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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 71-83, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997586

RESUMEN

This study assessed the farm-level economic and environmental impacts from the use of genetically modified (GM) corn in Vietnam (resistant to Lepidopteran pests of corn and tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate). It was largely based on a farmer survey conducted in 2018-19. The GM varieties out-performed conventional varieties in terms of yield by +30.4% (+15.2% if the yield comparison is with only the nearest performing equivalent conventional varieties) and reduced the cost of production by between US $26.47 per ha and US $31.30 per ha. For every extra US $1 spent on GM seed relative to conventional seed, farmers gained between an additional US $6.84 and US $12.55 in extra income. The GM maize technology also reduced insecticide and herbicide use. The average amount of herbicide active ingredient applied to the GM crop area was 26% lower (1.66 kg per ha) than the average value for the conventional corn area (2.26 kg/ai per ha) and in terms of the associated environmental impact of the herbicide use, as measured by the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) indicator, it was lower by 36% than the average value applicable to the conventional corn area. Insecticides were used on a significantly lower GM crop area and, when used, in smaller amounts. The average amount of insecticide applied to the GM corn crop was significantly lower by 78% (0.08 kg/ai per ha) than the average value for the conventional corn area (0.36 kg/ai per ha) and in terms of the associated environmental impact of the insecticide use, as measured by the EIQ indicator, it was also lower by 77% than the average value for conventional corn (14.06 per ha).


Asunto(s)
Productos Agrícolas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Granjas , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vietnam
2.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 36-46, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835603

RESUMEN

Consumer preference for the mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods promotes public support for the implementation of GM food policies. This study analyzes consumers' preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Survey data were collected through a self-administered survey covering 804 randomly sampled urban residents in the eastern, central and western regions of China. Using a logit model, this analysis examines the impacts of influential factors on consumers' preference for traceability. The results show that about 56.5% of the respondents have a positive preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Factors increasing the preference for traceability include a better perception of the attributes of nutrition benefit and potential health risk, perceived inadequacy of simple mandatory labels, more attention paid to food labels, and distrust in the agencies overseeing GM food safety. Enhancing consumers' perceptions of GM-related attributes and awareness of food labels will help improve the mandatory labeling management of GM foods.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos Modificados Genéticamente , Aceite de Soja , China , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMEN

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estudiantes/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Actitud , Análisis Factorial , Conducta del Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Prevalencia , Psicometría
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 40392, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094841

RESUMEN

Objetivo: discutir sobre a aplicação do construto da perspectiva temporal e os principais instrumentos de análise utilizados em estudos na área da saúde e da enfermagem. Conteúdo: a perspectiva temporal é uma das forças fundamentais na vida das pessoas e desempenha influência nos comportamentos, atitudes e decisões. Por ter forte influência nos comportamentos, o campo da saúde pode se beneficiar da sua aplicação. As dimensões temporais de passado, presente e futuro são usadas na codificação, armazenamento e recuperação de experiências vividas, inclusive de saúde e doença, fornecendo interpretações, estabelecendo metas e auxiliando a tomada de decisões. Conclusão: destaca-se a importância da influência da perspectiva temporal no comportamento relacionado à saúde, visto que a incorporação da avaliação da perspectiva temporal nas ações de cuidado à saúde também pode contribuir na prática da assistência, tanto para prevenção de comportamentos considerados prejudiciais, quanto para o desenvolvimento de comportamentos protetores para a saúde.


Objective: to discuss the application of the temporal perspective construct and the main analytical tools used in health and nursing studies. Content: the time perspective is one of the fundamental forces in people's lives and influences behavior, attitudes and decisions. Because it has a strong influence on behaviors, the field of health can be benefited with its application. The time dimensions of past, present and future are used in the codification, storage and retrieval of lived experiences, including health and illness, providing interpretations, setting goals and assisting in decision making. Conclusion: the importance of the time perspective's influence on health-related behavior is highlighted, since the incorporation of the temporal perspective evaluation into health care actions can also contribute to the practice of care, both for the prevention of behaviors considered harmful and for the development of protective behaviors for health. Descriptors: Time perception; health behavior; delivery of health care; nursing.


