Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.264
Filtrar
1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 144, 2021 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865447

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance among Shigella species isolated from food and stool samples. Using cross sectional study method, Shigella spp. were isolated from food and clinical samples using culture-based, biochemical and serological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relatedness among the isolates were evaluated using disk diffusion and RAPD-PCR methods respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of Shigella spp. were 4.84 and 7.7% in food and stool samples respectively. All food isolates were Sh. sonnei. 91.42% of the Shigella stool isolates were Sh. sonnei. 62.5% of food isolates were resistant to tetracycline. 46.8, 50 and 65.8% of clinical isolates were resistant to imipenem, amikacin and azithromycin respectively. 50 and 85.7% of the food and clinical isolates respectively were MDR. Dendrogram generated by RAPD-PCR showed that the isolates from food and stool samples were categorized in a same group. Close genetic relatedness between MDR Shigella isolates from food and clinical samples indicate that foods can be considered as one of the main vehicles for transmission of MDR Shigella to human causing acute diseases. Survey of MDR Shigella among food and clinical samples is strongly suggested to be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Disentería/tratamiento farmacológico , Heces/microbiología , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/métodos , Shigella/efectos de los fármacos , Shigella/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/microbiología , Disentería/epidemiología , Disentería/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Técnica del ADN Polimorfo Amplificado Aleatorio , Shigella/genética
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109152, 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725529

RESUMEN

Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a promising method with multiple targets to inactivate bacteria on food using visible light. Inactivation potency of the curcumin-mediated blue light-emitting diode (LED) PDI against the pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus on cooked oysters and its effects on the storage quality were investigated by the microbiological, physical, chemical and histological methods during storage at 4 °C, 10 °C and 25 °C. Results showed that the PDI treatment obviously inhibited the recovery of V. parahaemolyticus on oysters during storage, and the maximal difference attained >1.0 Log10 CFU/g (> 90%) compared to control stored at 10 °C and 25 °C. Meanwhile, it displayed a potent ability (p < 0.05) to restrain the decrease of pH values, reduce the production of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), suppress the lipids oxidation, as well as retard the changes of color difference of the oysters. In addition, the PDI effectively maintained the integrity and initial attachments of muscle fibers, and hence decreased the loss of water in myofibrillar space and the texture softening of oysters during storage. On this basis, this study facilitates the understanding of the potency of bacterial inactivation and food preservation of PDI, and hence pave the way for its application in food industry.


Asunto(s)
Curcumina/farmacología , Desinfección/métodos , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Ostreidae/microbiología , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Culinaria , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Almacenamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Luz , Alimentos Marinos/microbiología , Temperatura
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109150, 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735782

RESUMEN

Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglycerol ester of the fatty lauric acids, which has a wide-spectrum antimicrobial capacity, but fails to inactivate Gram-negative bacteria, especial Salmonella. To enhance the population reduction rate of GML for Salmonella, this reagent was combined with three disinfectants: lactic acid (LA), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and trisodium phosphate (TSP), which can present acid, neutral, and alkaline in solution, respectively. The results showed that the 1% GML and a complex disinfectant (0.5% GML-0.025% LA) could powerfully inactivate Salmonella. Their population reduction rates respectively were able to achieve 99.92% and 98.29% with the vortex treatment, indicating that the vortex treatment could improve GML to destruct the outer membrane of Salmonella. During the simulation test of the soaking and rinse processing of chicken, for a short time (0 h), the effect of 0.5% GML-0.025% LA compound was better and more suitable for instantaneous inactivation than others, while for a long time (4 h), 1% GML exhibited a better bactericidal effect, which indicated it to be more suitable for long-term bacteriostasis. The characterization of color and texture for chicken samples were determined using Colormeter Ci7600, TA.XT Plus and Hyper-spectral Imager, which demonstrated that all samples treated by these complex disinfectants were not significantly different from untreated group. In conclusion, GML is a potential and superior disinfectant for the chicken process.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes/farmacología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Lauratos/farmacología , Monoglicéridos/farmacología , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Cetilpiridinio/farmacología , Pollos/microbiología , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/farmacología , Fosfatos/farmacología
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 343: 109106, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640573

RESUMEN

The present study evaluated the effect of yogurt-based marinade combined with active essential oil components (EOs) namely: thymol (TH), carvacrol (CA), and cinnamaldehyde (CI) on Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in camel meat (CM) chunks during storage at 4 and 10 °C. Fresh cocktail mixtures of L.monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. strains were inoculated on CM samples. Subsequently, a yogurt-based marinade, with or without 1% or 2% of the added EOs, was mixed with the CM chunks. After treatment, marinated camel samples were stored at 4 and 10 °C for 0, 1, 4 and 7 days. Adding yogurt-based marinade to the CM samples did not cause any significant changes in L.monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. numbers at 4 °C, but at 10 °C resulted in a significant decrease in numbers on day 4 and 7 of storage by 1.4-1.5; 2.7-2.1 and 2.5-2.8 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to untreated CM samples. The incorporation of EOs into the CM with marination (CMM) further enhanced the microbial reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. At 10 °C, the synergistic effect of EOs with marinade was greater than at 4 °C. Increasing the concentration of the EOs used in this study from 1% to 2%, enhanced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. reduction during storage at 4 and 10 °C while L.monocytogenes numbers were not affected. Increasing active EO component concentrations to 2% caused further significant reductions in Salmonella spp. in the CMM samples during storage by 1.0-2.7 log CFU/g (P ˂ 0.05) at 4 and 10 °C. At 10 °C, increasing the concentration of CI and TH to 2% caused a further reduction (P ˂ 0.05) of E. coli O157:H7 numbers by days 4 and 7 in the range of 3.6-4.4 log CFU/g. Among all tested EOs, 2% TH and 2% CI had the greatest effect against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in CMM during storage at 4 and 10 °C. In comparison to CMM, the highest scores of all examined sensory attributes were found in CMM samples with 1% and 2% CI added. Results indicate that the EO component CI can be used as an effective tool to decrease populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in CM with minor sensory changes.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Almacenamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Yogur , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Camelus , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Productos de la Carne/análisis , Aceites Volátiles/análisis , Yogur/análisis
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 343: 109091, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639477

