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1.
Cells ; 13(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334606

RESUMEN

Elevation of the intermediate amino acid metabolite Homocysteine (Hcy) causes Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), a metabolic disorder frequently associated with mutations in the methionine-cysteine metabolic cycle as well as with nutritional deficiency and aging. The previous literature suggests that HHcy is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Severe HHcy is well-established to correlate with vascular pathologies primarily via endothelial cell death. Though moderate HHcy is more prevalent and associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular abnormalities in later part of life, its precise role in endothelial physiology is largely unknown. In this study, we report that moderate elevation of Hcy causes endothelial dysfunction through impairment of their migration and proliferation. We established that unlike severe elevation of Hcy, moderate HHcy is not associated with suppression of endothelial VEGF/VEGFR transcripts and ROS induction. We further showed that moderate HHcy induces a sub-lethal ER stress that causes defective endothelial migration through abnormal actin cytoskeletal remodeling. We also found that sub-lethal increase in Hcy causes endothelial proliferation defect by suppressing mitochondrial respiration and concomitantly increases glycolysis to compensate the consequential ATP loss and maintain overall energy homeostasis. Finally, analyzing a previously published microarray dataset, we confirmed that these hallmarks of moderate HHcy are conserved in adult endothelial cells as well. Thus, we identified adaptive UPR and metabolic rewiring as two key mechanistic signatures in moderate HHcy-associated endothelial dysfunction. As HHcy is clinically associated with enhanced vascular inflammation and hypercoagulability, identifying these mechanistic pathways may serve as future targets to regulate endothelial function and health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Enfermedades Vasculares , Humanos , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Muerte Celular , Enfermedades Vasculares/metabolismo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo
2.
Cells ; 13(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334657

RESUMEN

Effective intercellular communication is essential for cellular and tissue balance maintenance and response to challenges. Cellular communication methods involve direct cell contact or the release of biological molecules to cover short and long distances. However, a recent discovery in this communication network is the involvement of extracellular vesicles that host biological contents such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, influencing neighboring cells. These extracellular vesicles are found in body fluids; thus, they are considered as potential disease biomarkers. Cardiovascular diseases are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality, encompassing conditions such as ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, electrical heart diseases, and heart failure. Recent studies reveal the release of extracellular vesicles by cardiovascular cells, influencing normal cardiac function and structure. However, under pathological conditions, extracellular vesicles composition changes, contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Investigating the loading of molecular cargo in these extracellular vesicles is essential for understanding their role in disease development. This review consolidates the latest insights into the role of extracellular vesicles in diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases, exploring the potential applications of extracellular vesicles in personalized therapies, shedding light on the evolving landscape of cardiovascular medicine.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Vesículas Extracelulares , Cardiopatías , Humanos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Comunicación Celular/fisiología , Cardiopatías/metabolismo
3.
Cells ; 13(3)2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334669

RESUMEN

Disorders of cardiomyocyte metabolism play a crucial role in many cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In myocardial infarction, cardiomyocyte metabolism is regulated by mitochondrial changes and biogenesis, which allows energy homeostasis. There are many proteins in cells that regulate and control metabolic processes. One of them is irisin (Ir), which is released from the transmembrane protein FNDC5. Initial studies indicated that Ir is a myokine secreted mainly by skeletal muscles. Further studies showed that Ir was also present in various tissues. However, its highest levels were observed in cardiomyocytes. Ir is responsible for many processes, including the conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) to brown adipose tissue (BAT) by increasing the expression of thermogenin (UCP1). In addition, Ir affects mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, the levels of FNDC5/Ir in the blood and myocardium may be important in cardiovascular disease. This review discusses the current knowledge about the role of FNDC5/Ir in cardiovascular disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Infarto del Miocardio , Humanos , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Infarto del Miocardio/metabolismo
4.
PLoS Med ; 21(2): e1004342, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335157

