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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2024-04-01. (PAHO/CDE/HT/23-0014).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59464

RESUMEN

En los últimos años, la OPS ha estado colaborando con diferentes interesados directos —como especialistas en VLTH‑1, gerentes de programas de salud y personas con infección por el VLTH‑1— a fin de definir prioridades y delinear estrategias eficaces para hacer frente a esta infección desatendida. Una de las prioridades definidas por los interesados directos es la prevención de la transmisión maternoinfantil del VLTH‑1. Sin embargo, para que sea posible prevenir la transmisión vertical, las embarazadas con infección por el VLTH‑1 deben conocer su estado serológico respecto a esta infección. En la Región de las Américas, la cobertura del tamizaje del VLTH‑1 en donantes de sangre es alta, aunque el tamizaje prenatal sigue siendo limitado. Los países siguen encontrando obstáculos para implantar el uso de las pruebas de diagnóstico de la infección por el VLTH. No hay directrices internacionales para el diagnóstico de la infección por el VLTH‑1 y la orientación nacional puede variar de un país a otro. En este contexto, la OPS organizó un taller para debatir sobre el diagnóstico de la infección por el VLTH‑1, en particular en el contexto de la salud maternoinfantil. En la Región de las Américas se observa un interés cada vez mayor por el tamizaje prenatal de la infección por el VLTH‑1 y algunos países como Chile, Brasil, Santa Lucía y Colombia transmitieron su experiencia durante el taller. Entre las buenas prácticas figuran el programa para prevenir la transmisión maternoinfantil del VLTH‑1, integrado en la iniciativa ETMI Plus, en Santa Lucía; la estrecha colaboración entre la sociedad civil, expertos en la infección por el VLTH‑1 y responsables de las políticas en Brasil; iniciativas para aumentar la concientización sobre la infección por el VLTH‑1 en la Región; y la elaboración de directrices clínicas sobre la infección por el VLTH por distintos países de la Región. Se determinaron diversas prioridades, como aumentar la concientización acerca de la infección por el VLTH, elaborar directrices y capacitación de apoyo para los profesionales de la salud, fortalecer la colaboración entre países y promover la inclusión de la infección por el VLTH en los programas de eliminación.


Asunto(s)
Virus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Salud Materno-Infantil , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Enfermedades Desatendidas
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2024-04-01. (PAHO/CDE/HT/23-0014).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59463

RESUMEN

In recent years, PAHO has been engaging with different stakeholders, including HTLV‑1 specialists, health managers and people living with HTLV-1 to define priorities and to delineate effective strategies to tackle this neglected infection. One of the priorities identified by stakeholders is the prevention of HTLV-1 mother-to-child transmission. However, to be able to prevent vertical transmission, pregnant women living with HTLV-1 must be aware of their status. The coverage of HTLV-1 screening of blood donors is high in the region, but antenatal screening is still limited. Countries still face barriers to implement diagnostic tests for HTLV. There are no international guidelines for HTLV-1 diagnostics and national guidance may vary between countries. In this context, PAHO promoted a workshop to discuss the diagnosis of HTLV-1 infection, particularly in the context of maternal and child health. Increased interest on HTLV-1 antenatal screening has been observed in the region and countries such as Chile, Brazil, Saint Lucia and Colombia shared their experience during the workshop. Good practices included the program to prevent HTLV-1 mother-to-child transmission, that is integrated with the EMTCT Plus initiative in Saint Lucia, strong collaboration between civil society, HTLV-1 experts and policy-makers in Brazil, initiatives to increase awareness about HTLV-1, and the construction of HTLV clinical guidelines by different countries in the Region. Priorities identified include increasing awareness about HTLV, developing guidelines and support training of health-care workers, strengthening the collaboration between countries, and promoting the inclusion of HTLV into elimination programs.


