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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210699, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253172

RESUMEN

Aim: To evaluate orthodontists' knowledge and clinical practices regarding the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Cross-sectional study performed with 655 Brazilian orthodontists based on a previously calculated sample size. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to orthodontists to collect information on knowledge and clinical conduct regarding the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. The study evaluated the awareness of possible risk factors for contamination, oral manifestations of HIV, need for more information on the care of HIV-positive patients, whether orthodontic treatment is indicated in HIV-positive patients, and whether they had knowingly performed orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients. Simple regression models were adjusted, and crude Odds Ratios estimated the associations with 95% confidence intervals. The variables with P < 0.20 in the crude analysis were tested in multiple logistic regression models, and those with P ≤ 0.05 were maintained in the final model. Magnitudes were estimated by adjusted Odds Ratios values, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Orthodontists who were aware of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS, those having work experience of more than 20 years, and those who believed that orthodontic treatment could be indicated for these patients were 3.30 (1.79-6.10), 2.74 (1.36-5.52) and 1.92 (1.13-3.24) times more likely to perform orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients, respectively. Most orthodontists (92.9%) reported they needed to obtain more information about orthodontic care in patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Although orthodontists reported feeling able and qualified to provide dental care to patients with HIV/AIDS, gaps in their knowledge need to be addressed with further training


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Ortodoncia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , VIH , Síndromes de Inmunodeficiencia
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211711, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253790

RESUMEN

Aim: The present study aimed to investigate if the Guatemalan dentist's options on tooth bleaching could be influenced by their time in clinical practice, the level of specialization or their working place. Methods: A representative sample of dentists working in clinical practice in Guatemala was selected. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire with information related to gender, professional characteristics (time since graduation in years and working place) and preferences regarding vital (at-home or in-office; type and concentration of bleaching agent) and the nonvital tooth bleaching (bleaching agent used). The analysis was performed and the association between preference for bleaching technique and independent variables were investigated using Fisher's exact test. Results: 200 dentists were interviewed. More than half of dentists were male (57.0%) with time since graduation between 11 and 20 years (n= 64; 32.3%). Dentists mostly (60.5%) preferred in-office technique for vital bleaching, with 10-20% Carbamide peroxide (CP) as the preferred agent (50%). For nonvital teeth, the preferred agent (46.8%) was 37% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP). About the associations, younger dentists (< 20 years of graduation) selected mostly in-office technique, while those with more than 20 years indicated more the at-home technique. Also, the dentists working in private practice chose more frequently in-office technique. Thus, the in-office technique was more popular among Guatemalan dentists, with 10-20% CP and 37% HP selected as favorite bleaching agents for vital and nonvital techniques, respectively. Conclusion: The time of clinical practice and working place influenced some choices


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología , Blanqueadores Dentales
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210967, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253959

RESUMEN

There is no much published data on the mothers' false beliefs about signs and symptoms associated with teething in Sudan. Aim: This cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted to assess mothers` knowledge about infant teething process and to evaluate mothers' practices used to alleviate teething disturbances in Gadarif city, eastern Sudan. Methods: Questionnaires were used to collect data. Multivariate logistics regression models were performed and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results/Conclusion: Of a total of 384 participating mothers, 126 (32.8%) had good knowledge about infant teething. The mothers' knowledge was associated with a higher number of children in the family (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.14) and with having a job (AOR = 2.22). Mothers residing in rural areas (AOR = 0.40) and mothers with lower than secondary education (AOR = 0.43) were less likely to have good knowledge about teething. Diarrhea (88.5%), fever (86.5%), an urge to bite (76.6%), and poor appetite (71.9%) were the signs and symptoms most attributed to teething by mothers. Only the mother's knowledge about teething was associated with reporting fever as a sign. A considerable number (317; 82.6%) of mothers reported performing "Dokhan" (acacia wood smoke), 313 (81.5%) preferred to administer paracetamol or other systemic analgesics, 262 (68.2%) agreed that a child with tooth eruption should be taken to a hospital or health center, and 216 (56.3%) believed that antibiotics relieved symptoms related to teething


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Signos y Síntomas , Erupción Dental , Niño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Conocimiento , Madres
4.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e219912, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1254429