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests common pathways between pregnancy losses and subsequent long-term maternal morbidity, rendering pregnancy complications an early chronic disease marker. There is a plethora of studies exploring associations between miscarriage and stillbirth with long-term adverse maternal health; however, these data are inconclusive. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, BNI, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library with relevant keywords and MeSH terms from inception to June 2023 (no language restrictions). We included studies exploring associations between stillbirth or miscarriage and incidence of cardiovascular, malignancy, mental health, other morbidities, and all-cause mortality in women without previous pregnancy loss. Studies reporting short-term morbidity (within a year of loss), case reports, letters, and animal studies were excluded. Study selection and data extraction were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) and publication bias with funnel plots. Subgroup analysis explored the effect of recurrent losses on adverse outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using an inverse variance random effects model and results are reported as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and prediction intervals (PIs) by combining the most adjusted RR, odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) under the rare outcome assumption. We included 56 observational studies, including 45 in meta-analysis. There were 1,119,815 women who experienced pregnancy loss of whom 951,258 had a miscarriage and 168,557 stillbirth, compared with 11,965,574 women without previous loss. Women with a history of stillbirth had a greater risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) RR 1.56, 95% CI [1.30, 1.88]; p < 0.001, 95% PI [0.49 to 5.15]), cerebrovascular (RR 1.71, 95% CI [1.44, 2.03], p < 0.001, 95% PI [1.92, 2.42]), and any circulatory/cardiovascular disease (RR 1.86, 95% CI [1.01, 3.45], p = 0.05, 95% PI [0.74, 4.10]) compared with women without pregnancy loss. There was no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular disease (IHD: RR 1.11, 95% CI [0.98, 1.27], 95% PI [0.46, 2.76] or cerebrovascular: RR 1.01, 95% CI [0.85, 1.21]) in women experiencing a miscarriage. Only women with a previous stillbirth were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (RR: 1.16, 95% CI [1.07 to 2.26]; p < 0.001, 95% PI [1.05, 1.35]). Women with a stillbirth history had an increased risk of developing renal morbidities (RR 1.97, 95% CI [1.51, 2.57], p < 0.001, 95% [1.06, 4.72]) compared with controls. Women with a history of stillbirth had lower risk of breast cancer (RR: 0.80, 95% CI [0.67, 0.96], p-0.02, 95% PI [0.72, 0.93]). There was no evidence of altered risk of other malignancies in women experiencing pregnancy loss compared to controls. There was no evidence of long-term mental illness risk in women with previous pregnancy losses (stillbirth: RR 1.90, 95% CI [0.93, 3.88], 95% PI [0.34, 9.51], miscarriage: RR 1.78, 95% CI [0.88, 3.63], 95% PI [1.13, 4.16]). The main limitations include the potential for confounding due to use of aggregated data with variable degrees of adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that women with a history of stillbirth have a greater risk of future cardiovascular disease, T2DM, and renal morbidities. Women experiencing miscarriages, single or multiple, do not seem to have an altered risk.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Resultado del Embarazo , Mortinato/epidemiología , Aborto Espontáneo/epidemiología
5.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 12(1)2024 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336383

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There is conflicting evidence whether lower extremity arterial calcification coincides with coronary arterial calcification (CAC). The aims of this study were to investigate the associations between (1) femoral and crural calcification with CAC, and (2) femoral and crural calcification pattern with CAC. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 405 individuals (74% men, 62.6±10.9 years) from the ARTEMIS cohort study at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) who underwent a CT scan of the femoral, crural and coronary arteries. High CVD risk was defined as history/presence of cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, renal artery stenosis, peripheral artery disease or CVD risk factors: diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, hyperlipidemia. Calcification score within each arterial bed was expressed in Agatston units. Dominant calcification patterns (intimal, medial, absent/indistinguishable) were determined via a CT-guided histologically validated scoring algorithm. Multivariable-adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses were used. Replication was performed in an independent population of individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 (Early-HFpEF cohort study). RESULTS: Every 100-point increase in femoral and crural calcification score was associated with 1.23 (95% CI=1.09 to 1.37, p<0.001) and 1.28 (95% CI=1.11 to 1.47, p=0.001) times higher odds of having CAC within tertile 3 (high) versus tertile 1 (low), respectively. The association appeared stronger for crural versus femoral arteries. Moreover, the presence of femoral intimal (OR=10.81, 95% CI=4.23 to 27.62, p<0.001), femoral medial (OR=10.37, 95% CI=3.92 to 27.38, p<0.001) and crural intimal (OR=6.70, 95% CI=2.73 to 16.43, p<0.001) calcification patterns were associated with higher odds of having CAC within tertile 3 versus tertile 1, independently from concomitant calcification score. This association appeared stronger for intimal versus medial calcification patterns. The replication analysis yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Higher femoral and crural calcification scores were associated with higher CAC. Moreover, the presence of femoral intimal, femoral medial and crural intimal calcification patterns was associated with increased CAC. It appears that arterial calcification is a systemic process which occurs simultaneously in various arterial beds.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Calcificación Vascular , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Vasos Coronarios/patología , Estudios de Cohortes , Calcificación Vascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Calcificación Vascular/epidemiología , Calcificación Vascular/patología , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Riesgo , Volumen Sistólico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Extremidad Inferior
6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 24(1): 96, 2024 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336618

