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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-22. (OPS/CDE/VT/20-0038).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52918

RESUMEN

La enfermedad de Chagas o tripanosomiasis americana es una parasitosis sistémica cuya transmisión vectorial se limita a la Región de las Américas. Sin embargo, puede llegar a convertirse en un problema de salud de alcance global a través de sus modalidades de transmisión transfusional y congénita, que se asocian a las migraciones de la población de áreas endémicas de riesgo. Los países endémicos han puesto en marcha numerosas medidas para reducir la prevalencia, la morbilidad, la mortalidad y el riesgo mediante las Iniciativas Subregionales de Prevención, Control y Atención de la Enfermedad de Chagas, con la colaboración de la Secretaría Técnica de la OPS. Sin embargo, aún queda mucho por abordar y por hacer.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas , Prevención y Mitigación , Zoonosis , Enfermedades Transmisibles
2.
Documento Oficial;361
Monografía en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52904

RESUMEN

A los Estados Miembros: De conformidad con la Constitución de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, tengo el honor de presentar el informe anual correspondiente al 2020 sobre la labor de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para las Américas. En este informe se pone de relieve la cooperación técnica proporcionada por la Oficina durante el período de julio del 2019 a junio del 2020, en el marco del Plan Estratégico de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud 2014-2019, definido por los Cuerpos Directivos y modificado por la 29.a Conferencia Sanitaria Panamericana en el 2017, y del Plan Estratégico de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud 2020-2025, definido y aprobado por los Cuerpos Directivos. Este informe se complementa con el Informe Financiero del Director e Informe del Auditor Externo correspondientes al 2019. Carissa F. Etienne - Directora, Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Internacional , Cooperación Técnica , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Prioridades en Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Pandemias , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Cobertura Universal de Salud
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-16.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52852

RESUMEN

To the Member States: In accordance with the Constitution of the Pan American Health Organization, I have the honor to present the 2020 annual report on the work of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization. This report highlights the technical cooperation undertaken by the Bureau during the period July 2019 through June 2020, within the framework of the 2014–2019 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined by its Governing Bodies and amended by the Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2017, and the 2020–2025 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined and approved by the Governing Bodies. This report is complemented by the Financial Report of the Director and the Report of the External Auditor for the year 2019. Carissa F. Etienne - Director, Pan American Health Organization.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Cooperación Internacional , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Urgencias Médicas , Servicios de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Uso de la Información Científica en la Toma de Decisiones en Salud , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Américas
4.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2020-10-14. (OPAS/CDE/VT/20-0035).
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52840

RESUMEN

A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, em parceria com os Centros de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças dos Estados Unidos, iniciou um trabalho colaborativo em 2016 com delegados do Brasil, México e Paraguai com vistas a transferir capacidades para realizar a vigilância sorológica integrada da imunidade populacional e transmissão de várias doenças infecciosas usando a tecnologia de ensaio de micro-esferas multiplex (MBA, do inglês multiplex bead assay). Este ensaio permite a análise do perfil de anticorpos para até 96 antígenos de vários agentes patogênicos na mesma amostra de sangue seco. A vigilância sorológica, ou sorovigilância, é uma ferramenta cada vez mais utilizada por sua capacidade de gerar informações que auxiliem na caracterização da transmissão de doenças, no monitoramento do impacto de intervenções como a vacinação e, por exemplo, para identificar populações suscetíveis. A iniciativa tem sido um processo de aprendizagem por meio do trabalho interprogramático para desenvolver a vigilância sorológica integrada de múltiplos agravos que costumam ser tratados de maneira programaticamente separada, mas que na realidade se sobrepõem nos mesmos grupos populacionais e áreas geográficas. Este documento apresenta os resultados do terceiro encontro regional, realizado na cidade de Cuernavaca (México) nos dias 3 e 4 de março de 2020, com delegados dos países participantes da iniciativa, parceiros e aliados interessados. Esta publicação destaca as lições aprendidas na primeira fase de transferência de capacidades, oportunidades e próximos passos para expandir a vigilância sorológica integrada na Região das Américas como uma ferramenta para fortalecer a vigilância de doenças transmissíveis.