RESUMEN

Aim: Evaluation of the reliability of 3D computed tomography (3D-CT) in the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study was carried out, through the application of a questionnaire for 70 professionals in the area of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Radiology. 3D-CT images of mandibular fractures were delivered to the interviewees along with a questionnaire. Participants answered about the number of traces, the region and the type of fracture. The correct diagnosis, that is, the expected answer, was based on the reports of a specialist in oral and maxillofacial radiology after viewing the images in the axial, sagittal and coronal sections. The resulting data from the interviewees was compared with the expected answer and then, the data was analyzed statistically. Results: In the sample 56.9% were between 22 and 30 years old, 52.8% were oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMF), 34.7% were residents in OMF surgery and 12.5% OMF radiologists. Each professional answered 15 questions (related to five patients) and 50.8% of the total of these was answered correctly. Specialists in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology correctly answered 53.9%. Interviewees with experience between 6 and 10 years correctly answered 58.2%. In identifying fracture traces, 46.1% of the questions were answered correctly. In terms of location, 5.6% of interviewees answered wrongly while 14.2% answered wrongly regarding classification. Conclusion: 3D computed tomography did not prove to be a reliable image for diagnosing mandibular fractures when used alone. This made necessary an association with axial, sagittal and coronal tomographic sections


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Diagnóstico por Imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Imagenología Tridimensional , Fracturas Mandibulares
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212755, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1254632

RESUMEN

Aim: To investigate restorative decisions made by dentists and to examine what demographic characteristics are associated with the decisions for managing approximal and occlusal lesions. Methods: A questionnaire was randomly sent to 900 Palestinian dentists. It noted the demographic details of the dentists and the years of experience. The questionnaire evaluated the respondents for their treatment decisions regarding approximal and occlusal carious lesions. The data was analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistics for windows. The associations between gender and years of experience of the respondents and their restorative decisions were assessed. Results: The response rate was 58.2%. For occlusal carious lesions, 93.9% of the respondents would postpone operative treatment until the lesion was in dentine (grade 3 to 5). For approximal lesions, intervention was deemed appropriate by 92.6% of the respondents when there was radiographic evidence of a carious lesion reaching the DEJ or deeper. Around 53% preferred to prepare approximal lesions according to the traditional principles of cavity preparation. For both approximal and occlusal lesions, the participants opted for resin composites. Statistically, there was a significant association between the restorative decisions with the years since graduation and gender. Conclusion: The study showed variations between the treatment decisions of Palestinian dentists. The subjects chose conservative treatment plans but still adhered to traditional learned practices especially when cavity preparation for approximal lesions was concerned. The years since graduation and gender played a significant role in the choice of treatment opted for. Resin composites seemed to be a popular choice for treatment


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Características de la Población , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resinas Compuestas , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología , Caries Dental , Preparación de la Cavidad Dental
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213555, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1254634

RESUMEN

Aim: This study evaluated, by the application of questionnaires, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical routine and inspection by the competent authorities, on the flow of patients in the office, as well as on possible changes in Endodontic treatment costs and the amounts charged to patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2nd, 2020 to May 6th, 2020, using an online questionnaire with a convenience sample. The inclusion criterion was professionals who perform endodontic treatments in daily clinical practice and who professional setting is private practice. The questionnaire brought questions about the impact on costs and the amount charged to the patient. Results: A total of 1042 questionnaires were answered from all the different states of Brazil, by professional who usually perform Endodontic treatment, and who is working in private practice. A total of 1010 (96.9%) respondents affirm it was necessary to modify the protective equipment in endodontic treatment due to pandemic and longer intervals between appointments was cited by 922 (88.5%), economically affecting the dental practice. There was no association between routine changes and economic impacts with gender, professional experience, area of residence or education level. Conclusion: In conclusion, most dental professionals recognized changes in the routine of endodontic treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. They have a perception of increase in endodontic costs, and reduction in the volume of patients


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Coronavirus , Consultorios Odontológicos , Endodoncia
7.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213961, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1254644

RESUMEN

Aim: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate where Brazilian dental students seek information about COVID-19 by a self-administered web-based questionnaire. Methods: A social network campaign on Instagram was raised to approach the target population. The dental students responded to a multiple-response question asking where or with whom they get information about COVID-19. The possible answers were government official websites or health and education institutions websites, TV Programs, professors, social media, scientific articles, health professionals, and family members. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and the frequency distributions of responses were evaluated by gender, age, type of institution, and year of enrollment. Results: A total of 833 valid responses were received. The main source of information used by the dental students were government official websites or health and education institutions websites, which were reported by 739 (88.7%) participants. In the sequence, 477 (57.3%) participants chose health professionals while 468 (56.2%) chose scientific articles as information sources. The use of social media was reported by 451 (54.1%) students, while TV programs were information sources used by 332 (39.9%) students. The least used information sources were professors, reported by 317 (38.1%) students, and family members, chosen only by 65 (7.8%) participants. Conclusion: Brazilian dental students rely on multiple information sources to stay informed about COVID-19, mainly focusing their information-seeking behavior on governmental and health professional's websites