Asunto(s)
Virus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Salud Materno-Infantil , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Enfermedades Desatendidas
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(3)2024 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458767

RESUMEN

Eumycetoma, a subcutaneous infection caused by various fungi with pathognomonic discharging grain, is rarely reported in Malaysia. This case concerns a eumycetoma infection in an immunocompetent man who presented with progressive left foot swelling complicated with pustules, sinuses and pale grain discharge for the past year after recurrent thorn pricks. Histological findings of the grain and tissue showed foci of septate fungal hyphae. Tissue culture yielded no growth. Amplification and sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), ITS4 and large subunit regions of the tissue identified the causative agent as Fusarium falciforme, highlighting the role of molecular diagnostic method in identifying fungal species in eumycetoma. The patient was treated with surgical excision and oral itraconazole with excellent improvement. However, he presented again with recurrence after defaulting therapy. F. falciforme has been implicated in causing diseases in crops and sea turtles. Therefore, the One Health approach should be adopted to manage this emerging species.


Asunto(s)
Fusarium , Micetoma , Masculino , Humanos , Micetoma/diagnóstico , Micetoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Itraconazol/uso terapéutico
4.
Int Health ; 16(Supplement_1): i7-i8, 2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547343

RESUMEN

In this invited commentary, the Mental Health and the Neglected Tropical Diseases(NTDs) Program leads in the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health and Social Welfare share the opportunities that have arisen from recent global progress in normative guidance and political interest in the intersection of mental health and NTDs. They describe the new collaboration that has taken place between their programs, e.g. contributing to the World Health Organization Essential Care Package for Mental Health, Stigma and NTDs and integration of mental health for the first time into the new National NTD Masterplan.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Medicina Tropical , Humanos , Nigeria , Salud Global , Enfermedades Desatendidas/terapia
5.
Int Health ; 16(Supplement_1): i5-i6, 2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547344

RESUMEN

This article is a reflection from a person with lived experience of leprosy, who has been working as a global advocate and champion for the rights of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases for the last decade. Synthesising learning from the collection of pieces included within this special supplement that are written from the perspective of people affected by neglected tropical diseases, I argue that it is time to centre the lived experiences of people affected by neglected tropical diseases. These are diseases of neglected people, and it is now time to let them talk while we listen.


Asunto(s)
Lepra , Medicina Tropical , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas
6.
Int Health ; 16(Supplement_1): i12-i21, 2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547348

RESUMEN

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of disease conditions that affect the world's poorest people in low- and middle-income countries. NTDs are associated with negative behavioural experiences, including discrimination, rejection and stigmatization, that predisposes those affected to mental health problems. Consequently, researchers have shown profound interest in elucidating the mental health burden associated with NTDs. To address pertinent issues in the burgeoning literature relating to the prevalence, assessment and correlates of mental health problems in NTDs, a systematic review methodology was used. Underpinned by the PRISMA guidelines, a search was conducted of electronic databases, individual journals and bibliographies for articles that were screened and subjected to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sixteen articles from African, Asian and South American countries were included in the review. Depression was the most widely investigated mental health issue, followed by stress and anxiety, with prevalence estimates of 7-54%, 8-43% and 19-53%, respectively. The PHQ-9 and GAD-7 and Self-Reporting Questionnaire were the most widely administered mental health screening tools. The major correlates of mental health problems are lower education and economic status and female gender. We recommend multisectoral and multilayered mental health and related interventions to address the increasing burden of mental health in NTDs.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Medicina Tropical , Femenino , Humanos , Prevalencia , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Pobreza
7.
Int Health ; 16(Supplement_1): i52-i59, 2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547351

