman's eating habits during pregnancy have a significant impact on the mother's health and on the proper growth and development of the foetus.


Asunto(s)
Peso al Nacer , Estatura , Dieta/efectos adversos , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/análisis , Insulina/sangre , Tercer Trimestre del Embarazo/sangre , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Femenino , Desarrollo Fetal/fisiología , Ganancia de Peso Gestacional , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Conducta Materna/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Polonia , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371856

RESUMEN

The identification of sodium and potassium intake in youths is an important step to preventing the increase of blood pressure in childhood. We examined food intake and estimated mineral intake using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) to test its validity as a comparison with urinary excretion in Japanese youths. The subjects were 5th and 8th graders (n = 2377), who completed the BDHQ and permitted the use of their overnight urine specimens. Sodium intake was poorly associated with sodium excretion (Rho = 0.048), and the coefficients of dietary potassium and a sodium-to-potassium molar ratio were 0.091-0.130. Higher soybean paste (miso) intake and pickles were significantly associated with higher sodium excretion (p ≤ 0.005). However, these foods were positively associated with potassium excretion (p = 0.002-0.012), and not associated with an excreted sodium-to-potassium ratio. Fruits and dairy products were positively associated (p ≤ 0.048), whereas beverages were negatively associated with potassium excretion (p ≤ 0.004). The association of the sodium-to-potassium ratio was opposite to that of potassium (p ≤ 0.001). The choice of foods, potassium, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio assessed using the BDHQ are available as part of health education for youths, but the assessment of sodium intake in population levels should be carefully conducted.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Potasio en la Dieta/análisis , Sodio en la Dieta/análisis , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Presión Sanguínea , Niño , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Potasio/orina , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sodio/orina
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371861

RESUMEN

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to promote fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption usually report intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis as the main outcome. These analyses compare the randomly assigned groups and accept that some individuals may not follow the recommendations received in their group. The ITT analysis is useful to quantify the global effect of promoting the consumption of FV in a population (effectiveness) but, if non-adherence is significant in the RCT, they cannot estimate the specific effect in the individuals that increased their FV consumption (efficacy). To calculate the efficacy of FV consumption, a per protocol analysis (PP) would have to be carried out, in which groups of individuals are compared according to their actual adherence to FV consumption, regardless of the group to which they were assigned; unfortunately, many RCTs do not report the PP analysis. The objective of this article is to apply a new method to estimate the efficacy of Meta-analysis (MA) PP which include RCTs of effectiveness by ITT, without estimates of adherence. The method is based on generating Monte Carlo simulations of percentages of adherence in each allocation group from prior distributions informed by expert knowledge. We illustrate the method reanalyzing a Cochrane Systematic Review (SR) of RCTs on increased FV consumption reported with ITT, simulating 1000 times the estimation of a PP meta-analyses, and obtaining means and ranges of the potential PP effects. In some cases, the range of estimated PP effects was clearly more favourable than the effect calculated with the original ITT assumption, and therefore this corrected analysis must be considered when estimating the true effect of the consumption of a certain food.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas/estadística & datos numéricos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos de Investigación , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Simulación por Computador , Frutas , Humanos , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Método de Montecarlo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/normas , Verduras
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371864

RESUMEN

This study determined the intakes of complementary foods (CFs) and milk-based formulas (MFs) by a total of 119 subjects aged 6-23.9 months from urban day care centers. Dietary intakes were assessed using two-day weighed food records. Intake adequacy of energy and nutrients was compared to the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) for Malaysia. The most commonly consumed CFs were cereals (rice, noodles, bread). The subjects derived approximately half of their energy requirements (kcals) from CFs (57 ± 35%) and MFs (56 ± 31%). Protein intake was in excess of their RNI requirements, from both CFs (145 ± 72%) and MFs (133 ± 88%). Main sources of protein included meat, dairy products, and western fast food. Intake of CFs provided less than the RNI requirements for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and zinc. Neither CF nor MF intake met the Adequate Intake (AI) requirements for essential fatty acids. These findings indicate imbalances in the dietary intake of the subjects that may have adverse health implications, including increased risk of rapid weight gain from excess protein intake, and linear growth faltering and intellectual impairment from multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Interventions are needed to improve child feeding knowledge and practices among parents and child care providers.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas en la Dieta/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Esenciales/análisis , Alimentos Infantiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Micronutrientes/análisis , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Guarderías Infantiles , Registros de Dieta , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Alimentos , Ácidos Grasos Esenciales/deficiencia , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Alimentos Infantiles/análisis , Fórmulas Infantiles/análisis , Fórmulas Infantiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Lactante/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Lactante/etiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Micronutrientes/deficiencia , Leche , Necesidades Nutricionales
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371843