Asunto(s)
Facultades de Odontología , Estudiantes de Odontología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , COVID-19
8.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e214995, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1281108

RESUMEN

Proper recording and keeping dental records are an important part of any dental practice. It helps in improving patient care, has medico-legal importance and play significant role in human identification during mass disasters or criminal offences. Aim: To assess the knowledge and practices of recording and maintaining patients 'records among private dental practitioners of Delhi, India. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study was collected from 160 dentists of Delhi using a self-administered questionnaire. The face and content validity as well as reliability of questionnaire was tested before the final data collection. A single trained examiner collected all the necessary information via personal visits or google forms. Chi-square test was applied to check the statistically significant difference between the dichotomous independent variables with respect to study participants' responses to the questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 34.5 (SD 7.2) years.Digital method of recording patient's data and x-ray storage was more prevalent than manual method among the study participants. Slightly more than 40% of the dentists were keeping patient's records safe for a period of 6 to 10 years. Younger dentists with lesser years of practice were more explicit in recording and correcting patient records. Conclusion: Results of this study shows that private dental practitioners of Delhi are aware of medico-legal importance of dental records. Most of them were recording important findings and history of their patients. Dentists must be educated in two aspects namely correct method of recording and the ideal duration of storing their patients' dental records


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Registros Odontológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Odontólogos , Odontología Forense
9.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 221-232, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202546

RESUMEN

This study examined the mediator role of use of emotion (UoE) component of the emotional intelligence Scale in the relationship between extraversion (EX) and conscientiousness within the Big Five personality factors, and the dimensions of working excessively (WE) and working compulsively of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale. Along with this aim, da-ta were collected from healthcare staff, most of who were nurses, working at private hospitals serving in Istanbul. The findings indicated that WE had a non-significant direct effect on EX (β = −0.358; p > . 05), while the indirect effect of WE on EX through UoE was significant (β = 0.147; p < .05). This study reveals that UoE acts as a full mediator in the effect of WE on EX


Este estudio examinó el papel mediador del componente de uso de la emoción (UoE), de la Escala de inteligencia emocional, en la relación entre extraversión (EX) y conciencia dentro de los Cinco Grandes factores de personalidad, y las dimensiones de trabajar en exceso (WE) y trabajar compulsivamente de la Escala holandesa de adicción al trabajo. Junto con este objetivo, se recopilaron datos del personal sanitario, en su mayoría enfermeras, que trabajaba en hospitales privados que prestan servicios en Estambul. Los hallazgos indicaron que WE tuvo un efecto directo no significativo sobre EX (β = −0.358; p > .05), mientras que el efecto indirecto de WE sobre EX a través de UoE fue significativo (β = 0.147; p < .05). Este estudio revela que UoE actúa como un mediador completo en el efecto de WE sobre EX


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Personalidad , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Carga de Trabajo/psicología , Emociones , Modelos Psicológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Análisis Factorial , Inteligencia Emocional , Pruebas Psicológicas , Conducta Compulsiva/psicología , Extraversión Psicológica
10.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 233-242, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202547

RESUMEN

The study of happiness and well-being is receiving increased attention in different fields. Recent research into well-being has focused on delving deeper into the individual's conception about the experience of well-being. McMahan and Estes (2011a) created a scale that assesses lay conceptions of well-being based on four dimensions: the experience of pleasure, avoidance of negative experience, self-development and contribution to others. The goal of this study was to adapt this scale, the Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), to the Spanish population. The sample consisted of 1,024 participants from the general population ranging in age interval from 17 to 87 years old. The confirmatory factorial analysis results in a structure of four dimensions, similar to the original scale, although in the adaptation of the scale the items decrease from 16 to 12. The results of the reliability analysis reveal indexes similar to those of the original scale. These results confirm the validity of Beliefs about Well-Being Scale with general population in a cultural context different from the original study. This will allow cross-cultural studies to analyze the influence of culture in the perception of well-being