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental health and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are critical in healthcare systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Several policies are planned or designed by health stakeholders to address the mental health needs of people affected by NTDs. Still, the impact of such policies seems to be of no consequence. METHODS: The GAD-7 and PHQ-9 tools were used to determine the rate of depression and anxiety, respectively, among people affected by skin NTDs (leprosy and lymphatic filariasis [LF]) in Zamfara State, North-west Nigeria. The study also evaluated the barriers to the uptake of mental health services for people affected by skin NTDs in the state. We assessed 48 people affected by NTDs (leprosy, 32; lymphatic filariasis, 16) along with a corresponding 48 people who served as controls in the study. Qualitative interviews were carried out with the participants to elicit the barriers to mental health services for people affected by NTDs. Additionally, 48 selected healthcare workers from the state were assessed for their skills and capacity to offer mental health services. RESULTS: We found anxiety disorder present in 100% of the people living with LF and in 62% of the people living with leprosy. Depression was also found in 56% and 75% of the people living with leprosy and LF, respectively. An assessment of the barriers to the uptake of mental health services reveals that most people with NTDs are constrained by a lack of money to visit hospitals, the fear of stigmatisation and discrimination and long distances to health centres. Regarding the healthcare workers, the skills and capacity to offer mental health services were very low. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that for mental health services to be integrated into the community health system for people with NTDs, there should be a concerted effort by all stakeholders and the intervention should be context specific instead of generalised. CONTEXTE: La santé mentale et les maladies tropicales négligées (MTN) sont des problématiques centrales dans la santé, en particulier dans les pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire. Plusieurs politiques sont conçues par les acteurs de la santé publique pour répondre aux besoins de soins en santé mentale pour les personnes touchées par les MTN. Pourtant, le bilan reste mitigé quant à l'efficacité de ces soins. MÉTHODES: Les outils GAD-7 et PHQ-9 ont été utilisés pour déterminer le taux de dépression et d'anxiété chez les personnes atteintes de MTN cutanées (lèpre et filariose lymphatique) dans l'État de Zamfara, au nord-ouest du Nigeria. L'étude a également évalué les obstacles à l'utilisation des services de santé mentale pour les personnes atteintes de MTN cutanées dans l'État. Nous avons évalué 48 personnes atteintes de MTN (lèpre : 32, filariose lymphatique : 16) ainsi que 48 personnes correspondantes qui ont servi de témoins dans l'étude. Des entretiens qualitatifs ont été menés avec les participants afin d'identifier les obstacles aux services de santé mentale pour les personnes atteintes de MTN. En outre, 48 professionnels de la santé sélectionnés dans l'État ont été évalués pour déterminer leurs compétences et leur capacité à offrir des services de santé mentale. RÉSULTATS: Nous avons trouvé des troubles anxieux chez 100% des personnes atteintes de filariose lymphatique et chez 62% des personnes atteintes de lèpre. La dépression touche 56% et 75% des personnes vivant avec la lèpre et la filariose lymphatique respectivement. Une évaluation des obstacles à l'utilisation des services de santé mentale révèle que la plupart des personnes atteintes de MTN sont limitées par le manque d'argent pour se rendre à l'hôpital, la peur de la stigmatisation et de la discrimination, et les longues distances à parcourir pour se rendre dans les centres de santé. Les compétences et les capacités des professionnels de la santé à offrir des services de santé mentale sont très faibles. CONCLUSION: L'efficacité d'un protocole de soins pour les patients atteints de MTN (traitant la pathologie physique et d'éventuelles pathologies psychiatriques associées) nécessite une intégration des services de santé mentale dans le système de santé communautaire. ANTECEDENTES: La salud mental y las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas (ETDs), son fundamentales en los sistemas sanitarios, especialmente en los países de renta baja y media. Las partes interesadas en la sanidad planean o diseñan varias políticas para abordar las necesidades de salud mental de las personas afectadas por ETDs. Sin embargo, el impacto de dichas políticas parece ser nulo. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron las herramientas GAD-7 y PHQ-9 para determinar la tasa de depresión y ansiedad, respectivamente, entre las personas afectadas por ETDs cutáneas (lepra y filariasis linfática) en el Estado de Zamfara, al noroeste de Nigeria. El estudio también evaluó las barreras para la aceptación de los servicios de salud mental por parte de las personas afectadas por ETDs cutáneas en el Estado. Se evaluó a 48 personas afectadas por ETDs (lepra: 32; filariasis linfática: 16) y a otras 48 que sirvieron de control en el estudio. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas cualitativas con los participantes para determinar las barreras a los servicios de salud mental para las personas afectadas por ETDs. Además, se evaluaron las habilidades y la capacidad para ofrecer servicios de salud mental de 48 profesionales sanitarios del Estado. RESULTADOS: Encontramos trastorno de ansiedad presente en el 100% de las personas que vivían con filariasis linfática y en el 62% de las personas que vivían con lepra. También se encontró depresión en el 56% y el 75% de las personas que vivían con lepra y filariasis linfática respectivamente. Una evaluación de los obstáculos para la utilización de los servicios de salud mental revela que la mayoría de las personas con ETDs se ven limitadas por la falta de dinero para acudir a los hospitales, el miedo a la estigmatización, la discriminación y las largas distancias hasta los centros sanitarios. Por parte del personal sanitario, los conocimientos y la capacidad para ofrecer servicios de salud mental eran muy escasos. CONCLUSIONES: Para que los servicios de salud mental para personas con ETD se integren en el sistema sanitario comunitario, debe haber una concertación entre todas las partes interesadas y la intervención debe ser específica para cada contexto en lugar de generalizada.