RESUMEN

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the relationships between the intakes of various vitamins and the loss of muscle mass in older people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The change in skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) (kg/m2/year) was defined as follows: (SMI at baseline (kg/m2) - SMI at follow-up (kg/m2))/follow-up period (year). The rate of SMI reduction (%) was calculated as follows (the change in SMI (kg/m2/year)/SMI at baseline (kg/m2)) × 100. The rate of SMI reduction ≥ 1.2% was considered as the loss of muscle mass. Among 197 people with T2DM, 47.2% of them experienced the loss of muscle mass at the 13.7 ± 5.2 month follow-up. Vitamin B1 (0.8 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.3 mg/day, p = 0.031), vitamin B12 (11.2 ± 8.3 vs. 13.4 ± 7.5 µg/day, p = 0.049), and vitamin D (16.5 ± 12.2 vs. 21.6 ± 13.0 µg/day, p = 0.004) intakes in people with the loss of muscle mass were significantly lower than those without. Vitamin D intake was related to the loss of muscle mass after adjusting for sex, age, exercise, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, SMI, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, insulin, HbA1c, creatinine, energy intake, and protein intake (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.97, p = 0.003). This study showed that vitamin D intake was related to the loss of muscle mass in older people with T2DM. Vitamin B12 intake tended to be related to the loss of muscle mass, although vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and vitamin E intake were not related.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Dieta/efectos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Sarcopenia/epidemiología , Vitaminas/análisis , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatología , Estudios Prospectivos , Sarcopenia/etiología
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371952

RESUMEN

The distinct Tibetan regional diet is strongly influenced by the regional biogeography, indigenous traditions, popular religious beliefs and food taboos. In the context of the nutritional transition in Tibet, studies seldom report on the food consumption and dietary patterns of Tibetan residents. This is a cross-section study of 552 local adults (≥18 years old, 277 men and 275 women) living in 14 agricultural countries along the Yarlung Tsangpo River. Dietary intakes were assessed by a culturally specific FFQ and compared with the Chinese Dietary Pagoda (2016). Dietary Patterns were extracted by using PCA method. The binary logistic regression model was applied to assess the association between independent variables (genders, regions and age groups) and adherence to dietary patterns. With the exception of meat (100 ± 260 g/day) and soybean nuts (42 ± 12 g/day), which exceeded the recommended dietary intakes of CDP, the dietary intake of other foods were not up to the recommended value. In particular, the intake of aquatic products (2 ± 0.1 g/day), vegetables (90 ± 19 g/day), dairy products (114 ± 29 g/day), cereals (117 ± 27 g/day) and fruits (97 ± 25 g/day) were seriously inadequate, which were 95%, 70%, 62%, 53.2% and 51.5% lower than the recommended intakes, respectively. Four dietary patterns were identified. "Local traditional diet" was characterized by a high intake of tsampa (roasted highland barley flour), culturally specific beverages (sweet tea and yak buttered tea), potato and yak beef and was associated with female, rural and older adults (≥51 years old). The male, urban and 18~30 years old group had a higher adherence score with the "Han diet", which was comprised of rice, pork, dumplings, eggs, milk and cabbage. The "Beverage diet", which mainly include tsampa, chang (homemade barley wine) and sweet tea, was associated with the following group: female, urban and aged 18~30 years. The "Out-sourced diet" pattern, consisting of mainly rice, steam bread and some processed meat, was associated with being male, urban and 18-30 years of age. These findings indicate that the dietary practice of the Tibetan people still has strong local characteristics, but it is also undergoing a dietary transition with the penetration of the Chinese Han diet and the increased consumption of outsourced (processed) foods. The unbalanced dietary intake of Tibetan residents should be taken seriously by all parties.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Bebidas , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Componente Principal , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Ríos , Población Rural , Factores Sexuales , Tibet , Población Urbana , Verduras , Adulto Joven
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371882

RESUMEN

There are numerous dietary recommendations during pregnancy. However, there are limited recommendations during the lactation period, a nutritionally vulnerable period for women. The Mediterranean Diet and adherence to the Healthy Food Pyramid (HFP) is considered as the standard for healthy eating. In this study, we investigated the differences in adherence to the HFP in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant/non-lactating (NPNL) women concerning sociodemographic factors. A sociodemographic and nutritional and lifestyle questionnaire (AP-Q) were used to assess adherence to the HFP, including lifestyle. The AP-Q score ranges from 0 to 10 meaning the higher the score, the greater the adherence to the HFP. Lactating women had the lowest AP-Q score (6.13 [5.31; 6.82]) compared to the pregnant (6.39 [5.56; 7.05]) and NPNL women (6.27 [5.43; 6.88]), while pregnant women had the highest scores. Maternal age was positively correlated with AP-Q score in pregnant (rho = 0.22; p-Value < 0.001) and lactating women (rho = 0.18; p-Value < 0.001), but not in NPNL women. Educational level and monthly income had a positive influence on the degree of adherence to the HFP. In conclusion, breastfeeding mothers of young age and low socioeconomic and educational level would be the target population to carry out nutritional interventions that improve their adherence to the HFP. The knowledge gained from this study can help to design recommendation guidelines and nutritional educational interventions for a given population.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Lactancia/psicología , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta Saludable/normas , Dieta Mediterránea/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Estilo de Vida , Edad Materna , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Embarazo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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