El estudio de la felicidad y el bienestar está recibiendo cada vez más atención en diferentes campos. Las investigaciones recientes sobre el bienestar se han centrado en profundizar en la concepción del individuo sobre la experiencia del bienestar. McMahan y Estes (2011a) crearon una escala que evalúa las concepciones legas del bienestar en base a cuatro dimensiones: la experiencia de placer, la evitación de la experiencia negativa, el autodesarrollo y la contribución a los demás. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar esta escala, Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), a la población española. La muestra estuvo formada por 1.024 participantes de la población general con un intervalo de edad entre 17 y 87 años. El análisis factorial confirmatorio da como resultado una estructura de cuatro dimensiones, similar a la escala original, aunque en la adaptación de la escala los ítems disminuyen de 16 a 12. Los resultados del análisis de fiabilidad revelan índices similares a los de la escala original. Estos resultados confirman la validez de la Escala de Creencias sobre el Bienestar con población general en un contexto cultural diferente al del estudio original. Esto permitirá realizar estudios transculturales para analizar la influencia de la cultura en la percepción del bienestar


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Satisfacción Personal , Cultura , Adaptación Psicológica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Felicidad , Comparación Transcultural , Filosofía , Pruebas Psicológicas/normas , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Factorial , Placer , España
11.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 243-252, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202548

RESUMEN

El estudio de la resiliencia como recuperación del estrés se ha extendido, y se requiere dar cuenta del desarrollo y las propiedades psicométricas de las escalas que permiten utilizarla. El objetivo fue adaptar transculturalmente la Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) y evaluar sus propiedades psicométricas en población joven chilena. Participaron en el año 2016, tres traductores, y 1,237 estudiantes de 18 a 24 años de una universidad de la zona Central de Chile, 60.8% mujeres y 39.2% hombres. Se consiguió la equivalencia lingüística y conceptual después de una doble traducción, retro traducción y de realizar las entrevistas cognitivas con la población diana. Se observaron dificultades en el ítem 2. Del Análisis Factorial Exploratorio surgieron dos factores. Los índices de ajuste del Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio fueron adecuados: χ2 = 9.256(6), p = .160; CFI = .995; TLI = .988; RMSEA = .035, IC 90% [.000, .076]. El omega total .81. La estabilidad por ítem fue moderada y para la puntuación total, elevada. Las medias en general fueron menores en mujeres, pero similares entre grupos de edad. Hubo evidencia de validez concurrente y convergente. La versión chilena de la BRS puede ser útil para medir la resiliencia en jóvenes chilenos


The study of resilience as recovery from stress has been extended, and it is necessary to account for the development and psychometric properties of the scales that allow it to be used. The aim was to report on the cross-cultural adaptation process and psychometric properties of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) in young Chilean population. In 2016, three translators, and 1,237 students between 18 and 24 years old from a university in the Fifth Region of Chile participated. Linguistic and conceptual equivalence was achieved after carried out a double translation, back-translation and cognitive interviews with the target population. Difficulties were observed in item 2. From the Exploratory Factor Analysis, two factors emerged. In the Confirmatory Factorial Analysis, the fit indexes were suitable: χ2 = 9.256(6), p = .160; CFI = .995; TLI = .988; RMSEA = .035 IC 90% .000, .076. Total omega was .81. The stability per item was moderate; and high for the total score. Means were generally lower in women than in men but similar among age groups. It has evidence for concurrent and convergent validity. The BRS Chilean version might be useful for measuring resilience in young Chileans


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Comparación Transcultural , Resiliencia Psicológica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Psicometría , Análisis Factorial , Factores Sexuales , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta , Traducciones , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Chile , Estudiantes/psicología
12.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 253-264, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202549

RESUMEN

Ambivalent sexism is a multidimensional construct composed of two elements: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. The main aim of this study is to analyse the acceptance of ambivalent sexist attitudes in a sample of future teachers from Spain and Latin America. The research is based on a quantitative methodological strategy. The sample is composed of 2798 trainee teachers, and their mean age is 22.62 years (SD = 6.23), they were residing in seven countries: Spain, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina and Mexico. The data collection technique was the structured questionnaire. The results show that ambivalent sexist attitudes exist to a varying degree in future teachers of every country. The assumption of sexism varies significantly between men and women and among countries. There seems to be a relationship between levels of sexism with indices of gender inequality and human development. Education institutions are not exempt from obstacles and gender bias that impede the attainment of equality between women and men. Sexist attitudes of teachers can be transmitted through the education system and the socialization process, so including gender issues in initial and in service teacher training plans is essential