Asunto(s)
Epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Servicios de Vigilancia Epidemiológica , Vigilancia , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Desatendidas
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-14. (PAHO/CDE/VT/20-0035).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52839

RESUMEN

In 2016, the Pan American Health Organization, in partnership with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, began a collaborative effort with delegates from Brazil, Mexico, and Paraguay aimed at transferring technical capacity for integrated serological surveillance of population immunity and transmission of multiple infectious diseases, using the multiplex bead assay (MBA) platform. MBA makes it possible to analyze the antibodies of up to 96 antigens of various pathogens in a single dried-spot blood sample. Serological surveillance is being increasingly used for its ability to generate information that helps characterize disease transmission and monitor the impact of interventions such as vaccination, and to identify susceptible populations. This initiative has served as a learning process based on interprogrammatic work to develop integrated serological surveillance of various diseases and events that are often addressed separately from a programmatic standpoint, but which in reality overlap in the same population groups and geographical areas. This document presents the results of the third regional meeting, held in the city of Cuernavaca, Mexico, on 4-5 March 2020, and attended by delegates from the participating countries, partners, and stakeholders. This publication highlights the lessons learned during the first stage of capacity transfer, and discusses opportunities and next steps to expand integrated serological surveillance in the Region of the Americas as a tool for strengthening surveillance of communicable diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Américas , Pruebas Serológicas , Vigilancia , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Epidemiología , Servicios de Vigilancia Epidemiológica , Betacoronavirus
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-05. (OPS/CDE/VT/20-0035).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52798

RESUMEN

La Organización Panamericana de la Salud, en alianza con los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades de Estados Unidos de América, inició un trabajo colaborativo en el 2016 con delegados de Brasil, México y Paraguay, con vistas a transferir capacidades para realizar la vigilancia serológica integrada de la inmunidad poblacional y de la transmisión de múltiples enfermedades infecciosas usando el ensayo de perlas múltiples denominado multiplex bead assay (MBA). Este ensayo permite analizar el perfil de anticuerpos para hasta 96 antígenos de diversos patógenos en una misma muestra de sangre seca. La vigilancia serológica o serovigilancia es una herramienta cada vez más utilizada por su capacidad de generar información que ayuda a caracterizar la transmisión de las enfermedades y a monitorear el impacto de intervenciones como la vacunación y en la que se puede, por ejemplo, identificar población susceptible. La iniciativa ha sido un proceso de aprendizaje a través del trabajo interprogramático para desarrollar la vigilancia serológica integrada de diversas enfermedades y eventos que suelen estar programáticamente separados, pero que en la realidad se superponen en los mismos grupos de población y zonas geográficas. En este documento se presentan los resultados de la tercera reunión regional, celebrada en la ciudad de Cuernavaca (México) el 3 y 4 de marzo del 2020, con delegados de los países participantes en la iniciativa, socios y aliados interesados. En esta publicación se destacan las lecciones aprendidas en la primera fase de transferencia de capacidades, las oportunidades y los próximos pasos para expandir la vigilancia serológica integrada en la Región de las Américas como una herramienta para fortalecer la vigilancia de las enfermedades transmisibles.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Epidemiología , Vigilancia , Servicios de Vigilancia Epidemiológica , Betacoronavirus
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-01. (OPS-W/CDE/HT/20-0036).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52783

RESUMEN

[Extracto]. La carga de morbilidad y mortalidad asociada con la infección por el VIH ha disminuido a lo largo de los últimos diez años a medida que ha aumentado el acceso al tratamiento antirretroviral. A pesar de este progreso, casi la mitad de las personas con infección por el VIH inician su atención con un cuadro avanzado y muchas siguen muriendo por infecciones oportunistas relacionadas con el VIH. La meningitis criptocócica es una infección oportunista grave que constituye una causa primordial de morbilidad y mortalidad en las personas con infección avanzada por el VIH, y representa cerca del 15% de todas las muertes relacionadas con el sida a nivel mundial. Se estima que, cada año, unos 223.100 casos de meningitis criptocócica causan 181.000 defunciones de personas con infección por el VIH. La criptococosis es poco común en los niños con infección por el VIH, incluso en zonas geográficas con una elevada morbilidad en adultos. [...]