Asunto(s)
Filariasis Linfática , Lepra , Humanos , Salud Mental , Filariasis Linfática/terapia , Enfermedades Desatendidas/terapia , Nigeria , Lepra/complicaciones , Lepra/terapia
8.
Int Health ; 16(Supplement_1): i30-i41, 2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547352

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Skin neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) produce signs and symptoms that are often physically challenging, stigmatizing and have a negative impact on the mental wellbeing of people affected. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), little is known about the mental wellbeing experiences of people affected by skin NTDs and support is lacking. We collaborated with ongoing NTD programs, the Ministry of Health and people affected to evidence experiences and opportunities for change and co-developed a mental wellbeing support package for people affected and local health system actors. METHODS: This implementation research study used the photovoice method alongside key-informant interviews to evidence mental wellbeing challenges in people affected by skin NTDs and explore opportunities for change. These were used to co-develop a skin NTD mental wellbeing support package with people affected, community members and local health system actors through a participatory workshop. RESULTS: Stigma, discrimination, decreased livelihoods and mental wellbeing challenges were evidenced by people affected by skin NTDs, their communities and health system actors. Participants identified and co-established community-led peer support groups, strengthened with basic knowledge on psychosocial support, and income-generating or recreational initiatives to support mental wellbeing of people affected by skin NTDs. CONCLUSIONS: Co-developing a support package with persons affected, community members and health system actors is a step towards holistic care for people affected by skin NTDs and promotes uptake and ownership of intervention components. CONTEXTE: Les maladies tropicales négligées (MTN) cutanées produisent des signes et des symptômes qui sont souvent difficiles à supporter physiquement, ils sont également stigmatisants et ont un impact négatif sur le bien-être mental des personnes touchées. En République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), on sait peu de choses sur le bien-être mental des personnes atteintes de MTN cutanées, et le soutien fait défaut. Nous avons collaboré avec les programmes de lutte contre les MTN en cours, le ministère de la santé et les personnes touchées pour mettre en évidence les expériences et les possibilités de changement, et nous avons élaboré un programme de soutien au bien-être mental pour les personnes touchées et les acteurs du système de santé local. MÉTHODES UTILISÉES: Cette étude de recherche sur la mise en œuvre a utilisé la méthode photovoice, ainsi que des entretiens avec des informateurs clés, afin de mettre en évidence les problèmes de bien-être mental des personnes touchées par les MNT cutanées. Ces éléments ont été utilisés pour élaborer un programme de soutien au bien-être mental des MNT cutanées avec les personnes concernées, les membres de la communauté et les acteurs du système de santé local dans le cadre d'un atelier participatif. RÉSULTATS: La stigmatisation, la discrimination, la diminution des moyens de subsistance et les problèmes de bien-être mental ont été mis en évidence par les personnes atteintes de MTN cutanées, leurs communautés et les acteurs du système de santé. Les participants ont identifié et mis en place des groupes communautaires de soutien par les pairs, renforcés par des connaissances de base en matière de soutien psychosocial, et des initiatives génératrices de revenus/récréatives pour soutenir le bien-être mental des personnes touchées par les MTN cutanées. CONCLUSIONS: L'élaboration d'un ensemble de mesures de soutien en collaboration avec les personnes concernées, les membres de la communauté et les acteurs du système de santé, constitue une étape vers une prise en charge holistique des personnes atteintes de MNT cutanées et favorise l'adoption et l'appropriation des composantes de l'intervention. ANTECEDENTES: Las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas (ETDs) cutáneas producen signos y síntomas que a menudo suponen un reto físico, estigmatizan y tienen un impacto negativo en el bienestar mental de las personas afectadas. En la República Democrática del Congo (RDC), se sabe poco sobre las experiencias de bienestar mental de las personas afectadas por ETDs cutáneas, y falta apoyo. Colaboramos con los programas en curso