Objetivo: discutir la aplicación del construco de la perspectiva temporal y las principales herramientas analíticas utilizadas en los estudios de salud y enfermería. Contenido: la perspectiva del tiempo es una de las fuerzas fundamentales en la vida de las personas e influye en el comportamiento, las actitudes y las decisiones. Debido a que tiene una fuerte influencia en los comportamientos, el campo de la salud se puede beneficiar con su aplicación. Las dimensiones de tiempo del pasado, presente y futuro se utilizan en la codificación, almacenamiento y recuperación de experiencias vividas, incluida la salud y la enfermedad, proporcionando interpretaciones, estableciendo objetivos y ayudando en la toma de decisiones. Conclusión: se destaca la importancia de la influencia de la perspectiva del tiempo en el comportamiento relacionado con la salud, ya que la incorporación de la evaluación de la perspectiva temporal en las acciones de atención de la salud también puede contribuir a la práctica de la atención, tanto para la prevención de comportamientos considerados perjudiciales como para el desarrollo de comportamientos protectores para la salud.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Percepción del Tiempo , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vulnerabilidad en Salud , Atención de Enfermería
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48522, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1103397

RESUMEN

Objetivo: identificar a presença de distúrbios osteomusculares relacionados ao trabalho nos trabalhadores de enfermagem de uma unidade de clínica médica e construir juntos aos trabalhadores propostas para reduzir a ocorrência dos distúrbios osteomusculares no ambiente de trabalho. Método: estudo transversal com 31 trabalhadores de enfermagem de uma clínica médica, que responderam uma ficha de dados sóciodemográfico e profissional e do Questionário Nórdico de Sintomas Osteomusculares. Resultados: os trabalhadores exercem suas atividades laborais com dores osteomusculares, sendo as regiões corpóreas mais prevalentes a lombar e a porção superior da coluna e ombros. Apesar disso, nem todos se afastam do trabalho ou procuram assistência terapêutica. As ações de redução dos distúrbios osteomusculares levantadas foram categorizadas em três dimensões: indivíduo, equipe e instituição. Conclusão: os trabalhadores apresentam distúrbios osteomusculares, principalmente, nas costas. As ações de redução de sua ocorrência perpassam pelo comportamento individual às mudanças estruturais e provisão de equipamentos de trabalho.


Objective: to identify the presence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in nursing staff at an internal medicine unit and, jointly with the staff, to build proposals to reduce the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace. Method: in this cross-sectional study, 31 nursing staff of a medical clinic answered a socio-demographic and professional data sheet and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Results: staff performed their work activities with musculoskeletal pain, the most prevalent body regions being: lower back and upper spine and shoulders. Nonetheless, not everyone would take time off work or seek therapeutic care. The actions suggested to reduce musculoskeletal disorders were categorized into three dimensions: individual, team and institutional. Conclusion: staff had musculoskeletal disorders, mainly in the back. Actions proposed to reduce pain ranged from individual behavior to structural changes and provision of work equipment.


Objetivo: identificar la presencia de trastornos musculoesqueléticos relacionados con el trabajo en el personal de enfermería en una unidad de medicina interna y, conjuntamente con el personal, elaborar propuestas para reducir la aparición de trastornos musculoesqueléticos en el lugar de trabajo. Método: en este estudio transversal, 31 miembros del personal de enfermería de una clínica médica respondieron una hoja de datos sociodemográficos y profesionales y el Cuestionario musculoesquelético nórdico. Resultados: el personal realizó sus actividades laborales con dolor musculoesquelético, siendo las regiones corporales más frecuentes: la parte baja de la espalda y la parte superior de la columna y los hombros. Sin embargo, no todos tomarían tiempo libre del trabajo o buscarían atención terapéutica. Las acciones sugeridas para reducir los trastornos musculoesqueléticos se clasificaron en tres dimensiones: individual, de equipo e institucional. Conclusión: el personal tenía trastornos musculoesqueléticos, principalmente en la espalda. Las acciones propuestas para reducir el dolor iban desde el comportamiento individual hasta los cambios estructurales y la provisión de equipos de trabajo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Ambiente de Trabajo , Trastornos de Traumas Acumulados/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Prevención de Enfermedades , Dolor Musculoesquelético/prevención & control
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e42793, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1118060