RESUMEN

An early diagnosis of atherosclerosis, particularly in subclinical status, can play a remarkable role in reducing mortality and morbidity. Because of coronary artery calcification (CAC) nature in radiation exposure, finding biomarkers associated with CAC could be useful in identifying individuals at high risk of CAC score. In this review, we focused on the association of cardiac troponins (hs-cTns) and CAC to achieve insight into the pathophysiology of CAC. In October 2022, we systematically searched Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Embase databases to find human observational studies which have investigated the association of CAC with cardiac troponins. To appraise the included articles, we used the Newcastle Ottawa scale (NOS). Out of 520 records, 10 eligible studies were included. Based on findings from longitudinal studies and cross-sectional analyses, troponin T and I were correlated with occurrence of CAC and its severity. Two of the most important risk factors that affect the correlation between hs-cTns serum levels and CAC were age and gender. The elevation of cardiac troponins may affect the progression of CAC and future cardiovascular diseases. Verifying the association between cardiac troponins and CAC may lead to identify individuals exposed to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications and could establish innovative targets for pharmacological therapy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria , Cardiopatías , Calcificación Vascular , Humanos , Calcio , Estudios Transversales , Vasos Coronarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Factores de Riesgo , Troponina , Calcificación Vascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Calcificación Vascular/epidemiología
7.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337629

RESUMEN

Associations between mineral intake and mortality in non-Western countries have not been studied adequately. This study evaluated these associations in the Golestan Cohort Study, featuring a Middle Eastern population. The mineral intake was estimated from the baseline food frequency questionnaire, adjusted by using the nutrient density method, and divided into quintiles. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the mortality. We analyzed 41,863 subjects with a mean age of 51.46 ± 8.73 years at the baseline. During 578,694 person-years of follow-up (median: 14.1 Years), 7217 deaths were recorded. Dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with the all-cause mortality (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.85-0.99). We observed significant associations between calcium (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.73-0.93), copper (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.99-1.26), and selenium intake (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01-1.29) and CVD mortality. Dietary phosphorus (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.69-0.96) and copper intake (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.71-0.99) were inversely associated with cancer mortality. In this study within a Middle Eastern population, a higher dietary intake of calcium exhibited an inverse association with all-cause mortality. Furthermore, nuanced associations were observed in the cause-specific mortality, suggesting potential avenues for dietary interventions and emphasizing the importance of considering dietary factors in public health strategies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios de Cohortes , Calcio , Cobre , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Prospectivos , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Minerales , Dieta
8.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337642

RESUMEN

The efficacy of intermittent fasting (IF), as an emerging weight management strategy, in improving cardiometabolic health has been evaluated in various populations, but that among Chinese individuals has not been systematically studied. A comprehensive search on multiple databases was performed to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to October 2022. The primary outcome was post-intervention weight loss, and secondary outcomes included changes in cardiometabolic indicators. Effect estimates were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. In total, nine RCTs with 899 Chinese participants were included. Time-restricted eating was the most adopted IF protocol in this study (six out of nine), followed by alternate-day fasting. The IF intervention significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, body fat mass, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides when compared with control groups. However, no statistically significant reductions in waist circumference, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were found. To sum up, IF can be a weight management strategy and may improve the cardiometabolic health of Chinese adults, but more long-term trials using different IF strategies are required to generate robust evidence of its efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Obesidad , Adulto , Humanos , Ayuno Intermitente , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Ayuno/fisiología , HDL-Colesterol , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , China
9.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337678

RESUMEN

Metabolic disorders, encompassing diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, etc., pose a substantial global health threat, with rising morbidity and mortality rates. Addressing these disorders is crucial, as conventional drugs often come with high costs and adverse effects. This review explores the potential of royal jelly (RJ), a natural bee product rich in bioactive components, as an alternative strategy for managing metabolic diseases. RJ exhibits diverse therapeutic properties, including antimicrobial, estrogen-like, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, anticancer, and antioxidant effects. This review's focus is on investigating how RJ and its components impact conditions like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and gastrointestinal illnesses. Evidence suggests that RJ serves as a complementary treatment for various health issues, notably demonstrating cholesterol- and glucose-lowering effects in diabetic rats. Specific RJ-derived metabolites, such as 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), also known as the "Queen bee acid," show promise in reducing insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Recent research highlights RJ's role in modulating immune responses, enhancing anti-inflammatory cytokines, and suppressing key inflammatory mediators. Despite these promising findings, further research is needed to comprehensively understand the mechanisms underlying RJ's therapeutic effects.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales , Enfermedades Metabólicas , Ratas , Animales , Abejas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Ácidos Grasos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Metabólicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico
10.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337703

RESUMEN

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) stands out as a distinctive repository of visceral fat, positioned in close anatomical and functional proximity to the heart. EAT has emerged as a distinctive reservoir of visceral fat, intricately interlinked with cardiovascular health, particularly within the domain of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The aim of our overview is to highlight the role of EAT as a marker for cardiovascular risk in children. We also explore the influence of unhealthy lifestyle habits as predisposing factors for the deposition of EAT. The literature data accentuate the consequential impact of lifestyle choices on EAT dynamics, with sedentary behavior and unwholesome dietary practices being contributory to a heightened cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle interventions with a multidisciplinary approach are therefore pivotal, involving a nutritionally balanced diet rich in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, regular engagement in aerobic exercise, and psychosocial support to effectively mitigate cardiovascular risks in children. Specific interventions, such as high-intensity intermittent training and circuit training, reveal favorable outcomes in diminishing the EAT volume and enhancing cardiometabolic health. Future clinical studies focusing on EAT in children are crucial for advancing our understanding and developing targeted strategies for cardiovascular risk management in this population.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Niño , Humanos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Pericardio , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Estilo de Vida , Hábitos , Tejido Adiposo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338916

