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3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 151, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420058

RESUMEN

Mosquito-borne viruses threaten the Caribbean due to the region's tropical climate and seasonal reception of international tourists. Outbreaks of chikungunya and Zika have demonstrated the rapidity with which these viruses can spread. Concurrently, dengue fever cases have climbed over the past decade. Sustainable disease control measures are urgently needed to quell virus transmission and prevent future outbreaks. Here, to improve upon current control methods, we analyze temporal and spatial patterns of chikungunya, Zika, and dengue outbreaks reported in the Dominican Republic between 2012 and 2018. The viruses that cause these outbreaks are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which are sensitive to seasonal climatological variability. We evaluate whether climate and the spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue outbreaks could explain patterns of emerging disease outbreaks. We find that emerging disease outbreaks were robust to the climatological and spatio-temporal constraints defining seasonal dengue outbreak dynamics, indicating that constant surveillance is required to prevent future health crises.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Adolescente , Aedes/virología , Animales , Fiebre Chikungunya/prevención & control , Fiebre Chikungunya/transmisión , Fiebre Chikungunya/virología , Virus Chikungunya/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/prevención & control , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Dengue/prevención & control , Dengue/transmisión , Dengue/virología , Virus del Dengue/aislamiento & purificación , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , República Dominicana/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Control de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Adulto Joven , Virus Zika/aislamiento & purificación , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
4.
Science ; 371(6530): 741-745, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436525

RESUMEN

We are currently faced with the question of how the severity of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may change in the years ahead. Our analysis of immunological and epidemiological data on endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) shows that infection-blocking immunity wanes rapidly but that disease-reducing immunity is long-lived. Our model, incorporating these components of immunity, recapitulates both the current severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the benign nature of HCoVs, suggesting that once the endemic phase is reached and primary exposure is in childhood, SARS-CoV-2 may be no more virulent than the common cold. We predict a different outcome for an emergent coronavirus that causes severe disease in children. These results reinforce the importance of behavioral containment during pandemic vaccine rollout, while prompting us to evaluate scenarios for continuing vaccination in the endemic phase.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Inmunidad Adaptativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , /transmisión , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Epidemias , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Lactante , /patogenicidad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244479, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370376

RESUMEN

Malaria is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes. In Korea, Plasmodium vivax malaria is an endemic disease and the main vector is Anopheles sinensis. Plasmodium vivax malaria is common in the northwestern part of South Korea, including in the city of Goyang in regions near the demilitarized zone. This study aimed to identify the best time-series model for predicting mosquito average abundance in Goyang, Korea. Mosquito data were obtained from the Mosquito Surveillance Program of the Goyang Ilsanseogu Public Health Center for the period 2008-2012. Black light traps were set up periodically in a park, a senior community center, and a village community center, public health center, drainage pumping station, cactus research center, restaurant near forest, in which many activities occur at night. In total, 9,512 female mosquitoes were collected at 12 permanent trapping sites during the mosquito season in the study period. Weekly An. sinensis average abundance was positively correlated with minimum grass temperature (r = 0.694, p < 0.001), precipitation (r = 0.326, p = 0.001). The results showed that seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) (1,0,0)(0,0,1)21 with minimum grass temperature variable at time lag0 weeks and the precipitation variable at time lag1 weeks provided that best model of mosquito average abundance. The multivariate model accounted for about 54.1% of the mosquito average abundance variation. Time-series analysis of mosquito average abundance and climate factors provided basic information for predicting the occurrence of malaria mosquitoes.


Asunto(s)
Anopheles/parasitología , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Malaria Vivax/prevención & control , Mosquitos Vectores/parasitología , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria Vivax/epidemiología , Malaria Vivax/parasitología , Malaria Vivax/transmisión , Control de Mosquitos , Análisis Multivariante , Plasmodium vivax/aislamiento & purificación , República de Corea/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Estaciones del Año
6.
Malar J ; 19(1): 411, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198747

RESUMEN

The global COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the maintenance of various disease control programmes, including malaria. In some malaria-endemic countries, funding and personnel reallocations were executed from malaria control programmes to support COVID-19 response efforts, resulting mainly in interruptions of disease control activities and reduced capabilities of health system. While it is principal to drive national budget rearrangements during the pandemic, the long-standing malaria control programmes should not be left behind in order to sustain the achievements from the previous years. With different levels of intensity, many countries have been struggling to improve the health system resilience and to mitigate the unavoidable stagnation of malaria control programmes. Current opinion emphasized the impacts of budget reprioritization on malaria-related resources during COVID-19 pandemic in malaria endemic countries in Africa and Southeast Asia, and feasible attempts that can be taken to lessen these impacts.