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever a elaboração de protocolo para a identificação do paciente com transtorno mental agudo. Método: estudo exploratório e qualitativo, realizado de maio 2018 a janeiro 2019, por meio das etapas: revisão integrativa da literatura, questionário online respondido por 17 profissionais de saúde vinculados à Sociedade Brasileira para a Qualidade do Cuidado e Segurança do Paciente, e grupo focal com 04 especialistas em Saúde Mental. Para tratamento dos dados, utilizou-se a análise descritiva e comparativa. Resultados: na revisão não se encontraram artigos sobre identificação do paciente com transtorno mental agudo. Na consulta aos especialistas da segurança do paciente identificou-se que 82,3% não possuíam em suas instituições protocolo específico. No grupo focal evidenciou-se dificuldade na identificação deste paciente. Conclusão: acreditase que o protocolo com a inserção da pulseira fotográfica apresenta-se como uma ferramenta inovadora na redução de riscos associados à identificação deste paciente.


Objective: to describe the development of a protocol for identification of patients with acute mental disorders. Method: this qualitative exploratory study was carried out from May 2018 to January 2019 through an integrative literature review, an online questionnaire answered by 17 health personnel belonging to the Brazilian Society for Quality of Care and Patient Safety, and a focus group of four mental health experts. Results: no articles specifically on identification for patients with acute mental disorders were found in the review. The consultation of patient safety experts found that 82.3% had no specific protocol in their institutions. The focal group highlighted difficulties communicating with these patients. Conclusion: the protocol including the photographic bracelet is believed to constitute an innovative tool for reducing risks associated with identification of these patients.


Objetivo: describir el desarrollo de un protocolo para la identificación de pacientes con trastornos mentales agudos. Método: este estudio exploratorio cualitativo se realizó de mayo de 2018 a enero de 2019 a través de una revisión integradora de la literatura, un cuestionario en línea respondido por 17 miembros del personal de salud pertenecientes a la Sociedad Brasileña de Calidad de Atención y Seguridad del Paciente, y un grupo focal de cuatro personas de salud mental expertos. Resultados: en la revisión no se encontraron artículos específicos sobre identificación de pacientes con trastornos mentales agudos. La consulta de expertos en seguridad del paciente encontró que el 82,3% no tenía un protocolo específico en sus instituciones. El grupo focal destacó las dificultades para comunicarse con estos pacientes. Conclusión: se cree que el protocolo que incluye la pulsera fotográfica constituye una herramienta innovadora para reducir los riesgos asociados a la identificación de estos pacientes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Sistemas de Identificación de Pacientes , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Medidas de Seguridad , Enfermos Mentales , Seguridad del Paciente , Brasil , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Grupos Focales , Investigación Cualitativa , Innovación
7.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193595

RESUMEN

OBJETIVOS: describir conocimientos y percepciones de profesionales de Atención Primaria sobre el acceso al Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) y la atención sanitaria de la población inmigrante, así como analizar diferencias entre categorías profesionales. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta a 352 profesionales sanitarios y no sanitarios en centros de salud de la Comunidad de Madrid, y residentes de Medicina y Enfermería de la Unidad Docente Multiprofesional de Atención Familiar y Comunitaria Sur de Madrid (UDMAFyC Sur) entre febrero y marzo de 2019. RESULTADOS: respondieron 179 profesionales (50,9%). El 50,3% opinó que los inmigrantes tienen frecuentes dificultades de acceso y el 65,9% que el estatus migratorio condiciona su salud, señalando el idioma como barrera relevante el 80,4%. El 72,7% de los sanitarios afirmó que no consumen más recursos. Expresaron nulo/escaso conocimiento del Real Decreto-Ley (RDL) 16/2012 el 72%, y del RDL 7/2018, un 66,7%. Un 30,7% consideró que el RDL 16/2012 tuvo efectos negativos en salud, y el 28,5%, que el RDL 7/2018 recuperó la universalidad. Un 54,9% de sanitarios apoyó la universalidad del SNS, contrastando con el 19,1% de personal no sanitario. CONCLUSIONES: la mitad de profesionales percibe frecuentes dificultades de la población inmigrante en su acceso al SNS, aunque el conocimiento de las normativas es limitado. Una ajustada mayoría respalda la universalidad, existiendo posicionamientos restrictivos con relativa frecuencia, especialmente entre el personal no sanitario. Se reproducen ciertos mitos sobre la atención a población inmigrante, no así acerca del consumo de recursos sanitarios