sobre las ETDs, el Ministerio de Sanidad y las personas afectadas para poner de manifiesto las experiencias y las oportunidades de cambio, y desarrollamos de manera conjunta un paquete de apoyo al bienestar mental para las personas afectadas y los agentes del sistema sanitario local. MÉTODOS: Este estudio de investigación utilizó el método fotovoz, junto con entrevistas a informantes clave, para poner de manifiesto los desafíos de bienestar mental de las personas afectadas por ETDs cutáneas y explorar las oportunidades de cambio. Estos datos se utilizaron para desarrollar un paquete de apoyo al bienestar mental de manera conjunta con las personas afectadas por las ETDs cutáneas, los miembros de la comunidad y los actores del sistema sanitario local a través de un taller participativo. RESULTADOS: El estigma, la discriminación, la disminución de los medios de subsistencia y los problemas de bienestar mental fueron evidenciados por las personas afectadas por ETD cutáneas, sus comunidades y los agentes del sistema sanitario. Los participantes identificaron y establecieron conjuntamente grupos de apoyo entre pares dirigidos por la comunidad, fortalecidos con conocimientos básicos sobre apoyo psicosocial e iniciativasrecreativas y generadoras de ingresos para apoyar el bienestar mental de las personas afectadas por las ETD cutáneas. CONCLUSIÓNS: El desarrollo conjunto de un paquete de medidas de apoyo con las personas afectadas, los miembros de la comunidad y los actores del sistema sanitario es un paso hacia la atención holística de las personas afectadas por las NTDs a y promueve la adopción y apropiación de los componentes de la intervención.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Desatendidas , Humanos , República Democrática del Congo , Enfermedades Desatendidas/terapia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011996, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470936

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding the barriers to and facilitators of participation in research could enhance recruitment rates for biomedical research on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and help to avoid the problems associated with poor recruitment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to identify factors related to willingness to participate in biomedical research on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). Our search included the following databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase (Embase.com), Global Index Medicus (WHO), Web of Science (Core collection), and gray literature. We included studies that analyzed or reported factors associated with willingness to participate in NTD research, using either quantitative methods (such as clinical trials, cohorts, and cross-sectional studies) or qualitative methods (such as focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, and in-depth interviews). There were no language restrictions, but we excluded review articles, notes, case reports, letters to the editor, editor's notes, extended abstracts, proceedings, patents, editorials, and other editorial materials. Screening of citations, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment was conducted by independent reviewers, according to the study protocol registered on PROSPERO. For analyses, we assessed the frequency of barriers, enablers, and the frequency of recruitment interventions mentioned in the included studies. The protocol for this systematic review was registered under registration number CRD42020212536. (S1 Appendix) We identified 2070 citations, 1470 from the databases, and 600 from other sources. From those, eleven studies were selected for data extraction and analysis. The studies were conducted in Africa, Asia, and North America. Personal health benefits, monetary benefits, and community engagement and sensitization strategies were identified as the main reasons for participating in biomedical research on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). However, distrust in researchers, lack of knowledge about research methods among potential participants, and previous negative experiences were identified as the main barriers to participating in biomedical research on NTDs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic review provides recommendations for improving adherence to biomedical research on Neglected Tropical Diseases, which can be applied in practice.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , África , Asia
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(3)2024 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485140