RESUMEN

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder primarily transmitted in an autosomal-dominant manner. We distinguish two main forms of FH, which differ in the severity of the disease, namely homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). The characteristic feature of this disease is a high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the blood. However, the level may significantly vary between the two mentioned types of FH, and it is decidedly higher in HoFH. A chronically elevated concentration of LDL-C in the plasma leads to the occurrence of certain abnormalities, such as xanthomas in the tendons and skin, as well as corneal arcus. Nevertheless, a significantly more severe phenomenon is leading to the premature onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its clinical implications, such as cardiac events, stroke or vascular dementia, even at a relatively young age. Due to the danger posed by this medical condition, we have investigated how both non-pharmacological and selected pharmacological treatment impact the course of FH, thereby reducing or postponing the risk of clinical manifestations of CVD. The primary objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current understanding of FH, the effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy in FH and to explain the anatomopathological correlation between FH and premature CVD development, with its complications.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Hipercolesterolemia Familiar Homocigótica , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Xantomatosis , Humanos , LDL-Colesterol , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/complicaciones , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamiento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Xantomatosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Xantomatosis/etiología
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338993

RESUMEN

The primary objective of this paper is to delineate and elucidate the contemporary advancements, developments, and prevailing trajectories concerning intrastent restenosis (ISR). We aim to provide a thorough overview of the most recent developments in this area, covering various aspects such as pathophysiological insights, therapeutic approaches, and new strategies for tackling the complex challenges of ISR in modern clinical settings. The authors have undertaken a study to address a relatively new medical challenge, recognizing its significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of individuals with cardiovascular diseases. This effort is driven by the need to fully understand, analyze, and possibly improve the outcomes of this emerging medical issue within the cardiovascular disease field. We acknowledge its considerable clinical implications and the necessity for innovative methods to mitigate its effects on patient outcomes. Therefore, our emphasis was directed towards elucidating the principal facets of the condition's prevalence, expounding upon the foundational mechanisms underscoring conspicuous restenosis, and delineating the risk factors relevant in shaping the contemporary landscape of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. This thorough examination aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the various dimensions of the condition, including epidemiological data, pathophysiological complexities, and clinical considerations critical for evaluating and enhancing current diagnostic and treatment approaches.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Reestenosis Coronaria , Stents Liberadores de Fármacos , Humanos , Stents Liberadores de Fármacos/efectos adversos , Stents/efectos adversos , Angiografía Coronaria , Reestenosis Coronaria/etiología , Reestenosis Coronaria/terapia , Diseño de Prótesis , Resultado del Tratamiento , Constricción Patológica/complicaciones , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones
13.
Clin Rheumatol ; 43(3): 895-905, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340224

RESUMEN

Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease. It shares multiple genetic, clinical, and serologic characteristics with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although frequently described as a classic form of single-organ autoimmunity, the AITD disease burden in a subset of patients extends well beyond the thyroid gland. This review explores the complex interaction between the two diseases and the clinical consequences when they overlap. Beyond the well-known effects of AITD on thyroid function in RA, there is mounting evidence of the association of both conditions impacting the presentation and outcomes of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. An increasing number of studies suggest that there are negative effects of AITD on RA disease activity both in the presence and in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that AITD may not only worsen the cumulative damage of RA through higher disease activity but may also worsen secondary osteoarthritis changes. Less well-known is the significant association between AITD and chronic widespread pain syndromes including fibromyalgia. Importantly, the presence of fibromyalgia, which is increased in RA patients, appears to be further increased when it overlaps with AITD. Lastly, we probe the possible influence of AITD interacting with RA on fertility and clinical depression. Key Points • Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common autoimmune disease and is frequently associated with rheumatoid arthritis. • Autoimmune thyroid disease can present with osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, and chronic widespread pain syndromes. • The co-occurrence of autoimmune thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis may worsen disease activity and exacerbate other disease manifestations including cardiovascular disease, fertility, and depression. • The overlap of rheumatoid arthritis with autoimmune thyroid disease needs further research and should be sought in general clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide , Enfermedades Autoinmunes , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Fibromialgia , Enfermedad de Hashimoto , Osteoartritis , Enfermedades de la Tiroides , Humanos , Fibromialgia/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Artritis Reumatoide/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Hashimoto/complicaciones , Enfermedades de la Tiroides/complicaciones , Osteoartritis/complicaciones , Dolor/complicaciones , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/complicaciones , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/epidemiología
14.
Menopause ; 31(3): 202-208, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350045