Asunto(s)
Presupuestos/tendencias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Enfermedades Endémicas/economía , Recursos en Salud/economía , Malaria/economía , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , África , Asia Sudoriental , Presupuestos/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Recursos en Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Malaria/prevención & control , Control de Mosquitos/economía , Control de Mosquitos/tendencias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control
7.
Malar J ; 19(1): 410, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the past decade substantial reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed through well-implemented case management and vector control strategies. India has also achieved a significant reduction in malaria burden in 2018 and has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The Mandla Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) was started in 2017 in 1233 villages of District Mandla to demonstrate malaria elimination in a tribal district with hard-to-reach areas was possible using active and passive surveillance, case management, vector control, and targeted information, education and communication campaigns. An operational plan was developed to strengthen the existing surveillance and malaria elimination systems, through fortnightly active case detection to ensure that all cases including those that are introduced into the communities are rapidly identified and treated promptly. The plan also focused on the reduction of human-mosquito contact through the use of Long-Lasting Insecticial Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spray (IRS). The operational plan was modified in view of the present COVID-19 pandemic by creating systems of assistance for the local administration for COVID-related work while ensuring the operational integrity of malaria elimination efforts. RESULTS: The use of MEDP study design and operational plan, with its built-in management control systems, has yielded significant (91%) reduction of indigenous cases of malaria during the period from June 2017 to May 2020. The malaria positivity rate was 0.33% in 2017-18, 0.13% in 2018-19, and 0.06% in 2019-20. Mass screening revealed 0.18% malaria positivity in September-October 2018, followed by 0.06% in June 2019, and 0.03% in December 2019, and these were mostly asymptomatic cases in the community. The project has been able to sustain the gains of the past three years during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: This paper provides the study design and the operational plan for malaria elimination in a high-burden district of Central India, which presented difficulties of hard to reach areas, forest malaria, and complex epidemiology of urban and rural malaria. The lessons learned could be used for malaria elimination efforts in rest of the country and other parts of South Asia with comparable demography and epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Malaria/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Altitud , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Bosques , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida , Malaria/epidemiología , Control de Mosquitos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Lluvia , Población Rural , Población Urbana
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 511-516, 2020 Oct 19.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185064

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, so as to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the national schistosomiasis control program in China. METHODS: On April 2020, 3 counties (districts) were randomly selected from each of the 12 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region), and a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in these counties (districts) from January to March 2020. Then, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemics on the national schistosomiasis control program of China was evaluated using a comparative analysis approach. RESULTS: Among the 36 counties (cities, districts) sampled from 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), 66.67% were at a high and medium risk of COVID-19 epidemics. The implementation of schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human schistosomiasis examination and treatment, snail control with chemical treatment and health education reduced by 44.26% to 91.56% as compared to 2019 during the same time period, and the schistosomiasis control program was more affected by COVID-19 in transmission-controlled provinces. The gross funds invested into the schistosomiasis control program reduced by 23.39% in relative to the expected, while the total expenditure increased by 41.22%. In addition, all 36 surveyed counties (districts) considered that the COVID-19 epidemic had a short-term impact on the schistosomiasis control program, with the most predominant impact on schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human resources and monitoring of endemic situation of schistosomiasis. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemics affect the routine schistosomiasis control program across the endemic-foci of China. Policy and financial support should be strengthened to ensure the completion of the schistosomiasis control program.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Animales , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Caracoles/parasitología
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4918, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004800