OBJECTIVES: To report the knowledge and perceptions of Primary Care professionals regarding access to the Spanish National Healthcare System and healthcare assistance provided to the immigrant population, as well as to analyse differences by professional categories. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by sending a questionnaire to 352 professionals: healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) from primary health care centres in the southern region of the Community of Madrid and resident doctors and nurses assigned to this primary healthcare area, from February to March 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 179 professionals (50.9%) replied. Of these, 50.3% thought that migrants face frequent difficulties in access, whereas 65.9% considered that migrants' health is conditioned by their migratory status. Moreover, 80.4% identified language as a relevant barrier and 72.7% of HCWs believed that migrants do not consume more resources. Regarding the Spanish Royal Decree-laws (RDL), 72% admitted having no or little knowledge of Spanish RDL 16/2012, and 66.7% of Spanish RDL 7/2018. However, 30.7% considered that Spanish RDL 16/2012 had negative effects on health, 28.5% agreed that Spanish RDL 7/2018 recovered universal healthcare coverage (UHC). Overall, 54.9% of HCWs support UHC in comparison to 19.1% of non-HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Half the professionals perceive that immigrants encounter frequent difficulties when accessing the Spanish Healthcare System, although their knowledge of legislation is limited. A slight majority supports UHC and finds a large number of restrictive stances, especially among non-HCWs. Certain misconceptions regarding care provided to immigrants persist, but not those related to health resources consumption


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud , Personal de Salud , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Equidad en el Acceso a los Servicios de Salud , Sistemas Nacionales de Salud , Percepción Social , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
8.
J Dent Hyg ; 94(5): 44-52, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008949

RESUMEN

Purpose: Examining the long-term outcomes of education programs delivered online can help assess the impact of the program on graduates and the value of the delivery format. The purpose of this study was to measure the overall outcomes of an online dental hygiene degree completion program and identify key alumni outcomes.Methods: A 35 item electronic survey was delivered via email to all graduates (2009-2017) of an online degree completion program based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, two years following program completion. Survey items included Likert scale, closed and open-ended questions focusing on career characteristics, leadership, scholarly activities, evidence- and community-based practices, professional confidence, and transformative learning. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.Results: Of the nine alumni cohorts (n=75), 50 graduates participated in the survey for a response rate of 67%. Eighty-two percent of respondents felt they had more career options after graduation and reported post-degree career activities that included dental hygiene instruction (36%), public health (32%), and administration (14%). There was a statistically significant increase in the instructor/educator role of the participants post-graduation (p = 0.000). The majority (94%) indicated the program improved their competency in areas of leadership and evidence-based practice and all (100%) indicated a greater responsibility to use their professional skills to address oral health disparities in their communitiesConclusion: Graduates of the online degree completion program reported ongoing activities in key areas of leadership, evidence- and community-based practice. Future research should focus on ensuring that program goals reflect the evolving dental hygiene profession and program delivery practices meet the needs of the working professional student.


Asunto(s)
Higienistas Dentales , Higiene Bucal , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Michigan , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 341, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 has been declared as a pandemic disease by the WHO on March 11th, 2020, the global incidence of COVID-19 disease increased dramatically. In response to the COVID-19 situation, Jordan announced the emergency state on the 19th of March, followed by the curfew on 21 March. All educational institutions have been closed as well as educational activities including clinical medical education have been suspended on the 15th of March. As a result, Distance E-learning emerged as a new method of teaching to maintain the continuity of medical education during the COVID-19 pandemic related closure of educational institutions. Distance E-Learning is defined as using computer technology to deliver training, including technology-supported learning either online, offline, or both. Before this period, distance learning was not considered in Jordanian universities as a modality for education. This study aims to explore the situation of distance E-learning among medical students during their clinical years and to identify possible challenges, limitations, satisfaction as well as perspectives for this approach to learning. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is based on a questionnaire that was designed and delivered to medical students in their clinical years. For this study, the estimated sample size (n = 588) is derived from the online Raosoft sample size calculator. RESULTS: A total of 652 students have completed the questionnaire, among them, 538 students (82.5%) have participated in distance learning in their medical schools amid COVID-19 pandemic. The overall satisfaction rate in medical distance learning was 26.8%, and it was significantly higher in students with previous experience in distance learning in their medical schools as well as when instructors were actively participating in learning sessions, using multimedia and devoting adequate time for their sessions. The delivery of educational material using synchronous live streaming sessions represented the major modality of teaching and Internet streaming quality and coverage was the main challenge that was reported by 69.1% of students. CONCLUSION: With advances in technologies and social media, distance learning is a new and rapidly growing approach for undergraduate, postgraduate, and health care providers. It may represent an optimal solution to maintain learning processes in exceptional and emergency situations such as COVID-19 pandemic. Technical and infrastructural resources reported as a major challenge for implementing distance learning, so understanding technological, financial, institutional, educators, and student barriers are essential for the successful implementation of distance learning in medical education.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Medicina Clínica/educación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Educación a Distancia/organización & administración , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Instrucción por Computador , Estudios Transversales , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Jordania , Masculino , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
11.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 718-722, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020352