El sexismo ambivalente es un constructo multidimensional compuesto por dos componentes: el sexismo hostil y el sexismo benévolo. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar la aceptación de las actitudes sexistas ambivalentes en una muestra de futuros y futuras docentes de España y Latinoamérica. En la investigación participaron 2798 docentes en formación con una edad media de 22.62 años (DE = 6.23) que residían en siete países: España, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina y México. Los resultados muestran que las actitudes sexistas están presentes, con diferentes grados de aceptación, en el profesorado en formación de todos los países. La aceptación del sexismo varía significativamente entre hombres y mujeres y entre los países de la muestra. Parece existir una relación entre los niveles de sexismo y los índices de desigualdad de género y desarrollo humano. Las actitudes sexistas del profesorado pueden transmitirse a través del sistema educativo y de los procesos de socialización, por lo que es fundamental incluir la perspectiva de género en los planes de formación inicial y continua del profesorado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Maestros/estadística & datos numéricos , Formación del Profesorado , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores Sexuales , Sexismo/psicología , Maestros/psicología , Valores de Referencia , Hostilidad , Empatía , España , América Latina
13.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 265-275, mayo-sept. 2021. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202550

RESUMEN

The main aim of this study was to find out more about the role of great-grandparenthood. A group of participants with greatgrandchildren (n = 78) was interviewed using a questionnaire containing questions that had been put through a previous pilot study, covering participants' sociodemographics, the activities that participants shared with their great-grandchildren, and their view of the role of great-grandparent and their related degree of satisfaction. The data were recorded and analyzed both with frequency tables and descriptive statistics and with the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. The results showed several significant relationships between the shared activities and the sociodemographic variables, such as great-grandparents' age (p ≤ .05), education (p ≤ .01), health status (p ≤ .05), the distance at which they live from their great-grandchildren (p ≤ .05). Also, it was found that participants generally con-sider the role of great-grandparent to be a continuation of their prior role as grandparent, albeit from the perspective of a formal intergenerational typology, distinct from the informal typology and, above all, opposed to the role of substitute/surrogate. Greater perceived satisfaction was associated with this typical interaction of the formal role (p ≤ .01). Great-grandparents may already be fulfilling a notable function in today's four-generation families


El objetivo general de este trabajo es conocer mejor el rol de bisabuelidad. Se entrevistó a un grupo de voluntarios con bisnietos (n = 78) mediante un cuestionario, cuyo contenido fue pilotado previamente, con preguntas sobre sus características sociodemográficas, las actividades que solían compartir con sus bisnietos y su opinión del rol de bisabuelidad, con la satisfacción asociada. Los datos fueron registrados y analizados tanto con tablas de frecuencia y estadísticos descriptivos, como con la prueba no-paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron numerosas relaciones significativas entre las actividades compartidas y aspectos socio-demográficos de los bisabuelos como la edad (p ≤ .05), el nivel educativo (p ≤ .01), la salud (p ≤ .05), la distancia a la que viven de sus bisnietos (p ≤ .05). Además, de mostrar que perciben su rol de bisabuelidad en general como una continuidad del rol anterior de abuelidad, aunque desde una tipología intergeneracional formal, distinta a la tipología informal y, sobre todo, opuesta a la del rol sustituto/subrogado. La mayor satisfacción percibida estaba asociada a esa interacción típica del rol formal (p ≤ .01). Los bisabuelos podrían estar cumpliendo ya alguna función destacable en las familias actuales de cuatro generaciones


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Abuelos/psicología , Relaciones Intergeneracionales , Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Proyectos Piloto , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Satisfacción Personal
14.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 276-286, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202551

RESUMEN

The research objective was to establish relationships of association, interdependence and structural prediction between the variables of test anxiety, self-regulation and stress coping strategies. The theoretical framework of reference was the Competence for Studying, Learning and Performing under Stress (CSLPS) model. Participating were 142 students who were preparing for professional examinations to attain a post as public school teacher (primary education), enrolled at academies in Almería (Spain) for this purpose. Previously validated questionnaires were administered for data collection. The study design was linear ex post-facto, with bivariate, inferential analyses of association (ANOVAs and MANOVAs) and of structural prediction. Results showed a negative relationship between test anxiety self-regulation, especially in students with high emotionality, and a negative impact on decision making. Positive relationships were found between test anxiety and strategies for coping with stress. Finally, a positive predictive relationship was verified between self-regulation and coping strategies, while associative and inferential analyses highlighted the role of goals as determining factors in strategies used for coping with stress, especially strategies that focuson problem solving. Results are discussed and implications for improving these processes in professional examination candidates are established