RESUMEN

In order to control and eradicate epidemic cholera, we need to understand how epidemics begin, how they spread, and how they decline and eventually end. This requires extensive sampling of epidemic disease over time, alongside the background of endemic disease that may exist concurrently with the epidemic. The unique circumstances surrounding the Argentinian cholera epidemic of 1992-1998 presented an opportunity to do this. Here, we use 490 Argentinian V. cholerae genome sequences to characterise the variation within, and between, epidemic and endemic V. cholerae. We show that, during the 1992-1998 cholera epidemic, the invariant epidemic clone co-existed alongside highly diverse members of the Vibrio cholerae species in Argentina, and we contrast the clonality of epidemic V. cholerae with the background diversity of local endemic bacteria. Our findings refine and add nuance to our genomic definitions of epidemic and endemic cholera, and are of direct relevance to controlling current and future cholera epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Cólera/microbiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Argentina/epidemiología , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/prevención & control , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Pandemias/historia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Vibrio cholerae/aislamiento & purificación , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidad
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008292, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075052

RESUMEN

The lack of effective vaccines for many endemic diseases often forces policymakers to rely on non-immunizing control measures, such as vector control, to reduce the massive burden of these diseases. Controls can have well-known counterintuitive effects on endemic infections, including the honeymoon effect, in which partially effective controls cause not only a greater initial reduction in infection than expected, but also large outbreaks during control resulting from accumulation of susceptibles. Unfortunately, many control measures cannot be maintained indefinitely, and the results of cessation are poorly understood. Here, we examine the results of stopped or failed non-immunizing control measures in endemic settings. By using a mathematical model to compare the cumulative number of cases expected with and without control, we show that deployment of control can lead to a larger total number of infections, counting from the time that control started, than without any control-the divorce effect. This result is directly related to the population-level loss of immunity resulting from non-immunizing controls and is seen in a variety of models when non-immunizing controls are used against an infection that confers immunity. Finally, we examine three control plans for minimizing the magnitude of the divorce effect in seasonal infections and show that they are incapable of eliminating the divorce effect. While we do not suggest stopping control programs that rely on non-immunizing controls, our results strongly argue that the accumulation of susceptibility should be considered before deploying such controls against endemic infections when indefinite use of the control is unlikely. We highlight that our results are particularly germane to endemic mosquito-borne infections, such as dengue virus, both for routine management involving vector control and for field trials of novel control approaches, and in the context of non-pharmaceutical interventions aimed at COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Programas de Inmunización , Animales , Número Básico de Reproducción , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Culicidae , Vacunas contra el Dengue/uso terapéutico , Política de Salud , Humanos , Insectos Vectores , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/prevención & control , Vacuna contra la Rubéola/uso terapéutico , Estaciones del Año , Dengue Grave/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
11.
J Biol Dyn ; 14(1): 748-766, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990177

RESUMEN

The outbreak of COVID-19 was first experienced in Wuhan City, China, during December 2019 before it rapidly spread over globally. This paper has proposed a mathematical model for studying its transmission dynamics in the presence of face mask wearing and hospitalization services of human population in Tanzania. Disease-free and endemic equilibria were determined and subsequently their local and global stabilities were carried out. The trace-determinant approach was used in the local stability of disease-free equilibrium point while Lyapunov function technique was used to determine the global stability of both disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. Basic reproduction number, R 0 , was determined in which its numerical results revealed that, in the presence of face masks wearing and medication services or hospitalization as preventive measure for its transmission, R 0 = 0.698 while in their absence R 0 = 3.8 . This supports its analytical solution that the disease-free equilibrium point E 0 is asymptotically stable whenever R 0 < 1 , while endemic equilibrium point E ∗ is globally asymptotically stable for R 0 > 1 . Therefore, this paper proves the necessity of face masks wearing and hospitalization services to COVID-19 patients to contain the disease spread to the population.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Número Básico de Reproducción , Simulación por Computador , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Conceptos Matemáticos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Tanzanía/epidemiología
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236414, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845890