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of debilitating diseases and conditions afflicting more than one billion people in impoverished communities. Control of these diseases is crucial to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3 and the pledge to 'leave no one behind'. Relying on large-scale delivery of wide-spectrum drugs to individuals in at-risk communities irrespective of their health status, mass drug administration is a core strategy for tackling half of the NTDs targeted by the latest WHO roadmap (2021-2030). However, ethical challenges surround its implementation and long-term impact. This systematic review aims to give a comprehensive picture of the variety of ethical reasons for and against mass drug administration for NTD control and elimination, facilitating further debate in ethics and policy. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science Core Collection were searched for all relevant publications. Of the 486 retrieved records, 60 met the inclusion criteria for qualitative analysis. Ethical reasons discussing the topic at hand were extracted from full texts and synthesised through the Kuckartz method of qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Data extraction revealed 61 ethical reasons, of which 20 (32.7%) had positive, 13 (21.3%) had ambivalent and 28 (45.9%) had negative implications regarding mass drug administration for NTDs. The health benefits and cost-effectiveness of the measure were extensively highlighted. However, equity, autonomy and sustainability emerged as the domains with the most pressing ethical concerns. Many issues related to implementation are yet to be adequately addressed in policy documents. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first systematic review of ethical reasons pertaining to mass drug administration for NTD control and elimination. Due to the diversity of included studies, no general recommendations can be made. Instead, context-specific strategies seem necessary. Alternative approaches tackling socioecological determinants of ill health are needed for long-term sustainability. Future research could benefit from contributions of non-Western philosophies and perspectives by local researchers.


Asunto(s)
Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Políticas
12.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2024-03-08.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59343

RESUMEN

Todos los países de la Región de las Américas en los que la malaria es endémica han asumido el reto de eliminar la enfermedad y de poner en marcha intervenciones para orientar sus programas y estrategias de salud en esa dirección. Esta versión simplificada y más operativa del Manual para la estratificación según el riesgo de malaria y la eliminación de focos de transmisión, dirigida al personal de campo, orienta sobre cómo implementar las acciones básicas de eliminación de la malaria. Se propone orientar un cambio en la operación de malaria con la atención centrada en abordar los focos y la organización de la operación en el nivel más local. El documento parte de la necesidad de identificar y definir un ámbito operativo (el foco o microárea) en donde se pone en práctica una intervención programática concreta (DTI-R) que, si bien es estandarizada a nivel nacional, debe ser ante todo guiada por la comprensión de la dinámica de la transmisión a nivel local. Un concepto fundamental del cambio de la estrategia de control por la estrategia de eliminación es reconocer la necesidad de reformular y reajustar constantemente la operación a nivel local en virtud de los cambios que se produzcan en la dinámica de transmisión. La operación contra la malaria no debe entenderse como una tarea que deba realizarse, sino como un problema que ha de resolverse y, para ello, resulta fundamental el uso de información a nivel local y la existencia de un equipo con el interés y la capacitación necesarios para entender el problema y adaptar las soluciones.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores
13.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59323

