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J Infect Chemother ; 30(1): 34-39, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37714267


INTRODUCTION: Zifanocycline (KBP-7072) is a novel aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. This study determined the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) characteristics of zifanocycline in mice and the optimal PK/PD index for efficacy against Acinetobacter baumannii in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model. METHODS: Zifanocycline PK properties were characterized in plasma after single-dose subcutaneous injection in healthy mice at doses of 1, 4, 16, 64, and 256 mg/kg. PK/PD analyses were performed with zifanocycline against 8 clinical A. baumannii isolates in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model. RESULTS: Plasma total and free drug Cmax, AUC0-inf, and AUC0-24 increased with dose, where Cmax of total drug was 0.12-25.2 mg/L, AUC0-inf was 1.13-234 h*mg/L, AUC0-24 was 1.09-225 h*mg/L, and free drug Cmax was 0.03-5.68 mg/L, AUC0-inf was 0.25-52.6 h*mg/L, and AUC0-24 was 0.25-50.5 h*mg/L. MICs of zifanocycline against A. baumannii ranged from 0.06 to 0.5 mg/L, with significant activity against all 8 strains. Average daily doses of zifanocycline to achieve a static, 1-log10 kill, and 2-log10 kill effect were projected to be 6.92, 9.63, and 13.22 mg/kg, and the mean fAUC/MIC ratios were 6.91, 9.10, and 12.60, respectively. AUC/MIC was the optimal PK/PD index of zifanocycline against A. baumannii. CONCLUSION: The in vivo efficacy results and PK/PD analyses support the design of optimal dosing regimens in clinical studies and assist with determining clinical breakpoints for zifanocycline.

Acinetobacter baumannii , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Neutropenia , Animales , Ratones , Muslo , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico
J Infect Chemother ; 30(1): 1-6, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37717609


INTRODUCTION: Infection and mortality rates caused by the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic were high. However, the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical burden in medical facilities remains to be clarified in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used a questionnaire-based web survey to clarify how the COVID-19 pandemic affected infectious disease practice and infection control. The questionnaire was sent to healthcare professionals at nationwide medical facilities between January 13, 2023, and February 15, 2023. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 1784 healthcare professionals throughout Japan. Hospital management of COVID-19 patients was the responsibility of 96.5% of respondents. Furthermore, 75.1% had experienced nosocomial spread of COVID-19. Manuals and infection control measures for COVID-19 have been arranged in most facilities. In many facilities, the timing of an infected employee's return to work was determined in accordance with the isolation period for coronavirus-positive patients with symptoms established by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan. Approximately 30% of respondents reported that caring for COVID-19 patients, including the use of personal protective equipment, was their most stressful job. Approximately 50% of the respondents reported an increase in overtime hours. Approximately 90% of facilities are now capable of performing COVID-19 testing onsite. CONCLUSION: Infection control for COVID-19 has been improved, and testing equipment for SARS-CoV-2 has been prepared. Patient care-related burdens and burdens caused by having to compensate for vacancies due to infected staff members have increased. In the future, a reduction in workload and role sharing should be considered.

COVID-19 , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Prueba de COVID-19 , Japón/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Infecciones , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
J Ethnopharmacol ; 319(Pt 3): 117243, 2024 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37777025