RESUMEN

AIM: The present study was conducted to assess the perceived risk of COVID-19 transmission in dental professionals (DPs), that include dentists and dental auxiliary staffs, and whether rapid tests should be a recommended tool to constrain the transmission of the COVID-19, and who should be bearing their cost (governments, dentists, or patients) through an online survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample size of n = 700 was recruited in the study. The study included DPs from all over the world. A randomized selection of samples was done through dental groups present on social networks. An online survey was conducted in April 2020, using the Google Form software to provide questions and collect and elaborate answers. Data were analyzed using the statistical software STATA and presented in terms of percentages. RESULTS: About 78% of the study participants perceived a very high risk of COVID-19 contamination in dental settings. Nearly 80% of the study participants were willing to be subjected to rapid tests and the same could be performed on patients visiting their dental clinics, which could prevent the spread of the disease. About 55% of the participants had reported that additional costs for the rapid tests should be borne by the governments. CONCLUSION: The results of the present survey report that DPs do not feel safe and perceive a high risk of COVID-19 contagion and prevention of the disease could be done by performing rapid tests on dentists, dental staff, and patients visiting the dental clinics irrespective of age and gender of the participants. SIGNIFICANCE: Since all the dentists and allied staff have perceived increased risk for COVID-19 transmission, it is important that preventive measures are implemented through rapid test kits at the earliest.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Odontólogos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Odontología , Humanos , Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 598, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025924

RESUMEN

COVID-19 pandemic has strongly and rapidly affected routine lifestyle and consequently, dental business, practice, and education. During the pandemic period, most Governments worldwide made specific regulations or recommendations to close practices, to avoid non-urgent dental therapies and treat only dental emergencies. Some recent surveys1,2 showed how dentists perceived the COVID-19 risk and how they reacted: by modifying their way of working, by reducing aerosol producing procedures, by improving staff and patient's safety with the increased use of personal protective equipment, environmental disinfection and limited access to dental offices, increasing use of remote consulting and triage.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Desinfección , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 599-603, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025925

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of the present study was to take a survey on Italian practitioners concerning the perceived risks of aerosol contamination in COVID-19 times and their attitude toward modifications of treatment protocols to reduce this risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Power analysis calculated a minimum sample size of 150 participants at 99% confidence level with a 5% margin of error. To homogenize responses elicited by different preventive measures by various national governments, only Italian dentists were included in the survey: overall 500 responses were collected. RESULTS: Of the 500 analyzed respondents, there were 266 females and 234 males; 379 practitioners were allocated in the more experienced groups, and the remaining 121 in the less experienced group based on less or more than 5 years of practice. The 70% of the dentists consider the dental practice more dangerous for the diffusion of COVID-19 than other social activities. The 5% consider dental practice more dangerous only for the patients. Aerosol contamination was perceived as a risk from the most dentist (70%), but there was agreement on the most dangerous way of cross infection in dental settings. Most of the dentists (55%) believed implementations in their protocols were needed to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infections. No significant differences were found within the groups: both women and men, as well as practitioners with different experience levels (younger or older than 35 years) perceived very similarly the problems related to COVID-19 in dentistry (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The survey demonstrated that COVID-19 had a great impact on dental practitioners; it increased not only fear of aerosol contamination during dental treatments but also influenced the fear of close contacts. SIGNIFICANCE: Airborne and waterborne infections are related with dental treatments and considered the preferred ways of diffusion for COVID-19. The risk of aerosol-related infections could interfere with the clinical practice of the dentist, during the COVID-19 pandemic; the limitations that provided changes to everyday behavior could affect the perception of the safety of the operators, staff, and patient and this could also affect economically the dental office.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Odontólogos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Aerosoles , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Rol Profesional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1203-1209, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027446