RESUMEN

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a common infectious disease that is endemic in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the spatial autocorrelation of VL in the northwest of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the data of all patients were collected in 2009-2017 and analyzed by SPSS23 and Moran's and General G Index. The MaxEnt3.3.3 software was used to determine the ecological niche. A big hot spot area was identified in five counties in the northwest of Iran. More than 70% of the cases were reported from these regions, and the incidence rate increased in the northwest of Iran from 2013 to 2017. Seasonal rainfall and average daily temperature were the most important climate variables affecting the incidence of VL in this region (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that VL in the northwest of Iran is expanding to new areas along the border with the Republic of Azerbaijan, and the northeastern section of this region is a high-risk area.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Análisis Espacial , Azerbaiyán/epidemiología , Clima , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/parasitología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1233, 2020 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787813

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Control and elimination of onchocerciasis requires regular follow-up and evaluation of community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) program implementation. This research was aimed to assess the epidemiological status of onchocerciasis in disease endemic communities of Asosa and Yeki districts of Ethiopia after 5 and 15 years of successive CDTi respectively, and to evaluate the decline in infection and morbidity burden. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2017 to January 2018 (i.e. within 2-7 months since the last treatment) using interview, physical and parasitological examinations. Pre-CDTi epidemiological data were obtained from studies conducted prior to the launch of CDTi. RESULTS: A total of 3002 individuals (1567 from Asosa and 1435 from Yeki) were included. No infection was detected from Yeki. In Asosa, the prevalence of infection was 1.6%. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 0.02 mf/mg of skin snip. The prevalence rates of dermatitis, depigmentation, nodule, and atrophy in Yeki were 33(2.3%), 57(4%), 37(2.6%) and 11(0.7%), respectively. The prevalence rates of papular dermatitis, depigmentation, palpable nodule, atrophy, and blindness in Asosa were 94(6%), 38(2.4%), 30(1.9%), 28(1.8%) and 2(0.1%), respectively. Five years of CDTi had significantly reduced prevalence and intensity of infection by 91.8% (p < 0.001) and 99.7% (p < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, CDTi reduced prevalence of papular dermatitis by 95.9% (p < 0.001), palpable nodule by 90.5% (p < 0.001), and atrophy by 30% (p = 0.6) in Yeki. Similarly, CDTi reduced prevalence of papular dermatitis by 88.6% (p < 0.001), depigmentation by 90.3% (p < 0.001), atrophy by 89.5% (p < 0.001), and blindness by 90% (p < 0.001) in Asosa. CONCLUSIONS: Fifteen years of successive CDTi had brought the infection from high to zero in Yeki. However, thorough entomological and serological data need to be generated to ascertain whether complete interruption of parasite transmission has been attained, and for considerations of an evidence-based CDTi cessation. Five years of CDTi in Asosa has significantly reduced the infection and morbidity of onchocerciasis to very low level. We, hereby, recommend biannual CDTi to continue in Asosa and its surroundings until the infection transmission is fully interrupted.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Oncocercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Oncocercosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Morbilidad , Prevalencia , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Adulto Joven
14.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e461, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149913

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: La enfermedad de Chagas es de alta endemia en Colombia y es considerada un problema de salud pública por la morbilidad y mortalidad que ocasiona. Conocer la percepción de las comunidades frente a esta enfermedad es relevante en cuanto a las estrategias oportunas que se pueden establecer para su prevención. Objetivo: Evaluar la fiabilidad y validez de un instrumento que permita medir los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas frente a la enfermedad de Chagas en comunidades endémicas. Métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio de corte transversal para la validación del contenido de un instrumento, diseñado con base en la literatura, el cual se sometió a la valoración por un panel de expertos que determinaron la eficiencia, relevancia, claridad y coherencia de cada uno de los ítems. Se determinó el índice Kappa de Randolph para evaluar concordancia. Luego se aplicó a 135 personas de áreas endémicas y se estableció el alfa de Cronbach para determinar consistencia interna. Resultados: El instrumento estudiado demostró concordancia según el índice de Randolph con una Kappa entre 0,7-0,8 para los ítems evaluados, con un alfa de Cronbach de 0,855 lo cual denota una consistencia adecuada. El cuestionario finalmente se estructuró con un total de 27 ítems que abordan: factores epidemiológicos y conocimientos de la enfermedad junto con actitudes y prácticas frente a esta. Conclusiones: El instrumento tiene un nivel adecuado de consistencia interna y concordancia, que permitiría su aplicación en áreas endémicas con poblaciones en riesgo a adquirir la enfermedad de Chagas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Chagas disease is highly endemic in Colombia and considered to be a public health problem due to its morbidity and mortality. Learning about community perception of this disease is relevant to devise timely strategies for its prevention. Objective: Evaluate the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure knowledge, attitudes and practices in response to Chagas disease in endemic communities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to validate the content of a tool based on the literature and assessed by an expert panel to determine the efficiency, relevance, clarity, and coherence of each of its items. Determination was made of Randolph's kappa index to evaluate agreement. Then it was applied to 135 people from endemic areas and Cronbach's alpha was established to determine internal consistency. Results: The tool studied showed agreement by Randolph's index with a kappa between 0.7 and 0.8 for the items evaluated and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.855, denoting appropriate consistency. The questionnaire was finally structured with a total 27 items addressing epidemiological factors and knowledge about the disease as well as attitudes and practices in response to it. Conclusions: The tool has an adequate level of internal consistency and agreement, which makes its application advisable in endemic areas with populations at risk of acquiring Chagas disease.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Factores Epidemiológicos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Colombia , Estudio de Validación , Evaluación de Programas e Instrumentos de Investigación
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234445, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579586