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xingbei antitussive granules (XB) is a classic Chinese Medicine prescription for treating post-infectious cough(PIC), based on the Sanao Decoction from Formularies of the Bureau of People's Welfare Pharmacies in the Song Dynasty and Jiegeng decoction from Essentials of the Golden Chamber in the Han Dynasty. However, the therapeutic effects and pharmacological mechanisms are still ambiguous. In the present study, we endeavored to elucidate these underlying mechanisms. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to explore the potential impact and mechanism of XB on PIC, and provide a scientific basis for its clinical application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cigarette smoking (CS) combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) nasal drops were administered to induce the PIC guinea pig with cough hypersensitivity status. Subsequently, the model guinea pigs were treated with XB and the cough frequency was observed by the capsaicin cough provocation test. The pathological changes of lung tissue were assessed by HE staining, and the levels of inflammatory mediators, mast cell degranulating substances, and neuropeptides were detected. The protein and mRNA expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1(TRPV1), proteinase-activated receptor2(PAR2), and protein kinase C (PKC) were measured by Immunohistochemical staining, Western blot, and RT-qPCR. Changes in the abundance and composition of respiratory bacterial microbiota were determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: After XB treatment, the model guinea pigs showed a dose-dependent decrease in cough frequency, along with a significant alleviation in inflammatory infiltration of lung tissue and a reduction in inflammatory mediators. In addition, XB high-dose treatment significantly decreased the levels of mast cell Tryptase as well as ß-hexosaminidase (ß-Hex) and downregulated the expression of TRPV1, PAR2, and p-PKC. Simultaneously, levels of neuropeptides like substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA), and nerve growth factor (NGF) were improved. Besides, XB also can modulate the structure of respiratory bacterial microbiota and restore homeostasis. CONCLUSION: XB treatment alleviates cough hypersensitivity and inflammatory responses, inhibits the degranulation of mast cells, and ameliorates neurogenic inflammation in PIC guinea pigs whose mechanism may be associated with the inhibition of Tryptase/PAR2/PKC/TRPV1 and the recovery of respiratory bacterial microbiota.

Antitusígenos , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Cobayas , Animales , Porcinos , Antitusígenos/farmacología , Antitusígenos/uso terapéutico , Tos/tratamiento farmacológico , Triptasas , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Mediadores de Inflamación , Canales Catiónicos TRPV
Environ Res ; 240(Pt 2): 117395, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37838198


BACKGROUND: Epidemiological nowcasting traditionally relies on count surveillance data. The availability and quality of such count data may vary over time, limiting representation of true infections. Wastewater data correlates with traditional surveillance data and may provide additional value for nowcasting disease trends. METHODS: We obtained SARS-CoV-2 case, death, wastewater, and serosurvey data for Jefferson County, Kentucky (USA), between August 2020 and March 2021, and parameterized an existing nowcasting model using combinations of these data. We assessed the predictive performance and variability at the sewershed level and compared the effects of adding or replacing wastewater data to case and death reports. FINDINGS: Adding wastewater data minimally improved the predictive performance of nowcasts compared to a model fitted to case and death data (Weighted Interval Score (WIS) 0.208 versus 0.223), and reduced the predictive performance compared to a model fitted to deaths data (WIS 0.517 versus 0.500). Adding wastewater data to deaths data improved the nowcasts agreement to estimates from models using cases and deaths data. These findings were consistent across individual sewersheds as well as for models fit to the aggregated total data of 5 sewersheds. Retrospective reconstructions of epidemiological dynamics created using different combinations of data were in general agreement (coverage >75%). INTERPRETATION: These findings show wastewater data may be valuable for infectious disease nowcasting when clinical surveillance data are absent, such as early in a pandemic or in low-resource settings where systematic collection of epidemiologic data is difficult.

Enfermedades Transmisibles , Aguas Residuales , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pandemias
J Intensive Care Med ; 39(1): 59-68, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37455413


BACKGROUND: There is little information comparing the performance of community acquired central nervous system infections (CNSI) treatment by intensive care units (ICUs) specialized in infectious diseases with treatment at other ICUs. Our objective was to reduce these gaps, creating bases for benchmarking and future case-mix classification. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational cohort of 785 admissions with 82 cases of CNSI admitted to the ICU of an important Brazilian referral center for infectious diseases (INI) between January 2012 and January 2019. Comparisons were made to data retrospectively collected from the 303,500 intensive care admissions from the Brazilian state health care system included in the Epimed Monitor database. Clinical, epidemiologic, and performance indicators: the standardized mortality rate (SMR) and the standardized resource use rate per ICU surviving patient (SRU) were collected. RESULTS: Case-mix infections profile and SMR/SRU data. SUS Mixed medical/surgical ICUs: SMR = 1.26, SRU = 1.59; SUS Neurological ICUs: SMR = 1.17, SRU = 2.23; INI ICU: SMR = 1.1, SRU = 1.1; INI ICU CNSI patients: SMR = 0.95, SRU = 1.01. CONCLUSIONS: Severe patients with CNSI can be efficiently and effectively treated in an ICU specialized in infectious diseases when compared to mixed medical/surgical and neurological ICUs from the public health system. At the same time, we provided profiling and a case-mix that can help and encourage benchmarking by other institutions and other countries.