El objetivo de la investigación fue establecer relaciones de asociación, interdependencia y predicción estructural entre las variables ansiedad evaluativa, authorregulación y estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés. El marco teórico de referencia fue el modelo de la competencia de Studying, Learning, and Performing under Stress (SLPS). Participaron 142 estudiantes, que se estaban preparando en academias de Almería (España) para obtener plaza como maestros en centros públicos. Para la recogida de datos se administraron cuestionarios escritos previamente validados. El diseño fue ex post-facto lineal, con análisis de asociación bivariada, inferenciales (ANOVAs y MANOVAs) y de predicción estructural. Los resultados mostraron una relación negativa entre la ansiedad evaluativa y la autorregulación, especialmente en los estudiantes con alta emocionalidad, con un impacto negativo para la toma de decisiones. También se encontraron relaciones positivas entre la ansiedad evaluativa y las estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés. Por último, se constató la relación de predicción positiva entre la autorregulación y las estrategias de afrontamiento, a la vez que los análisis asociativos e inferenciales destacaron el papel de las metas como determinantes de las estrategias usadas para afrontar el estrés, especialmente, las referidas a la focalización en la resolución de problemas. Se discuten los resultados y se establecen implicaciones para las mejoras de estos procesos en los estudiantes opositores


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ansiedad de Desempeño/psicología , Autocontrol/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Maestros/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Escala de Ansiedad ante Pruebas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Valores de Referencia , Aprendizaje
15.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 287-297, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202552

RESUMEN

Actualmente, el engagement educativo se considera uno de los factores más importantes a la hora de predecir un buen aprendizaje por parte de los estudiantes, así como su éxito educativo. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los instrumentos descritos, no incluyen todos los factores clave vinculados al engagement académico: motivaciones, valores, contextos de aprendizaje, estado emocional y estrategias de gestión. El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar una escala para valorar el nivel de engagement educativo de los estudiantes en Educación Superior (EMMEE) que supere esta limitación. MÉTODO: Se realizan análisis factoriales exploratorio y confirmatorio, así como un estudio de la consistencia interna, validez convergente y discriminante en una muestra de 764 estudiantes de la Universidad de Sevilla (España), perteneciente a todas las áreas de saber y los diferentes cursos de grados. RESULTADOS: Se explora y se confirma con muy buen nivel de ajuste una estructura multifactorial de engagement educativo de cinco factores que explican una varianza cercana al 65.78%, con una excelente consistencia interna (α = .91) y con indicios significativos de validez convergente y discriminante. CONCLUSIONES: Se concluye que la EMMEE es un instrumento válido y fiable para medir el nivel de engagement de las aulas, así como mejorar el entendimiento del constructo a través de sus factores


Today, educational engagement is considered one of the most important factors in predicting good student learning and educational success. However, most of the instruments described do not include all the key factors linked to academic engagement: motivations, values, learning contexts, emotional state and management strategies. The aim of this study is to develop a scale to assess the level of educational engagement in High-er Education students (MMSEE) that overcomes this limitation. METHODS: Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses, as well as a study of internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, were carried out on a sample of 764 students from the University of Seville (Spain), belonging to all areas of knowledge and different degree courses. RESULTS: A multifactorial structure of educational engagement with five factors that explain a variance close to 65.78%, with an excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and with significant indicators of convergent and discriminant validity is explored and confirmed with a very good level of adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that MMSEE is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the level of engagement of classrooms, as well as to improve the under-standing of the construct through its factors


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Aprendizaje , Motivación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Análisis Factorial , Emociones , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Valores de Referencia
16.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 298-310, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202553

RESUMEN

En el marco del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, el profesorado ha de contar con capacidades profesionales para impulsar en el alumnado la competencia aprender a aprender, que hace referencia a la capacidad de autorregulación del propio proceso de aprendizaje. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en diseñar y validar un cuestionario para medir los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje que el profesorado universitario activa para el desarrollo de la competencia aprender a aprender, el CAA. En primer lugar, en base a la revisión teórica y empírica, se definieron 86 ítems. A continuación, se examinaron la validez de contenido (n = 20 expertos), la validez basada en los procesos de respuesta (n = 10 docentes), la validez basada en la estructura interna (n = 415 docentes), la validez concurrente y la validez externa. Los resultados mostraron una adecuada calidad psicométrica, consistencia interna, fiabilidad y bondad de ajuste. La versión final del CAA comprendió 4 dimensiones y 39 ítems. Este instrumento puede ser una herramienta de rápida aplicación, válida y fiable, para conocer el desarrollo de los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje de la competencia aprender a aprender. Asimismo, puede servir para detectar necesidades de formación profesional en el desarrollo de dicha competencia