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Currently there has been significant growth in the number of patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) referred to sleep clinics. In this sense, screening and stratification methods of the severity of this pathology have become increasingly relevant. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the NoSAS and STOP-Bang scores in the screening of OSA in a sleep clinic. METHODS: Prospectively, for 12 months, all patients referred by primary care physicians to our sleep unit for clinical evaluation and who underwent in-lab polysomnography (PSG), also completed the NoSAS score (Neck circumference, Obesity, Snoring, Age, Sex) and STOP-Bang (Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, Pressure (high blood), BMI, Age, Neck circumference, Gender). A ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis was used to find the scores that simultaneously maximize sensitivity and specificity for each diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 294 individuals included, 84% had OSA, of which 28.8% were mild, 34.8% moderate, and 36.4% were severe. USING THE NOSAS SCORE FOR PREDICTING OSA, MODERATE TO SEVERE OSA, AND SEVERE OSA, THE ROC AREA WAS: 0.770 (95% CI: 0.703-0.837), p<0.001, sensitivity of 57.5%, and specificity of 83.0% for a score of 12; 0.746 (95% CI: 0.691-0.802), p<0.001, sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 75.4% for a score of 13; 0.686 (95% CI: 0.622-0.749), p<0.001, sensitivity of 71.1% and specificity of 58.3% for a score of 13, respectively. USING THE STOP-BANG SCORE FOR PREDICTING OSA, MODERATE TO SEVERE OSA, AND SEVERE OSA, THE ROC AREA WAS: 0.862 (95% CI: 0.808-0.916), p<0.001, sensitivity of 68.4% and specificity of 85.1% for a score of 5; 0.813 (95% CI: 0.756-0.861), p<0.001, sensitivity of 77.3% and specificity of 66.1% for a score of 5; 0.787 (95% CI: 0.732-0.841), p<0.001, sensitivity of 70.0% and specificity of 79.9% for a score of 6, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ROC area was consistently high for both scores confirming the diagnostic ability of the NoSAS and STOP-Bang questionnaires for all OSA severities. Thus, our results suggest that these questionnaires may be a powerful tool for the screening and stratification of patients in the diagnosis of OSA. Overall, the diagnostic ability of the STOP-Bang was higher than the NoSAS.


Asunto(s)
Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Polisomnografía , Ronquido , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 600, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028237

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this national survey was to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their healthcare experiences. METHODS: Through patient and public involvement, a questionnaire was developed and advertised via the BBC website, Twitter and other online media during May 2020. The findings were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. Women who are currently pregnant, or who have delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic were invited to partake in a national online survey. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred fifty-one participants replied to the online questionnaire. Participants provided significant insight into the perceived barriers to seeking healthcare during this pandemic. These include 'not wanting to bother anyone', 'lack of wider support from allied healthcare workers' and the influence of the media. Other concerns included the use of virtual clinics antenatally and their acceptability to patients, the presence of birthing partners, and the way in which information is communicated about rapidly changing and evolving services. The influence of the media has also had a significant impact on the way women perceive hospital care in light of COVID-19 and for some, this has shaped whether they would seek help. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first ever reported study in the United Kingdom to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their subsequent healthcare experiences. It has also provided insight into perceived barriers into seeking care as well as maternal concerns antenatally, intrapartum and postpartum.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Percepción Social , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido/epidemiología
17.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(5): 80-86, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034182