Infecciones del Sistema Nervioso Central , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Benchmarking , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infecciones del Sistema Nervioso Central/terapia , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos
J Infect Chemother ; 30(1): 67-70, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37657516


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a highly lethal disease characterized by fever, cytopenia, splenomegaly, and hemophagocytosis. Whereas infectious diseases, malignant tumors, and autoimmune diseases are often triggers for HLH, reports of HLH associated with vaccination are limited. In this report, we describe a case of HLH in a 12-year-old female patient after simultaneous administration of the bivalent messenger RNA severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. The patient presented to our hospital with fever on the day after vaccination. Considering the splenomegaly, cytopenia, hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow, and high ferritin level, HLH was diagnosed 12 days after vaccination. Various tests ruled out any infectious disease, malignant tumor, or autoimmune disease. The patient was treated only with 2 mg/kg/day of oral prednisolone, fever improved 13 days after vaccination, and blood test findings rapidly improved. Although HLH after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or concomitant administration with influenza vaccination is still rare, we emphasize the importance of early HLH diagnosis when persistent fever is observed following vaccination.

COVID-19 , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Linfohistiocitosis Hemofagocítica , Femenino , Humanos , Niño , Linfohistiocitosis Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfohistiocitosis Hemofagocítica/tratamiento farmacológico , Linfohistiocitosis Hemofagocítica/etiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/efectos adversos , Esplenomegalia , COVID-19/complicaciones , SARS-CoV-2
Med Clin North Am ; 108(1): 79-92, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951657


Fever of unknown origin in adolescents is a challenging disease state for which potential underlying etiology can include infectious, non-infectious inflammatory, and malignancy processes. Careful and thorough history (including exposure history), serial examination, and targeted laboratory and imaging testing is critical for these patients. In adolescents in which an etiology is discovered, infectious etiology remains the most prevalent, followed by non-infectious inflammatory diseases. In patients with non-diagnostic overall reassuring work up, the prognosis is typically self-limiting and favorable.

Enfermedades Transmisibles , Fiebre de Origen Desconocido , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Humanos , Fiebre de Origen Desconocido/diagnóstico , Fiebre de Origen Desconocido/etiología , Fiebre de Origen Desconocido/patología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/complicaciones , Pronóstico , Neoplasias/complicaciones
Neuroimaging Clin N Am ; 34(1): 93-111, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951708


Vasculitis is a complication of several infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system, which may result in ischemic and/or hemorrhagic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and aneurysm formation. Infectious agents may directly infect the endothelium causing vasculitis or indirectly affect the vessel wall through an immunological cascade. Clinical manifestations usually overlap with those of noninfectious vascular diseases, making diagnosis challenging. Neuroimaging enables the identification of inflammatory changes in intracranial vasculitis. In this article, we review the imaging features of infectious vasculitis of bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic causes.

Enfermedades Transmisibles , Vasculitis del Sistema Nervioso Central , Vasculitis , Humanos , Enfermedades Transmisibles/complicaciones , Vasculitis/complicaciones , Angiografía Cerebral , Neuroimagen , Vasculitis del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico por imagen , Vasculitis del Sistema Nervioso Central/complicaciones
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 112(1): 53-64, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37728144


Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are a significant burden on public health and the economic stability of societies all over the world. The appearance of drug-resistant bacteria has severely blocked the effectiveness of conventional antibiotics. Therefore, developing novel antibiotic-free strategies to combat bacteria holds huge potential for maximizing validity and minimizing the risk of enhancing bacterial resistance. Herein, a cypate-loaded hollow mesoporous Prussian blue nanoparticles (Cy-HMPBs) was built to achieve the PDT/PTT synergistic antimicrobial therapy. The carbomer hydrogel (CH) was combined with the Cy-HMPBs to form a nanoparticle/hydrogel therapeutic system (Cy-HMPBs/CH) to reach the goal of local delivery of antimicrobial cargo. The low concentration of Cy-HMPBs/CH receives over 99% of antimicrobial ability against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus upon near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. More importantly, Cy-HMPBs/CH has favorable biocompatibility and can play therapeutic effects only after laser irradiation, indicating the on-demand therapy at the targeted region to avert side effects on healthy tissue. This study provides ideas for the design of an antibiotic-free antimicrobial strategy against infectious diseases.

Enfermedades Transmisibles , Nanopartículas , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Terapia Fototérmica , Hidrogeles , Antibacterianos/farmacología
Methods Mol Biol ; 2724: 65-70, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37987898


Most geminiviruses are not transmitted by mechanical inoculation. Therefore, pathogenicity and plant-pathogen interaction studies rely on agroinoculation using infectious clones, which involves cloning the geminiviral genome in a binary vector (see previous chapter for details). A suspension containing the infectious clone inserted into Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells is then inoculated into plants, i.e., agroinoculated. Below is a simple protocol for agroinoculation of an infectious geminivirus clone into plants.

Enfermedades Transmisibles , Geminiviridae , Humanos , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Geminiviridae/genética , Vacunación
Methods Mol Biol ; 2724: 47-64, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37987897


The production of geminiviral infectious clones provides a standardized inoculum for use in several host-virus studies. Geminiviruses present either one (monopartite) or two (bipartite) circular single-stranded DNA components, which commonly range from 2.6 to 2.8 kb. Cloning of a monomeric genome is useful for obtaining its precise sequence. For infectious clones, however, it is essential that more than one copy of the genome, more specifically of the origin of replication, is present in order to guarantee the production of full-length progeny DNA. Here, the complete process of preparing infectious geminiviral clones is described starting from the DNA extraction and selection of restriction endonucleases followed by two protocols for constructing dimeric clones: restriction endonuclease digestion and ligation (1) and Gibson Assembly (2).

Enfermedades Transmisibles , Geminiviridae , Humanos , Enzimas de Restricción del ADN/genética , ADN de Cadena Simple/genética , Geminiviridae/genética , Células Clonales
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 737-753, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424914


Objetivo: Avaliar as tendências e associações relacionadas as coberturas e internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária à saúde no município de Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil, no período de 2015 a 2021. Métodos: Estudo transversal com dados secundários (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde, E- gestor atenção básica e o Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). Utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para as associações. Resultados: Foram registrados 176.330 internações por condições sensíveis, totalizando 8 principais, correspondendo a 78.5% do total. Obteve-se correlação inversa significativa entre a cobertura de atenção primária e internações por condições sensíveis: r=-0.86, (IC95%: -0.91/-0.61); p<0.001, bem como uma correlação moderada com cobertura de agente comunitário e internações (r=-0.59 (IC95%: -0.68/-0.54); p<0.001) Conclusão: O aumento das internações por condições sensíveis está diretamente relacionado com a cobertura da atenção primária. Além disso, enfrenta-se uma dupla carga de doenças, coexistindo as doenças infecciosas/parasitárias em concomitância com as crônicas.

Objective: To assess trends and associations related to coverage and hospitalizations for conditions sensitive to primary health care in the city of Fortaleza/Ceará/Brazil, from 2015 to 2021. Methods: Cross-sectional study with secondary data (Hospital Information System of the National Unified Health System, E- manager for primary care and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure associations. Results: 176,330 hospitalizations for sensitive conditions were recorded, totaling 8 main ones, corresponding to 78.5% of the total. A significant inverse correlation was obtained between primary care coverage and hospitalizations for sensitive conditions: r=-0.86, (95%CI: -0.91/-0.61); p<0.001, as well as a moderate correlation with community agent coverage and hospitalizations (r=-0.59 (95%CI: -0.68/-0.54); p<0.001) Conclusion: The increase in hospitalizations for sensitive conditions is directly associated to the primary care coverage. In addition, there is a double burden of disease, with infectious/parasitic diseases coexisting with chronic ones.