Within the European Higher Education Area framework, educators must have acquired professional skills in order to promote the learning to learn competence, which refers to the ability to self-regulate the learning process itself, in their students. The objective of this work was to design and validate a questionnaire, the learning to learn questionnaire (LLQ), to measure the facilitative learning contexts implemented by university educators to develop the learning to learn competence. First, based on a theoretical and empirical review, 86 items belonging to 7 dimensions were de-fined. Next, content validity (n = 20 experts), validity based on response processes (n = 10 teachers), validity based on internal structure (n = 415 teachers), and concurrent validity were examined. Our results showed sufficient psychometric quality, reliability of scores and goodness of fit. The final version of the LLQ consisted of 4 dimensions and 39 items. This instrument can be considered a valid and reliable tool that can be quickly ap-plied in order to identify the development of facilitative learning contexts in the evolution of the learning to learn competence. Likewise, it can also serve to detect training needs in the development of this competence in university educators


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aprendizaje , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Docentes/psicología , Competencia Profesional , Psicometría , Calidad de Vida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Análisis Factorial , Escolaridad , Factores de Tiempo , Factores Sexuales
17.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 311-322, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202554

RESUMEN

Desde la teoría del liderazgo transformacional, este estudio tenía como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas de una versión adaptada al ámbito educativo del Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). Un total de 1551 estudiantes españoles (M = 15,47 años ± 0,72; 679 chicos y 872 chicas) de 31 centros de enseñanza secundaria participaron en el estudio. El análisis factorial confirmatorio de la estructura inicial de nueve factores de la escala determinó la necesidad de eliminar dos ítems del factor dirección por excepción pasiva, agrupando en un solo factor el liderazgo pasivo. En un segundo modelo de ocho factores, se hallaron altas correlaciones entre los factores del liderazgo transformacional, señalando la necesidad de establecer un factor de primer orden. Finalmente, se testó un tercer modelo que obtuvo valores adecuados de validez y fiabilidad, que estaba compuesto por 34 ítems distribuidos en 4 factores principales (liderazgo transformacional, recompensa contingente, dirección por excepción activa y liderazgo pasivo) y 5 factores secundarios para el liderazgo transformacional (influencia idealizada conducta, influencia idealizada atribuida, motivación inspiracional, estimulación intelectual y consideración individualizada. Por tanto, la versión española del MLQ-5X en el ámbito educativo puede ser utilizada para evaluar el liderazgo transformacional de los docentes desde la percepción del alumnado


Drawing on the transformational leadership theory, this study aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of a version adapted to the educational environment of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). A total of 1551 Spanish students (M = 15.47 years ± 0.72; 679 boys and 872 girls) from 31 secondary schools participated in the study. The confirmatory factor analysis of the initial nine-factor structure of the scale determined the need to eliminate two items of the passive exception management factor, grouping passive leadership into a single factor. A second eight-factor model found high correlations between the factors of transformational leadership, revealing the need to establish a first-order factor. Finally, a third model, which obtained adequate values of validity and reliability, was composed of 34 items distributed in 4 main factors (transformational leadership, contingent reward, leadership by active exception, and passive leadership) and 5 secondary factors for transformational leadership (idealized influence behavior, attributed idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration). The Spanish version of the MLQ-5X in the educational field can be used to assess the students' perception of teacher leadership


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Liderazgo , Estudiantes/psicología , Educación Primaria y Secundaria , Análisis Factorial , Valores de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Sexuales , España
18.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 323-333, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202555

RESUMEN

Este estudio tiene dos objetivos. Primero, estudiar la validez del modelo de clima motivacional de la familia como indicador de implicación parental, cuando se evalúa con el cuestionario de Clima Motivacional de la Familia para padres (CMF/P). Y, segundo, hacerlo en población española y cubana con el fin de determinar las diferencias en la percepción del CMF de los padres de ambos países. Participaron 892 padres, 400 españoles y 492 cubanos. Se realizaron análisis factoriales confirmatorios, de validez cruzada y multigrupo, y análisis de fiabilidad. Los resultados muestran, tanto en España como en Cuba, la validez del Modelo teórico que subyace al cuestionario. Las ayudas que ofrecen los padres sirviendo como ejemplo a sus hijos y la estructuración del trabajo escolar en casa por parte de los padres son los factores de mayor peso en la definición del CMF. Sin embargo, la cultura moderó la configuración del CMF en varios indicadores del Modelo, mostrando diferentes maneras de actuar entre padres españoles y cubanos en la configuración de un clima familiar motivador