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and migraine headaches, hypothesized to be vasoactive conditions, are associated with greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events including strokes. METHODS: We performed a secondary data analysis of a subset of women (n = 1,954) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based cohort, which began data collection at 18 to 30 y of age. We examined whether migraine headaches and VMS trajectories (characterized as minimal, increasing, and persistent) at CARDIA year 15 examination were associated with higher risk of CVD events and stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic) using Cox proportional hazards regression models and adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors (age, cigarette use, and levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, high- and low-density cholesterol, and triglycerides) and reproductive factors. RESULTS: Among women with minimal VMS (n = 835), increasing VMS (n = 521), and persistent VMS (n = 598), there were 81 incident CVD events including 42 strokes. Women with histories of migraine and persistent VMS had greater risk of CVD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.25; 95% CI, 1.15-4.38) after adjustment for age, race, estrogen use, oophorectomy, and hysterectomy compared with women without migraine histories and with minimal/increasing VMS. After adjustment for CVD risk factors, these associations were attenuated (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.73-3.10). Similarly, women with histories of migraine and persistent VMS had greater risk of stroke (HR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.35-7.34), but these associations were attenuated after adjustment for CVD risk factors (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.66-4.38). CONCLUSIONS: Migraines and persistent VMS jointly associate with greater risk for CVD and stroke, although risk is attenuated with adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria , Trastornos Migrañosos , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Vasos Coronarios , Factores de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , Trastornos Migrañosos/complicaciones , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013358, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358047

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interventions incorporating meditation to address stress, anxiety, and depression, and improve self-management, are becoming popular for many health conditions. Stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and clusters with other modifiable behavioural risk factors, such as smoking. Meditation may therefore be a useful CVD prevention strategy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of meditation, primarily mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and transcendental meditation (TM), for the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, three other databases, and two trials registers on 14 November 2021, together with reference checking, citation searching, and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of 12 weeks or more in adults at high risk of CVD and those with established CVD. We explored four comparisons: MBIs versus active comparators (alternative interventions); MBIs versus non-active comparators (no intervention, wait list, usual care); TM versus active comparators; TM versus non-active comparators. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were CVD clinical events (e.g. cardiovascular mortality), blood pressure, measures of psychological distress and well-being, and adverse events. Secondary outcomes included other CVD risk factors (e.g. blood lipid levels), quality of life, and coping abilities. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 81 RCTs (6971 participants), with most studies at unclear risk of bias. MBIs versus active comparators (29 RCTs, 2883 participants) Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were reported in six trials (388 participants) where heterogeneity was considerable (SBP: MD -6.08 mmHg, 95% CI -12.79 to 0.63, I2 = 88%; DBP: MD -5.18 mmHg, 95% CI -10.65 to 0.29, I2 = 91%; both outcomes based on low-certainty evidence). There was little or no effect of MBIs on anxiety (SMD -0.06 units, 95% CI -0.25 to 0.13; I2 = 0%; 9 trials, 438 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), or depression (SMD 0.08 units, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.24; I2 = 0%; 11 trials, 595 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Perceived stress was reduced with MBIs (SMD -0.24 units, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.03; I2 = 0%; P = 0.03; 6 trials, 357 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was little to no effect on well-being (SMD -0.18 units, 95% CI -0.67 to 0.32; 1 trial, 63 participants; low-certainty evidence). There was little to no effect on smoking cessation (RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.68; I2 = 79%; 6 trials, 1087 participants; low-certainty evidence). None of the trials reported CVD clinical events or adverse events. MBIs versus non-active comparators (38 RCTs, 2905 participants) Clinical events were reported in one trial (110 participants), providing very low-certainty evidence (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.37 to 2.42). SBP and DBP were reduced in nine trials (379 participants) but heterogeneity was substantial (SBP: MD -6.62 mmHg, 95% CI -13.15 to -0.1, I2 = 87%; DBP: MD -3.35 mmHg, 95% CI -5.86 to -0.85, I2 = 61%; both outcomes based on low-certainty evidence). There was low-certainty evidence of reductions in anxiety (SMD -0.78 units, 95% CI -1.09 to -0.41; I2 = 61%; 9 trials, 533 participants; low-certainty evidence), depression (SMD -0.66 units, 95% CI -0.91 to -0.41; I2 = 67%; 15 trials, 912 participants; low-certainty evidence) and perceived stress (SMD -0.59 units, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.29; I2 = 70%; 11 trials, 708 participants; low-certainty evidence) but heterogeneity was substantial. Well-being increased (SMD 0.5 units, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.91; I2 = 47%; 2 trials, 198 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was little to no effect on smoking cessation (RR 1.36, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.13; I2 = 0%; 2 trials, 453 participants; low-certainty evidence). One small study (18 participants) reported two adverse events in the MBI group, which were not regarded as serious by the study investigators (RR 5.0, 95% CI 0.27 to 91.52; low-certainty evidence). No subgroup effects were seen for SBP, DBP, anxiety, depression, or perceived stress by primary and secondary prevention. TM versus active comparators (8 RCTs, 830 participants) Clinical events were reported in one trial (201 participants) based on low-certainty evidence (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.49). SBP was reduced (MD -2.33 mmHg, 95% CI -3.99 to -0.68; I2 = 2%; 8 trials, 774 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), with an uncertain effect on DBP (MD -1.15 mmHg, 95% CI -2.85 to 0.55; I2 = 53%; low-certainty evidence). There was little or no effect on anxiety (SMD 0.06 units, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.33; I2 = 0%; 3 trials, 200 participants; low-certainty evidence), depression (SMD -0.12 units, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.07; I2 = 0%; 5 trials, 421 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), or perceived stress (SMD 0.04 units, 95% CI -0.49 to 0.57; I2 = 70%; 3 trials, 194 participants; very low-certainty evidence). None of the trials reported adverse events or smoking rates. No subgroup effects were seen for SBP or DBP by primary and secondary prevention. TM versus non-active comparators (2 RCTs, 186 participants) Two trials (139 participants) reported blood pressure, where reductions were seen in SBP (MD -6.34 mmHg, 95% CI -9.86 to -2.81; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence) and DBP (MD -5.13 mmHg, 95% CI -9.07 to -1.19; I2 = 18%; very low-certainty evidence). One trial (112 participants) reported anxiety and depression and found reductions in both (anxiety SMD -0.71 units, 95% CI -1.09 to -0.32; depression SMD -0.48 units, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.11; low-certainty evidence). None of the trials reported CVD clinical events, adverse events, or smoking rates. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Despite the large number of studies included in the review, heterogeneity was substantial for many of the outcomes, which reduced the certainty of our findings. We attempted to address this by presenting four main comparisons of MBIs or TM versus active or inactive comparators, and by subgroup analyses according to primary or secondary prevention, where there were sufficient studies. The majority of studies were small and there was unclear risk of bias for most domains. Overall, we found very little information on the effects of meditation on CVD clinical endpoints, and limited information on blood pressure and psychological outcomes, for people at risk of or with established CVD. This is a very active area of research as shown by the large number of ongoing studies, with some having been completed at the time of writing this review. The status of all ongoing studies will be formally assessed and incorporated in further updates.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Meditación , Adulto , Humanos , Prevención Secundaria , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Ansiedad/prevención & control , Prevención Primaria/métodos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339130