Evaluar las tendencias y asociaciones relacionadas con la cobertura y hospitalizaciones por condiciones sensibles a la atención primaria de salud en la ciudad de Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil de 2015 a 2021. Métodos: Estudio transversal con datos secundarios (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde, E-gestor atenção básica e Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). Se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para las asociaciones. Resultados: Hubo 176.330 hospitalizaciones por condiciones sensibles, totalizando 8 condiciones principales, correspondiendo a 78,5% del total. Se obtuvo una correlación inversa significativa entre la cobertura de atención primaria y las hospitalizaciones por afecciones sensibles: r=- 0,86, (IC 95%: -0,91/-0,61); p<0,001, así como una correlación moderada con la cobertura de agentes comunitarios y las hospitalizaciones (r=-0,59 (IC 95%: -0,68/-0,54); p<0,001) Conclusión: El aumento de las hospitalizaciones por afecciones sensibles está directamente relacionado con la cobertura de atención primaria. Además, se enfrenta a una doble carga de enfermedad, coexistiendo enfermedades infecciosas/parasitarias en concomitancia con enfermedades crónicas.

Atención Primaria de Salud , Condiciones Sensibles a la Atención Ambulatoria , Hospitalización , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Sistemas de Información en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudio de Evaluación
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 41(9): 535-544, Nov. 2023. tab, ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-227268


Introducción: La constitución de la Red de Investigación en Sida (RIS) constituyó un hito para el impulso de la investigación sobre el VIH en España. Se analiza la investigación española en el área, evaluando específicamente el papel que ha desempeñado la RIS en la misma. Métodos: Se identificaron las publicaciones sobre VIH-sida con la participación de instituciones españolas en la Web of Science a lo largo del período 2010-2019, caracterizando bibliométricamente la actividad investigadora e identificando mediante un análisis de clústeres los ámbitos temáticos de investigación. Resultados: Se han identificado 3.960 documentos (promedio de 396 documentos/año), el 42% de los cuales han sido firmados en colaboración internacional. Los investigadores de la RIS han participado en el 60% de los documentos, presentando una producción científica y citación sensiblemente superior a los autores no vinculados a la misma. Cinco clústeres temáticos articulan la investigación, centrados en el abordaje clínico y terapéutico de las personas que viven con el VIH, la coinfección y la comorbilidad con otras enfermedades, la caracterización genética del virus, el desarrollo de vacunas y el estudio de su transmisión en colectivos específicos o asociado a las conductas sexuales. Conclusión: La investigación española sobre el VIH, impulsada en gran medida por los grupos de la RIS ha alcanzado un estadio de madurez, con un notable incremento de la producción científica, la participación en redes cooperativas internacionales y un destacado impacto y visibilidad.(AU)

Introduction: The establishment of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (RIS) was a milestone for the promotion of HIV research in Spain. We analyse Spanish HIV research, assessing the role that RIS has played in it. Methods: We identified publications on HIV-aids with the participation of Spanish institutions in the Web of Science over the period 2010-2019, characterising research activity by means of bibliometrics and identifying the thematic areas of research through a cluster analysis. Results: A total of 3960 documents have been identified (average of 396 documents/year), 42% of which have been signed in international collaboration. RIS researchers have participated in 60% of the documents, presenting a scientific production and citation significantly higher than authors not linked to the RIS. Five thematic clusters articulate the research, focusing on the clinical and therapeutic approach to people living with HIV, co-infection and co-morbidity with other diseases, the genetic characterisation of the virus, the development of vaccines and the study of its transmission in specific groups or associated with sexual behaviour. Conclusion: Spanish HIV research, largely driven by RIS groups, has reached a stage of maturity, with a notable increase in scientific production, participation in international cooperative networks and an outstanding impact and visibility.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Bibliometría , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , España , Microbiología , Investigación
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 41(9): 549-558, Nov. 2023. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-227269