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of trachoma in indigenous and non-indigenous populations in selected areas of the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. Methods. This was a population-based survey with probabilistic sampling. For the diagnosis of trachoma, external ocular examination was performed using head magnifying loupes, at 2.5X magnification. The prevalence of trachomatous inflammation – follicular (TF) in children aged 1–9 years and the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in the population aged ≥15 years were estimated. Relative frequencies of sociodemographic and environmental characteristics were obtained. Results. The study included 7 971 individuals, 3 429 from non-indigenous populations and 4 542 from indigenous populations. The prevalence of TF in non-indigenous and indigenous populations was 0.1% and 2.9%, respectively, and the prevalence of TT among indigenous populations was 0.1%. Conclusions. The prevalence of TF and TT in the two evaluation units in the state of Maranhão were within the limits recommended for the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. However, the prevalence of TF was higher in the indigenous evaluation unit, indicating a greater vulnerability of this population to the disease. The prevalence of TF of below 5.0% implies a reduction in transmission, which may have resulted from improved socioeconomic conditions and/or the implementation of the World Health Organization SAFE strategy.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia del tracoma en poblaciones indígenas y no indígenas en determinadas zonas del estado de Maranhão, en el nordeste de Brasil. Métodos. Se trató de una encuesta de ámbito poblacional con muestreo probabilístico. Para el diagnóstico del tracoma, se realizó un examen ocular externo con una lupa frontal de 2,5X aumentos. Se estimó la prevalencia de la inflamación tracomatosa folicular (TF) en la población infantil de 1 a 9 años y la prevalencia de la triquiasis tracomatosa (TT) en la población de 15 años o más. Se obtuvieron las frecuencias relativas de las características sociodemográficas y ambientales. Resultados. En el estudio participaron 7 971 personas, 3 429 de poblaciones no indígenas y 4 542 de poblaciones indígenas. La prevalencia de la TF en las poblaciones no indígenas e indígenas fue de 0,1% y 2,9%, respectivamente, en tanto que la de la TT en las poblaciones indígenas fue de 0,1%. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de la TF y la TT en las dos unidades de evaluación del estado de Maranhão estuvo dentro de los límites recomendados para la eliminación del tracoma como problema de salud pública. Sin embargo, la prevalencia de la TF fue mayor en la unidad de evaluación indígena, lo que indica una mayor vulnerabilidad de esta población a la enfermedad. La prevalencia de la TF inferior al 5,0% implica una reducción de la transmisión, que puede haber sido consecuencia tanto de la mejora de las condiciones socioeconómicas como de la aplicación de la estrategia SAFE de la Organización Mundial de la Salud.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Estimar a prevalência do tracoma em populações indígenas e não indígenas em áreas selecionadas do estado do Maranhão, na região Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos. Inquérito de base populacional com amostragem probabilística. Para o diagnóstico de tracoma, foi realizado exame ocular externo com o auxílio de lupas binoculares com ampliação de 2,5×. Foram estimadas a prevalência de inflamação tracomatosa folicular (TF) em crianças de 1 a 9 anos de idade e a prevalência de triquíase tracomatosa (TT) na população com idade ≥15 anos. Foram obtidas as frequências relativas das características sociodemográficas e ambientais. Resultados. O estudo incluiu 7 971 indivíduos (3 429 de populações não indígenas e 4 542 de populações indígenas). A prevalência de TF nas populações não indígenas e indígenas foi de 0,1% e 2,9%, respectiva- mente, e a prevalência de TT entre as populações indígenas foi de 0,1%. Conclusões. A prevalência de TF e TT nas duas unidades de avaliação no estado do Maranhão ficou dentro dos limites recomendados para a eliminação do tracoma como problema de saúde pública. No entanto, a prevalência de TF foi maior na unidade de avaliação indígena, indicando uma maior vulnerabilidade dessa população à doença. A prevalência de TF abaixo de 5,0% implica uma redução na transmissão, que pode ter sido resultado de melhores condições socioeconômicas e da implementação da estratégia SAFE da Organização Mundial da Saúde.