RESUMEN

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a respiratory sleep disorder associated with cardiovascular diseases, is more prevalent in men. However, OSA occurrence in pregnant women rises to a level comparable to men during late gestation, creating persistent effects on both maternal and offspring health. The exact mechanisms behind OSA-induced cardiovascular diseases remain unclear, but inflammation and oxidative stress play a key role. Animal models using intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, reveal several pro-inflammatory signaling pathways at play in males, such as TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB/MAPK, miRNA/NLRP3, and COX signaling, along with shifts in immune cell populations and function. Limited evidence suggests similarities in pregnancies and offspring. In addition, suppressing these inflammatory molecules ameliorates IH-induced inflammation and tissue injury, providing new potential targets to treat OSA-associated cardiovascular diseases. This review will focus on the inflammatory mechanisms linking IH to cardiovascular dysfunction in males, pregnancies, and their offspring. The goal is to inspire further investigations into the understudied populations of pregnant females and their offspring, which ultimately uncover underlying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for OSA-associated diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Masculino , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Hipoxia/metabolismo , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/metabolismo , Inmunidad , Inflamación/metabolismo
17.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 50(1): [e102090], ene.- feb. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229436

RESUMEN

Objetivos Analizar el riesgo de COVID-19 con relación a la morbilidad previa, así como el riesgo de nuevos eventos cardiovasculares (ECV) en pacientes COVID-19 y la supervivencia a un año. Metodología Estudio casos-control y estudio de cohortes prospectivo. Se incluyeron 275 pacientes aleatorizados >18 años diagnosticados de COVID-19 y se aparearon con 825 COVID-19 negativos por edad y sexo (proporción 1:3). Las variables principales fueron diagnóstico de COVID-19 y eventos post-COVID-19. Se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas, comorbilidad y ECV previo. Se realizaron sendos modelos predictivos de factores asociados al desarrollo de COVID-19 y de ECV post-COVID-19, así como un análisis de supervivencia a un año. Resultados Los varones con ECV previo duplican el riesgo de padecer COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 2,11; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% 1,32–3,36). En las mujeres el riesgo aumenta con la edad (OR 1,01; IC 95% 1,00–1,02), la diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR 1,90; IC 95% 1,14–3,17) y el deterioro cognitivo (OR 4,88; IC 95% 2,50–9,53). La inmunosupresión actúa como factor protector en ambos sexos. La edad (OR 1,02; IC 95% 1,00–1,04), hipertensión arterial (HTA) (OR 2,21; IC 95% 1,17–4,17), la infección COVID-19 (OR 4,81; IC 95% 2,89–7,98) y el ECV previo (OR 4,46; IC 95% 2,56–7,75) predicen el desarrollo de un nuevo ECV post-COVID-19. Los pacientes COVID-19 positivos tienen menor supervivencia (mediana de siete vs. 184 días). Conclusiones El ECV previo en varones y la DM junto al deterioro cognitivo en mujeres aumentan el riesgo de presentar COVID-19. La edad, HTA, ECV previo y la infección COVID-19 predicen la aparición de un ECV (AU)