Introducción: La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) pediátrica es un cuadro grave con mortalidad significativa. La información en España es limitada y procede de series de casos de centros únicos. El objetivo fue describir la epidemiología, la clínica, la microbiología y los resultados de la EI pediátrica en Andalucía. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio descriptivo observacional retrospectivo multicéntrico de pacientes <18años con diagnóstico de EI en 6 hospitales andaluces durante el periodo 2008-2020. Resultados: Se identificaron 44 episodios de EI (41 pacientes) con mediana de edad de 103 meses (RIQ 37-150 meses). Las cardiopatías congénitas (CC) fueron el principal factor predisponente, presente en 34 casos (77%). Un total de 21 (48%) episodios de EI ocurrieron en pacientes con material protésico. Estos tuvieron una mayor tasa de CC (p=0,002) y disfunción orgánica (p=0,04) que aquellos con válvula nativa. La fiebre fue un síntoma prácticamente universal asociada con insuficiencia cardíaca en el 23% de los episodios. Staphylococcus aureus (25%), estafilococos coagulasa negativos (18%) y Streptococcus viridans (14%) fueron los microorganismos aislados con mayor frecuencia y tres (7%) pacientes portadores de catéter venoso central tuvieron una infección fúngica. Se observaron complicaciones tromboembólicas en el 30% de los episodios, y tuvieron requerimientos quirúrgicos el 48% de casos. La mortalidad fue del 9%. El material protésico y la PCR >140mg/l fueron predictores independientes de EI complicada. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos del estudio subrayan la elevada morbilidad de la EI pediátrica. La información generada podría favorecer la identificación de los perfiles epidemiológicos y clínicos de los niños con EI y formas complicadas.(AU)

Introduction: Paediatric infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious condition associated with significant mortality. Information in Spain is limited and comes from case series from single centres. The aim was to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, microbiology and outcome of paediatric IE in Andalusia. Patients and methods: Multi-centre descriptive observational retrospective study of patients <18years old with a diagnosis of IE who were admitted to six Andalusian hospitals during 2008-2020. Results: 44 episodes of IE (41 patients) with a median age of 103months (IQR 37-150 months) were identified. Congenital heart disease (CHD) was the main predisposing factor, identified in 34 cases (77%). A total of 21 (48%) episodes of IE occurred in patients with prosthetic material. These had higher rate of CHD (P=.002) and increased end organ dysfunction (P=.04) compared to those with native valve. Fever was an almost universal symptom, associated in 23% of the episodes with heart failure. Staphylococcus aureus (25%) followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (18%) and Streptococcus viridans (14%) were the most frequently isolated microorganisms, and three (7%) patients with central venous catheters had a fungal infection. Thromboembolic events were observed in 30% of the episodes, surgical intervention was required in 48% of cases. Mortality rate was 9%. Prosthetic material and CRP >140mg/L were independent predictors of complicated IE. Conclusions: Our findings emphasise the high morbidity of paediatric IE. The information provided could be useful for the identification of epidemiological and clinical profiles of children with IE and complicated forms.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Endocarditis/epidemiología , Pediatría , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Endocarditis/microbiología , España , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Retrospectivos
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 41(9): 545-548, Nov. 2023. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-227270


Background: Psittacosis is a relatively uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia, often leading to diagnostic difficulty.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on the clinical features of psittacosis patients in China. Forty-six cases of Chlamydophila psittaci infection with atypical pneumonia of varying severity in the last two years were described retrospectively.Results: Fever, relative bradycardia, and other systemic upsets were the main clinical presentation. The most common radiographic abnormality was segmental or lobar shadowing or consolidation. The total white cell counts were usually normal or slightly increased. The concentration of creatine kinase, C reactive protein, and lactic dehydrogenase increased, while albumin decreased remarkably. These cases exhibited good recovery after being treated with tetracycline or quinolone antibiotics.Conclusion: These features may help differentiate psittacosis from other traditional bacterial pneumonia. However, they do not provide a definitive diagnosis. Psittacosis diagnosis must perform the whole-genome sequencing for Chlamydophila psittaci in respiratory, blood, or sputum specimens. Increased awareness of psittacosis can shorten diagnostic delays and improve patient outcomes.(AU)