Asunto(s)
Tracoma , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Prevalencia , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Brasil , Tracoma , Prevalencia , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Brasil , Prevalencia , Encuestas Epidemiológicas
14.
Global Health ; 20(1): 14, 2024 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is an inconsistency in the way pharmaceutical research is financed. While pull mechanisms are predominantly used to incentivize later-stage pharmaceutical research for products with demand in the Global North, so-called neglected diseases are chiefly financed by push funding. This discrepancy has so far been ignored in the academic debate, and any compelling explanation for why we draw the line between push and pull at poor people is lacking. MAIN BODY: Clinical development of new pharmaceuticals is chiefly financed by free market pull mechanisms. Even in cases where markets fail to deliver adequate incentives, demand enhancement mechanisms are used to replicate pull funding artificially, for example, with subscription models for antibiotics. Push funding in clinical research is almost always used when the poverty of patients means that markets fail to create sufficient demand. The general question of whether push or pull generally is the more efficient way to conduct pharmaceutical research arises. CONCLUSIONS: If the state is efficient in directing limited budgets for pharmaceutical research, push funding should be expanded to global diseases. If private industry is the more efficient actor, there would be enormous value in experimenting more aggressively with different approaches to enhance market demand artificially for neglected diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Desatendidas , Investigación Farmacéutica , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/tratamiento farmacológico , Salud Global , Antibacterianos
15.
N Engl J Med ; 390(6): 487-489, 2024 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314820
16.
Science ; 383(6685): 810-816, 2024 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386723

RESUMEN

Long neglected, Lassa fever is surging in West Africa. Researchers want to know why.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre de Lassa , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Humanos , África Occidental/epidemiología , Fiebre de Lassa/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología
18.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 22(1-3): 59-74, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308590

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) introduce considerable morbidity and mortality on a global scale, directly impacting over 1 billion individuals as well as their families and communities. Afflicted individuals may have limited access to resources and care in these regions, contributing to a high proportion of chronic, progressive, and systemic disease. The cardiovascular system is at particular risk of demise for several NTDs, yet remains largely unstudied due in part to the lack of robust data collection mechanisms in the most impacted regions. AREAS COVERED: The present review is a part of the Neglected Tropical Diseases and other Infectious Diseases affecting the Heart (NET-Heart) Project, aiming at summarizing the current knowledge on cardiovascular implications of NTDs and providing diagnostic as well as management recommendations which can be tailored to low-resource settings. The diagnostic and management algorithms of 13 unique NTDs are presented and summarized. EXPERT OPINION: Recognizing cardiac manifestations of NTDs can significantly alter disease trajectory and all physicians benefit from improved knowledge about NTDs. Great potential exists to advance patient care by improving data collection, communication, and international collaboration.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Cardiovascular , Medicina Tropical , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/diagnóstico
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(2): e0011975, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381805

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Target Product Profiles (TPPs) are instrumental to help optimise the design and development of therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics - these products, in order to achieve the intended impact, should be aligned with users' preferences and needs. However, patients are rarely involved as key stakeholders in building a TPP. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-three cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients from Brazil, Colombia, and Austria, infected with New-World Leishmania species, were recruited using a maximum variation approach along geographic, sociodemographic and clinical criteria. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the respective patient's mother tongue. Transcripts, translated into English, were analysed using a framework approach. We matched disease experiences, preferences, and expectations of CL patients to a TPP developed by DNDi (Drug for Neglected Diseases initiative) for CL treatment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients' preferences regarding treatments ranged from specific efficacy and safety endpoints to direct and significant indirect costs. Respondents expressed views about trade-offs between efficacy and experienced discomfort/adverse events caused by treatment. Reasons for non-compliance, such as adverse events or geographical and availability barriers, were discussed. Considerations related to accessibility and affordability were relevant from the patients' perspective. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NTDs affect disadvantaged populations, often with little access to health systems. Engaging patients in designing adapted therapies could significantly contribute to the suitability of an intervention to a specific context and to compliance, by tailoring the product to the end-users' needs. This exploratory study identified preferences in a broad international patient spectrum. It provides methodological guidance on how patients can be meaningfully involved as stakeholders in the construction of a TPP of therapeutics for NTDs. CL is used as an exemplar, but the approach can be adapted for other NTDs.


Asunto(s)
Leishmaniasis Cutánea , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/tratamiento farmacológico , Desarrollo de Medicamentos , Investigación Cualitativa , Costos y Análisis de Costo
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