RESUMEN

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to study the dental status, control individual hygiene and assess the quality of life of patients with jaw defects in combination with medical osteonecrosis at the stages of orthopedic rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 38 patients were examined, divided into two groups of 19 people aged 49 to 74 years (average age - 61.5±4.25 years). The main group was comprised of patients after resection of the jaws for malignant neoplasms. The comparison group consisted of patients with partial tooth loss who do not have a history of cancer. All participants used individual hygiene products in the form of parodontax Complete protection toothpaste and parodontax Extra 0.2% mouthwash, along with dental prosthetics, according to a certain scheme. The analysis was performed at the beginning of the study, after 7, 14 days and 2 months. The results of prosthetics and the quality of life of patients in both groups were evaluated using a questionnaire developed by us, which allows us to evaluate various parameters (pain, functions, sensations, social activity). RESULTS: The dynamics of the values of the hygiene index, bleeding gums and qualitative analysis of mixed saliva confirm the positive effect of regular use of recommended hygiene products on the oral tissue. There was an increase in the number of buccal epithelial cells with a low degree of destruction, which indicates the restoration of the barrier properties of the epithelial layer. The orthopedic rehabilitation performed against the background of the use of personal hygiene products showed a positive dynamics of all the studied parameters. After applying prosthetics, patients in the control group noted the restoration of chewing and speech, improved appearance and mood. CONCLUSION: Orthopedic treatment of patients after jaw resection in combination with the complex use of PO and OP allows to solve the issue of their functional, cosmetic and social rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Osteonecrosis , Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Humanos , Higiene , Persona de Mediana Edad , Habla , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040505

RESUMEN

Objective:The STOP-Bang(S-B) questionnaire is widely used for screening patients with OSA. However, BMI and NC cutoff value in the original S-B questionnaire is 35 kg/m²and 40cm, the BMI and NC value in the young and middle-aged female patients in China is lower than that. We aimed to establish a more appropriate modified STOP-Bang(MS-B) questionnaire. Method:A total of 523 cases with suspected OSA in the young and middle-aged female were included in this study. All patients were asked to completed the S-B, MS-B questionnaire and undergo overnight polysomnography(PSG). The BMI and NC value of the MS-B were determined by the optimal operating points of the ROC. The ability of S-B and MS-B were assessed by ROC and McNemar's test. Result:BMI=28 kg/m²and NC=36 cm as alternative cutoff is to refine S-B questionnaire. When taking apnea hypopnea index(AHI) ≥5 times/h, ≥15 times/h and ≥30 times/h as cut-offs, MS-B had higher sensitivity(88.7% vs 86.7%, 92.8% vs 87.7%, 95.0% vs 90.1%, respectively) and the area under the curve(0.74 vs 0.706, 0.734 vs 0.703, 0.739 vs 0.699, respectively) than S-B. There were significant differences in McNemar test(P<0.05). Conclusion:This study examined the clinical utility of MS-B. MS-B may improve predictive performance of S-B questionnaire in the young and middle-aged female with OSA.


Asunto(s)
Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polisomnografía , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 117(10): 896-906, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041301

RESUMEN

We conducted a questionnaire survey on the status of implementation of hepatitis B vaccination and HBs antibody testing. It involved medical personnel covering 484 regional medical institutions in the Osaka Province. Results showed that the recognition rate was 30.1%, the hepatitis B vaccination implementation rate was 38.9%, and that of HBs antibody testing was 38.9%. Although 42.5% of the medical institutions had experienced needle-stick injuries, some medical institutions did not respond properly. The low implementation rate of hepatitis B vaccination and HBs antibody test could be explained by lack of recognition for hepatitis B infection control guidelines. Therefore, we can achieve a possible improvement in the control of infection in the Province, if sensitization programs on hepatitis B infection control are organized in the various regional medical institutions in order to provide adequate information and raise awareness on the importance of respecting these guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación
20.
Behav Neurosci ; 134(5): 369-383, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001679

RESUMEN

This study investigated whether the application of high definition transcranial DC stimulation (HD-tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cue-induced food craving when combined with food-specific inhibitory control training. Using a within-subjects design, participants (N = 55) received both active and sham HD-tDCS across 2 sessions while completing a Go/No-Go task in which foods were either associated with response inhibition or response execution. Food craving was measured pre and post stimulation using a standardized questionnaire as well as desire to eat ratings for foods associated with both response inhibition and response execution in the training task. Results revealed no effect of HD-tDCS on reducing state food craving or desire to eat. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we were unable to achieve our maximum preplanned sample size or our minimum desired Bayesian evidence strength across all a priori hypotheses; however 6 of the 7 hypotheses converged with moderate or stronger evidence in favor of the null hypothesis over the alternative hypothesis. We discuss the importance of individual differences and provide recommendations for future studies with an emphasis on the importance of cognitive interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Ansia/fisiología , Preferencias Alimentarias/fisiología , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudios Cruzados , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estimulación Transcraneal de Corriente Directa/métodos
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