Antecedentes: La psitacosis es una causa relativamente poco común de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, y a menudo conduce a dificultades diagnósticas.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo sobre las características clínicas de los pacientes con psitacosis en China, en el que se describen retrospectivamente 46 casos de infección por Chlamydia psittaci con neumonía atípica de gravedad variable en los últimos dos años.Resultados: La fiebre, la bradicardia relativa y otros trastornos sistémicos fueron la presentación clínica principal. La anomalía radiográfica más común fue el sombreado o consolidación segmentaria o lobular. Los recuentos totales de glóbulos blancos fueron generalmente normales o ligeramente aumentados. Las concentraciones de creatina quinasa, proteína C reactiva y deshidrogenasa láctica aumentaron, mientras que la albúmina disminuyó notablemente. Estos casos mostraron una buena recuperación después de ser tratados con antibióticos de tetraciclina o quinolona.Conclusión: Estas características pueden ayudar a diferenciar la psitacosis de otras neumonías bacterianas tradicionales. Sin embargo, no proporcionan un diagnóstico definitivo. El diagnóstico de psitacosis debe realizar la secuenciación del genoma completo de Chlamydia psittaci en muestras respiratorias, sanguíneas o de esputo. Una mayor conciencia de la psitacosis puede acortar los retrasos en el diagnóstico y mejorar los resultados de los pacientes.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Psitacosis/microbiología , Neumonía Asociada a la Atención Médica , Chlamydophila psittaci , Bradicardia , Microbiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Psitacosis/diagnóstico , China
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 41(9): 563-566, Nov. 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-227272


Introduction: Pleural empyema is an infrequent manifestation of extraintestinal Clostridioidesdifficile infection, with just eight cases reported in literature. Methods: We report a new case in a 70-year-old male without comorbidities or evidence of concomitant gastrointestinal disease, and review the previous cases reported in the literature. Results: The isolate was susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and was negative for A+B toxins. The patient fully recovered after drainages and antimicrobial therapy with amoxicillin–clavulanate and doxycycline. Conclusion: As in the previously reported cases, aspiration was the most plausible hypothesis of mechanism of infection in our patient. Empyema by Clostridioidesdifficile is a diagnostic challenge, since it is necessary to rule out that the isolation of this microorganism in pleural fluid is not a contamination. Furthermore, more evidence is needed for its treatment since data regarding this entity are still scarce.(AU)

Introducción: El empiema pleural es una manifestación infrecuente de la infección extraintestinal por Clostridioidesdifficile, con sólo ocho casos reportados en la literatura. Métodos: Documentamos un nuevo caso de un varón de 70 años sin comorbilidades ni evidencia de enfermedad gastrointestinal concomitante y revisamos los casos previamente descritos en la literatura. Resultados: El aislado fue sensible a todos los antibióticos testados y fue negativo para las toxinas A+B. El paciente se recuperó totalmente tras la realización de drenajes y terapia antimicrobiana con amoxicilina-clavulánico y doxiciclina. Conclusión: Al igual que en los casos previamente documentados, la broncoaspiración fue la hipótesis más plausible del mecanismo de infección en nuestro paciente. El empiema por Clostridioidesdifficile constituye un reto diagnóstico, ya que es necesario descartar que su aislamiento en líquido pleural no se deba a una contaminación. Además, se necesita más evidencia científica para el tratamiento de esta entidad, ya que los datos sobre la misma aún son escasos.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Doxiciclina/administración & dosificación , Drenaje , Combinación Amoxicilina-Clavulanato de Potasio , Antiinfecciosos , Empiema Pleural/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Asfixia , Pacientes Internos , Examen Físico , España , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Radiografía Torácica