This study has two objectives. First, to study the validity of the family motivational climate model as an indicator of parental involvement, when it is evaluated with the Family Motivational Climate questionnaire for Parents (CMF / P). Second, to do it in the Spanish and Cuban population in order to determine the differences in the CMF perception of the parents of both countries. A total of 892 parents participated in the study, 400 from Spain and 492 from Cuba. Confirmatory factor analyses, cross-validation and multi-group analyses performed, as well as reliability analysis. The results show, both in Spain and in Cuba, the validity of the theoretical model that underlies the questionnaire. The help offered by parents serving as an example to their children, and the way in which parents structure the schoolwork at home are the most important factors in the definition of the CMF. However, culture moderated the configuration of the CMF in several indicators of the Model, showing different ways of acting between Spanish and Cuban parents in the configuration of a family motivating climate


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Comparación Transcultural , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Motivación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Análisis Factorial , Percepción , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Valores de Referencia , Cuba , España
19.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 334-340, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202556

RESUMEN

El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar si la curiosidad es una variable moderadora entre la Impulsividad y la Orientación Emprendedora. Se utiliza una muestra multiocupacional de 883 empleados españoles (49 % hombres, 51 % mujeres), obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se ha utilizado el programa SPSS 23.0. Se encontraron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre todas las variables de la investigación a excepcion de la impulsividad Funcional. Finalmente, la evidencia empírica indica que la Curiosidad-D tiene un papel moderador entre la impulsividad Disfuncional y la Orientación Emprendedora mostrada, en el sentido de que la Curiosidad-D (entendida como una variable cuantitativa) afecta la intensidad de la relación entre la Impulsividad Disfuncional (variable predictora) y la Orientación Emprendedora (variable de criterio)


The objective of the present study is to analyze whether the variable Curiosity is a moderating variable between Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation. The multi-occupational sample of 883 Spanish and Colombian employees (49% men, 51% women) was obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The data collected were processed with the SPSS 23.0 program. Statistically significant correlations were found among all the research variables except for Functional Impulsivity. Finally, empirical evidence indicates that Curiosity-D plays a moderating role between Dysfunctional Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation in the sense that Curiosity-D (understood as a quantitative variable) affects the intensity of the relationship between Dysfunctional Impulsivity (predictor variable) and Entrepreneurial Orientation (criterion variable)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Exploratoria , Impulso (Psicología) , Emprendimiento , Conducta Impulsiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Inventario de Personalidad , Análisis de Regresión , Valores de Referencia , España , Colombia
20.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 352-360, mayo-sept. 2021.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202558

RESUMEN

El presente estudio bibliométrico tuvo como objetivo conocer y analizar la actividad científica disponible sobre percepción y detección de violencia de género (VG) e identificación como víctimas. Se realizó una búsqueda sin límite temporal en la base de datos Scopus hallando 2.152 documentos. Para reducir el ruido documental de la búsqueda, se cribaron los resultados y se analizaron 974 documentos finales procedentes de 465 fuentes documentales, 160 revistas, 2.758 autores/as, 159 instituciones y 79 países. Los resultados muestran un aumento en la producción en los últimos años, destacando la publicación de artículos originales. Asimismo, predomina la autoría única por país, siendo Estados Unidos el país puntero. Entre los objetivos de los documentos más citados se encuentra la detección de VG por el personal sanitario, la valoración del riesgo de reincidencia mediante la percepción de las víctimas, así como el estudio de percepciones y actitudes de diferentes actores hacia la VG


This bibliometric study seeks to know and analyse the available scientific activity on the perception and detection of gender violence as well as in the identification as victims. An unlimited search was conducted in the Scopus database, finding 2,152 documents. Subsequently, the results were screened by reducing the documentary noise. The results were obtained from 1984-2020 and the final 974 documents were analysed from 465 documentary sources, 160 journals, 2,758 authors, 159 institutions, and 79 countries. The results show an increase in production in recent years, highlighting the publication of original articles. Likewise, the single author-ship per country predominates, being the United States the leading country. The main objectives of the most cited documents are detection of gender violence by healthcare personnel, assessment of the risk of recidivism through the perception of the victims, as well as the study of perceptions and attitudes of different actors towards gender-violence


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Liderazgo , Estudiantes/psicología , Aspiraciones Psicológicas , Compromiso Laboral , Identidad de Género , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Autoevaluación (Psicología) , Análisis Factorial
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