Asunto(s)
VIH , Tuberculosis , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Criptococosis
8.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 512-515, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048796

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has had a rapid dissemination. Departing from China, the virus has traveled all around the world. With the use of accurate mathematical models, the global spread of the disease was anticipated. Some additional information to these predictive models could be provided by the comparison of freely available maps depicting commercial air travel routes and disease spread. This analysis informs on what seems to be a direct relationship between the initially unequal worldwide distribution of the disease and the density of the commercial air traffic. This comparison may also help to identify international distributional hubs of the disease out of China. The observation of this easily accessible information may contribute to the understanding of COVID-19 spill over and help health control policies to better focus on the spread of this and other aggressively spreading respiratory infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Viaje en Avión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública
9.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 9017157, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029196

RESUMEN

This paper deals with the mathematical modeling and numerical simulations related to the coronavirus dynamics. A description is developed based on the framework of the susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed model. Initially, a model verification is carried out calibrating system parameters with data from China, Italy, Iran, and Brazil. Results show the model capability to predict infectious evolution. Afterward, numerical simulations are performed in order to analyze different scenarios of COVID-19 in Brazil. Results show the importance of the governmental and individual actions to control the number and the period of the critical situations related to the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Italia/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Informática en Salud Pública , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 625-635, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046914

RESUMEN

Livestock production systems and the societies in which they are embedded face a set of risks presented by infectious diseases and natural and human-made disasters which compromise animal health. Within this set, threats are posed by natural, deliberate and accidental actions that can cause sudden changes in animal health status, requiring the allocation of additional resources to manage animal health. Determining the benefit of preparing for such emergencies is a challenge when the total set of risks includes the unknown. Any method for analysing the economic costs and benefits of animal health emergencies must not only accommodate this uncertainty, but make it a central feature of the analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is a key approach to economically evaluating animal health interventions. However, the value of this approach in dealing with uncertainty is often called into question. This paper makes the case that, by restricting the outcomes of an emergency event to specified states of nature, boundaries can be placed on the uncertainty space, allowing cost-benefit analysis to be performed. This method, which merges state-contingent analysis with cost-benefit analysis, is presented here. Further discussion on the economic characteristics of emergency events, and the nature of the threats posed to animal health systems, is also provided.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Desastres , Animales , Enfermedades Transmisibles/veterinaria , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Urgencias Médicas/veterinaria , Humanos , Ganado
12.
Cell ; 183(2): 296-300, 2020 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064983

RESUMEN

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has revealed that Africa needs a new public health order to be resilient, to adapt, and to cope with 21st-century disease threats. The new order will need strengthened continental and national public health institutions; local manufacturing of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics; attraction, training, and retention of a public health workforce; and fostering of respectful local and international partnerships.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/terapia , Salud Pública , África , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles/diagnóstico , Empleos en Salud/educación , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Salud Pública/educación , Administración en Salud Pública
13.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1756-1760, 2020.
Artículo en Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055347

RESUMEN

The article presents the life and work of dr. Mieczyslaw Biernacki, a Polish doctor of medicine, freemason, social, economic and political activist unknown to the younger generation of Polish doctors, who was born in 1862, Throughout his life, he actively worked to raise the level of education and health of Lublin's inhabitants. He held managerial positions in numerous associations, economic institutions, local government and political organizations. Above all, he was a doctor who effectively fought against infectious diseases, venereal diseases and tuberculosis. As an editor and publicist, he took the floor by writing on medical, economic and literary subjects. He died in 1948, at the age of eighty-eight.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Médicos , Enfermedades Transmisibles/terapia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Polonia , Política
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201829, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933442

RESUMEN

Annual migration is common across animal taxa and can dramatically shape the spatial and temporal patterns of infectious disease. Although migration can decrease infection prevalence in some contexts, these energetically costly long-distance movements can also have immunosuppressive effects that may interact with transmission processes in complex ways. Here, we develop a mechanistic model for the reactivation of latent infections driven by physiological changes or energetic costs associated with migration (i.e. 'migratory relapse') and its effects on disease dynamics. We determine conditions under which migratory relapse can amplify or reduce infection prevalence across pathogen and host traits (e.g. infectious periods, virulence, overwinter survival, timing of relapse) and transmission phenologies. We show that relapse at either the start or end of migration can dramatically increase prevalence across the annual cycle and may be crucial for maintaining pathogens with low transmissibility and short infectious periods in migratory populations. Conversely, relapse at the start of migration can reduce the prevalence of highly virulent pathogens by amplifying culling of infected hosts during costly migration, especially for highly transmissible pathogens and those transmitted during migration or the breeding season. Our study provides a mechanistic foundation for understanding the spatio-temporal patterns of relapsing infections in migratory hosts, with implications for zoonotic surveillance and understanding how infection patterns will respond to shifts in migratory propensity associated with environmental change. Further, our work suggests incorporating within-host processes into population-level models of pathogen transmission may be crucial for reconciling the range of migration-infection relationships observed across migratory species.