RESUMEN

This study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna and detect trypanosomatids in these insects from Casa Branca, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area of both visceral (VL) and tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Sand flies were collected bimonthly from May 2013 to July 2014, using automatic light traps exposed for three consecutive nights in peridomiciliary areas of nine houses with previous reports of VL and TL. ITS1-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for trypanosomatids identification. A total of 16,771 sand flies were collected belonging to 23 species. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (70.9%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (15.2%) and Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920) (9.1%). Leishmania amazonensis DNA was detected in Ny. whitmani (four pools) and Le. braziliensis DNA was detected in Psychodopygus lloydi (one pool). In seven pools of Ny. whitmani and in one pool of Lu. longipalpis positive for Leishmania DNA, the parasite species was not determined due to the low quality of the sequences. Moreover, DNA of Herpetomonas spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani (two pools) and Cortelezzii complex (one pool). DNA of Crithidia spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani and Ps. lloydi (both one pool). Our results suggest that Ny. whitmani may be involved in the transmission of Le. amazonensis in the study area. The molecular detection of Le. amazonensis suggests the presence of this species in a sylvatic cycle between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the region of Casa Branca. Our data also reveal the occurrence of other non-Leishmania trypanosomatids in sand flies in Casa Branca District.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Insectos Vectores/parasitología , Leishmania/aislamiento & purificación , Phlebotomus/parasitología , Psychodidae/parasitología , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , ADN Protozoario/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniasis/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis/parasitología , Leishmaniasis/prevención & control , Leishmaniasis/transmisión , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232867, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497049

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Neglected Tropical Diseases Roadmap of the WHO set targets for potential elimination as a "public health problem" for the period 2012-2020 in multiple countries in Africa, with the aim of global elimination of schistosomiasis as a "public health problem" by 2025. AIM: The purpose of the study was to estimate the cost from a provider's perspective of the Department of Health's Schistosomiasis Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal in 2012, with a view to project the costs for the entire KwaZulu Natal Province. METHODS: A total of 491 public schools and 16 independent schools in Ugu District, a predominantly rural district in KwaZulu-Natal with a total of 218 242 learners, were included in the schistosomiasis control programme. They were randomly selected from schools situated below an altitude of 300 meters, where schistosomiasis is endemic. A retrospective costing study was conducted using the provider's perspective to cost. Cost data were collected by reviewing existing records including financial statements, invoices, receipts, transport log books, equipment inventories, and information from personnel payroll, existing budget, and the staff diaries. RESULTS: A total of 15571 children were treated in 2012, resulting in a total cost of the MDA programme of ZAR 2 137 143 and a unit cost of ZAR 137. The three main cost components were Medication Costs (37%), Human Resources Cost (36%) and Capital items (16%). The total cost for treating all eligible pupils in KwaZulu-Natal will be ZAR 149 031 888. However, should the capital cost be excluded, then the unit cost will be ZAR 112 per patient and this will translate to a total cost of ZAR 121 836 288. CONCLUSIONS: Low coverage exacerbates the cost of the programme and makes a decision to support such a programme difficult. However, a normative costing study based on the integration of the programme within the Department of Health should be conducted.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/economía , Costos Directos de Servicios/estadística & datos numéricos , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos/economía , Praziquantel/economía , Esquistosomiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Servicios de Salud Escolar/economía , Adolescente , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Gastos de Capital/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Costos de los Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Endémicas/economía , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Folletos , Praziquantel/administración & dosificación , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Población Rural , Muestreo , Esquistosomiasis/economía , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235119, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574179