Aim To analyze the risk of COVID-19 in relation to previous morbidity; to analyze the risk of new cardiovascular events (CVE) in COVID-19 patients and one-year survival. Methodology Case–control study and prospective cohort study. Two hundred and seventy-five randomized patients >18 years old with COVID-19 were included and matched with 825 without COVID-19 by age and sex (ratio 1:3). The main variables were diagnosis of COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 events. Sociodemographic variables, comorbidity, and previous CVD were studied. Two predictive models of factors associated with the development of COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 CVE were performed, as well as a one-year survival analysis. Results Men with a previous CVE double the risk of suffering from COVID-19 (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.32–3.36). In women, the risk increases with age (OR 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00–1.02), diabetes (DM) (OR 1.90; 95% CI: 1.14–3.17) and cognitive impairment (OR 4.88; 95% CI: 2.50–9.53). Immunosuppression acts as a protective factor in both sexes. Age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00–1.04), arterial hypertension (OR 2.21; 95% CI: 1.17–4.17), COVID-19 infection (OR 4.81; 95% CI: 2.89–7.98) and previous CVE (OR 4.46; 95% CI: 2.56–7.75) predict the development of a new post-COVID-19 CVE. Positive COVID-19 has lower survival (median 7 days vs. 184 days). Conclusions Previous CVE in men and DM along with cognitive impairment in women increase the risk of presenting COVID-19. Age, arterial hypertension, previous CVE, and COVID-19 infection predict the appearance of new CVE (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Análisis de Supervivencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Incidencia , Comorbilidad , España/epidemiología
18.
Rev. esp. med. nucl. imagen mol. (Ed. impr.) ; 43(1): 1-5, ene.- fev. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229448

RESUMEN

Introducción El estudio diagnóstico no invasivo del riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes que van a ser llevados a trasplante hepático no es claro especialmente en asintomáticos. Respecto a la gammagrafía de perfusión miocárdica (GPM) se ha pensado que la reserva vasodilatadora deteriorada en estos pacientes puede reducir su rendimiento. El objetivo es valorar el papel de la GPM en la evaluación prequirúrgica de los pacientes que van a ser tratados mediante un trasplante hepático. Material y métodos Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y observacional. Se incluyó a todos los pacientes adultos llevados a trasplante hepático entre 2017 y 2021 que tuvieran GPM previa. Se describen los hallazgos de la GPM y se correlacionaron con los hallazgos de angiografía invasiva y con la aparición o no de eventos cardiovasculares peri y postrasplante. Resultados De 188 pacientes trasplantados (edad promedio: 57 años, DE: 12), 178 tenían perfusión miocárdica previa, 82 (46%) pacientes no tenían factores de riesgo cardiovascular y 5 (2,8%) tenían antecedente de enfermedad coronaria. De las GPM, 177 fueron con estrés con dipiridamol realizadas en promedio 10 meses antes del trasplante. Únicamente 17/178 (9,5%) estudios fueron anormales. El seguimiento medio fue de 38 meses (DE: 10). De los pacientes con GPM normal, solo 2 (1,2%) presentaron eventos cardiovasculares, ambos con estudios realizados más de 2años atrás. No hubo muertes de origen cardiovascular. Conclusiones La GPM es una técnica segura y confiable en la valoración cardiovascular en pacientes candidatos a trasplante hepático dada la baja tasa de falsos negativos en el seguimiento (AU)