Asunto(s)
Migración Animal/fisiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Animales , Dinámica Poblacional , Prevalencia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239234, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931509

RESUMEN

Effective and culturally appropriate hand-hygiene education is essential to promote health-related practices to control and prevent diseases such as Diarrhoea, Ebola and COVID-19. In this paper we outline and evaluate the Co-Creation processes underpinning a handwashing intervention for young children (A Germ's Journey) developed and delivered in India, Sierra Leone and the UK, and consider the implications surrounding Imperialist/Colonial discourse and the White Saviour Complex. The paper focuses both on the ways Co-Creation was conceptualised by our collaborators in all three countries and the catalysts and challenges encountered. Qualitative data have been drawn from in-depth interviews with five key stakeholders, focus group data from 37 teachers in Sierra Leone and responses to open-ended questionnaires completed by teachers in India (N = 66) and UK (N = 63). Data were analysed using thematic analysis and three themes, each with three constituent subthemes are presented. In the theme 'Representations of and Unique Approaches to Co-Creation' we explore the ways in which Co-Creation was constructed in relation to teamwork, innovative practice and more continuous models of evaluation. In 'Advantages of Co-Creation' we consider issues around shared ownership, improved outcomes and more meaningful insights alongside the mitigation of risks and short-circuiting of problems. In 'Challenges of Co-Creation' we discuss issues around timing and organisation, attracting and working with appropriate partners and understanding the importance of local context with inherent social, economic and structural barriers, especially in low-and-middle-income countries. We consider how theoretical elements of Co-Creation can inform effective international public health interventions; crucial during a global pandemic in which handwashing is the most effective method to control the transmission of COVID-19. Finally we reflect on some of the methodological challenges of our own work and in managing the potentially conflicting goals of the ethical and participatory values of Co-Creation with pragmatic considerations about ensuring an effective final 'product'.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Higiene de las Manos , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Enfermedades Transmisibles/patología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Grupos Focales , Humanos , India , Entrevistas como Asunto , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Maestros/psicología , Sierra Leona , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido
18.
J Chem Phys ; 153(11): 114119, 2020 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962383

RESUMEN

The complexity associated with an epidemic defies any quantitatively reliable predictive theoretical scheme. Here, we pursue a generalized mathematical model and cellular automata simulations to study the dynamics of infectious diseases and apply it in the context of the COVID-19 spread. Our model is inspired by the theory of coupled chemical reactions to treat multiple parallel reaction pathways. We essentially ask the question: how hard could the time evolution toward the desired herd immunity (HI) be on the lives of people? We demonstrate that the answer to this question requires the study of two implicit functions, which are determined by several rate constants, which are time-dependent themselves. Implementation of different strategies to counter the spread of the disease requires a certain degree of a quantitative understanding of the time-dependence of the outcome. Here, we compartmentalize the susceptible population into two categories, (i) vulnerables and (ii) resilients (including asymptomatic carriers), and study the dynamical evolution of the disease progression. We obtain the relative fatality of these two sub-categories as a function of the percentages of the vulnerable and resilient population and the complex dependence on the rate of attainment of herd immunity. We attempt to study and quantify possible adverse effects of the progression rate of the epidemic on the recovery rates of vulnerables, in the course of attaining HI. We find the important result that slower attainment of the HI is relatively less fatal. However, slower progress toward HI could be complicated by many intervening factors.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/inmunología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/patología , Inmunidad Colectiva , Modelos Teóricos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Probabilidad , Procesos Estocásticos
19.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200900. 10 p.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1118684

RESUMEN

El documento contiene los lineamientos para los estudios de validación de procedimientos diagnósticos del virus SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Técnicas y Procedimientos Diagnósticos , Virus del SRAS
20.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200900. 27 p.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1118679

RESUMEN

El documento contiene los criterios de calidad, seguridad y eficiencia de vacunas en investigación, destinadas a la prevención de enfermedades infecciosas.


Asunto(s)
Investigación , Seguridad , Vacunas , Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Eficiencia , Prevención de Enfermedades , Normas Técnicas
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