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Colombia has officially adopted the parasite density levels of severe malaria established by the WHO (>50,000 parasites/µl). These values have been inferred from areas of high transmission in Africa and are not consistent with the dynamics of low and unstable transmission in Colombia. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the parasite density values observed in patients with severe malaria and their distribution in the different ecoepidemiological regions of Colombia. METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study of confirmed cases of severe malaria was conducted in endemic areas of malaria in Colombia over the period 2014-2017. Data were collected from secondary sources of the Subnational Programs of Malaria Prevention and Control. Person, place, and time variables were selected. The official definition of severe malaria was adopted, and compliance with these criteria was determined. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted with absolute and relative frequency measures, and the relevant statistical tests were applied. RESULTS: The overall parasite density values in Colombia showed a geometric mean of 5,919 parasites/µl (95% CI: 5,608-6,248). By parasite species, the values were 6,151 (95% CI: 5,631-6,718) for Plasmodium falciparum and 5,815 (95% CI: 5,428-6,230) for Plasmodium vivax. The highest parasite density values were recorded in the Amazon ecoepidemiological region (8,177; 95% CI: 6,015-11,116), and the lowest values were recorded in the Andean region (5,026; 95% CI: 2,409-10,480). CONCLUSIONS: In endemic areas of low and unstable malaria transmission in the Colombian territory, the parasite density levels observed in populations with severe malaria are lower than the officially established values. The parasite density criterion is not really a relevant criterion for the definition of severe cases in Colombia and it certainly not be used to make a clinical decision about the severity of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Malaria Vivax/epidemiología , Plasmodium falciparum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plasmodium vivax/crecimiento & desarrollo , Densidad de Población , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Lactante , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Malaria Falciparum/transmisión , Malaria Vivax/parasitología , Malaria Vivax/transmisión , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiología , Plasmodium vivax/fisiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232534, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353863

RESUMEN

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus of ruminants that has been circulating in Europe continuously for more than two decades and has become endemic in some countries such as Spain. Spain is ideal for BTV epidemiological studies since BTV outbreaks from different sources and serotypes have occurred continuously there since 2000; BTV-1 has been reported there from 2007 to 2017. Here we develop a model for BTV-1 endemic scenario to estimate the risk of an area becoming endemic, as well as to identify the most influential factors for BTV-1 persistence. We created abundance maps at 1-km2 spatial resolution for the main vectors in Spain, Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, by combining environmental satellite data with occurrence models and a random forest machine learning algorithm. The endemic model included vector abundance and host-related variables (farm density). The three most relevant variables in the endemic model were the abundance of C. imicola and Obsoletus complex and density of goat farms (AUC 0.86); this model suggests that BTV-1 is more likely to become endemic in central and southwestern regions of Spain. It only requires host- and vector-related variables to identify areas at greater risk of becoming endemic for bluetongue. Our results highlight the importance of suitable Culicoides spp. prediction maps for bluetongue epidemiological studies and decision-making about control and eradication measures.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Lengua Azul/patogenicidad , Lengua Azul/prevención & control , Ceratopogonidae/virología , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Insectos Vectores/virología , Animales , Lengua Azul/epidemiología , Lengua Azul/transmisión , Lengua Azul/virología , Enfermedades Endémicas/veterinaria , Monitoreo Epidemiológico/veterinaria , Geografía , Insecticidas , Modelos Estadísticos , Probabilidad , Serogrupo , Ovinos , España/epidemiología , Análisis Espacial
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