Introduction The non-invasive diagnostic study of cardiovascular risk in patients who are going to undergo liver transplantation is not clear, especially in asymptomatic patients. Regarding myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), it has been thought that the impaired vasodilator reserve in these patients may reduce its performance. The objective is to assess the role of the MPS in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients who are going to undergo liver transplantation. Material and methods Retrospective, descriptive and observational study was designed. All adult patients undergoing liver transplantation between 2017 and 2021 who had previous MPS were included. The findings of MPS were described and correlated with the findings of invasive angiography and with the appearance or not of peri- and post-transplant cardiovascular events. Results There were a total of 188 transplanted patients (mean age: 57 years, SD: 12), 178 had previous myocardial perfusion, 82 (46%) patients had no cardiovascular risk factors, and 5 (2.8%) had a history of coronary disease. Of the MPS, 177 were with dipyridamole stress performed on average 10 months before transplantation. Only 17/178 (9.5%) studies were abnormal. The mean follow-up was 38 months (SD: 10). Of the patients with normal MPS, only 2 (1.2%) presented cardiovascular events, both with studies performed more than 2years before the procedure. There were no deaths of cardiovascular origin. Conclusions MPS is a safe and reliable technique for cardiovascular assessment of patients who are candidates for liver transplantation, given the low rate of false negatives during follow-up (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagen , Trasplante de Hígado/efectos adversos , Imagen de Perfusión Miocárdica/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pronóstico
19.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 67-79, Feb. 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229941

RESUMEN

Recently, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a proatherogenic effect. Many studies have found that TMAO is involved in plaque oxidative stress and lipid metabolism, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. In our study, meta-analysis and bioinformatic analysis were firstly conducted in the database, and found that the effect of high plasma TMAO levels on promoting atherosclerotic plaque may be related to the expression of key antioxidant genes nuclear factor erytheroid-derived-2-like 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) decreased. Next, we assessed the role of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway in TMAO-treated foam cells. Our results showed that TMAO can inhibit the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant response element such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione peroxidase4 (GPX4), resulting in increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, promoting oxidative stress. And TMAO can also promote lipid accumulation in foam cells by inhibiting cholesterol efflux protein expression. In addition, upregulation of Nrf2 expression partially rescues TMAO-induced oxidative stress and reduces ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)–mediated lipid accumulation. Therefore, TMAO promotes oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells through the Nrf2/ABCA1 pathway, which may provide a potential mechanism for the proatherogenic effect of TMAO. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Oxidativo , Aterosclerosis , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2
20.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 162(3): 112-117, Feb. 2024. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-230152

RESUMEN

Introducción y objetivos: La hipertensión arterial es el factor de riesgo más prevalente a nivel global. Se recomienda el cálculo del riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes hipertensos antes del inicio del tratamiento. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el valor predictivo y la utilidad clínica de la escala SCORE para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares y mortalidad por todas las causas en los pacientes con hipertensión arterial. Métodos: Se incluyeron los pacientes con hipertensión arterial de la cohorte ESCARVAL-RISK. El riesgo cardiovascular se calculó mediante la escala SCORE. Todas las muertes y eventos cardiovasculares se registraron durante un periodo de 5 años de seguimiento. Se calculó la sensibilidad, la especificidad y los valores predictivos para diferentes puntos de corte, y se evaluó el efecto de diferentes factores de riesgo sobre la exactitud diagnóstica de las gráficas SCORE. Resultados: En una cohorte final de 9.834 pacientes, hubo 555 eventos cardiovasculares y 69 muertes. El valor de riesgo recomendado para iniciar tratamiento farmacológico (5%) presentó una especificidad del 92% para la muerte y del 91% para los eventos cardiovasculares, y una sensibilidad del 20% para la muerte y del 22% para los eventos cardiovasculares. Además, la escala clasificó al 80,4% de los pacientes que sufrieron un evento cardiovascular, y al 78,3% de los que murieron, como de bajo riesgo. La edad, el índice de masa corporal, la retinopatía y el tratamiento anticoagulante se asociaron con una reducción en la capacidad predictiva de la escala SCORE, mientras que ser mujer se asoció con mejor predicción de riesgo. Conclusiones: La capacidad predictiva de la escala SCORE para la enfermedad cardiovascular y la mortalidad total en los pacientes con hipertensión arterial es limitada.(AU)


Introduction and objectives: Hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor globally. Calculation of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients before initiation of treatment is recommended. This study aimed to assess the predictive value and clinical utility of the SCORE scale in preventing cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension. Methods: Patients with hypertension from the ESCARVAL-RISK cohort were included. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the SCORE scale. All deaths and cardiovascular events were recorded during a 5-year follow-up period. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for different cut-off points and the effect of different risk factors on the diagnostic accuracy of SCORE charts were assessed. Results: In a final cohort of 9834 patients, there were 555 cardiovascular events and 69 deaths. The recommended risk value for initiating drug treatment (5%) had a specificity of 92% for death and 91% for cardiovascular events, and a sensitivity of 20% for death and 22% for cardiovascular events. In addition, the scale classified 80.4% of patients who experienced a cardiovascular event and 78.3% of those who died as low risk. Age, body mass index, retinopathy and anticoagulant therapy were associated with reduced predictive ability of the SCORE scale, while being female was associated with better risk prediction. Conclusions: The predictive ability of the SCORE scale for cardiovascular disease and total mortality in patients with hypertension is limited.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Hipertensión/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Estudios de Cohortes , España
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