RESUMEN

This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance determinants, virulence factors and identified serovars in 37 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from human stool and contaminated foods linked to outbreaks that occurred in Brazil over 7 years using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Phylogenetic analysis of selected serovars (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. London, and S. Johannesburg) was performed. Ten distinct serovars were identified and, 51% of the tested strains (n = 19) showed disagreement with the previous conventional serotyping. The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants or plasmids varied among the strains. Resistome analysis revealed the presence of resistance genes to aminoglycosides [aac (6')-laa, aph (3″)-lb, aph (6)-ld, aadA1 and aadA2], sulfonamides (sul1), trimethoprin (dfrA8), fosfomycin (fosA7) and tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC), as well as point mutations in parC (T57S) and gyrA (S83F). Plasmidome showed the presence of IncHI2, IncHI2A, IncFIB (S), IncFII (S), IncI1 and p0111 plasmids. Eight Salmonella pathogenicity islands and up to 102 stress and/or virulence genes were identified in the evaluated genomes. Virulence genes of K88 fimbrial adhesin were first reported in S. enterica (S. Pomona, S. Bredeney and S. Mbandaka strains). pilW gene was first identified in S. Pomona. Phylogenetic analysis showed that some serovars circulated in Brazil for decades, primarily within the poultry production chain. Findings highlighted the virulence and AMR determinants in strains that may lead to recurring food outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Salmonella enterica/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella enterica/genética , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Adhesinas Bacterianas/genética , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Brasil , Heces/microbiología , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Islas Genómicas/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Plásmidos/genética , Aves de Corral/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidad , Serotipificación , Virulencia/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 342: 109075, 2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550153

RESUMEN

In many countries campylobacteriosis ranks as one of the most frequently reported foodborne illnesses and poultry is the commodity that is most often associated with these illnesses. Nevertheless, efforts to reduce the occurrence of pathogen contamination on poultry are often more focused on Salmonella. While some control measures are pathogen specific, such as pre-harvest vaccination for Salmonella, improvements in sanitary dressing and interventions applied during the slaughter process can be effective against all forms of microbial contamination. To investigate the potential effectiveness of these non-specific pathogen reduction strategies in the United States, it is helpful to assess if, and by how much, Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat has changed across time. This study assesses change considering data collected in both slaughter and retail establishments and comparing observed trends in contamination with trends in human surveillance data. The results support the assertion that substantial reductions in Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat in the late 1990s and early 2000s contributed to a reduction in the human case rate of campylobacteriosis. Further reductions in chicken meat contamination between 2013 and 2018 are more difficult to associate with trends in human illnesses, with one contributing factor being the inclusion of culture independent diagnostic test results in the official case counts during that time. Other contributing factors are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Campylobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Contaminación de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Productos Avícolas/microbiología , Animales , Infecciones por Campylobacter/prevención & control , Pollos , Contaminación de Alimentos/prevención & control , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-02-19.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53292

RESUMEN

La evaluación de riesgos caracteriza la exposición humana a un peligro y estima la probabilidad de que se produzcan efetos adversos para la salud. Puede utilizarse para examinar el efecto adverso de sustancias añadidas de manera deliberada a los alimentos (por ejemplo, aditivos alimentarios, productos químicos agrícolas o veterinarios) y sustancias que se encuentran de forma inadvertida en los alimentos (por ejemplo, contaminantes ambientales, toxinas naturales o microorganismos patógenos), así como el impacto de las nuevas tecnologías. La evaluación de riesgos es uno de los componentes principales del análisis de riesgos, en el que deben basarse las políticas de inocuidad alimentaria: evaluación de riesgos (asesoramiento científico y análisis de datos), gestión del riesgo (reglamentación y control) y comunicación del riesgo. Las decisiones relativas a la gestión del riesgo dependen de los resultados de las evaluaciones de riesgo, aunque también pueden considerar la importancia del riesgo para salud pública y los costos técnicos, económicos y sociales. Este manual abarca las definiciones y principios del análisis de riesgos; los pasos que se han de seguir para incorporarlo en las políticas públicas; los fundamentos, las etapas y la información necesaria para una evaluación de riesgos microbiológicos; y la metodología para realizar una evaluación cuantitativa de riesgos. Por último, incluye varios ejemplos y las principales herramientas y programas en línea para construir un modelo cuantitativo de riesgos. Está dirigido a profesionales de la alimentación con conocimientos básicos en microbiología y evaluación de riesgos, evaluadores de riesgos, gestores de riesgos, epidemiólogos, legisladores, científicos y responsables de la toma de decisiones.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Aftosa , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Toxicología , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 940-953, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605364

RESUMEN

Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos , Bacterias , Diarrea , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Pakistán/epidemiología
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24424, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592891

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Foodborne pathogens cause diseases and death, increasing the economic burden. It needs to identify incident places, media food and pathgens. Our aim is to survey empirical data that provide a retrospective historical perspective on foodborne diseases and explore the causes and trends of outbreaks.We examined publicly available annual summary data on reported foodborne disease outbreaks in Taiwan from 2014 to 2018. We calculated the percentage of places, media food, bacteria and natural toxin sources in foodborne diseases and performed a chi-square test for difference evaluation. The higher risk of places and causes in 2018 compared with 2014 was empolyzed with univariate logistic regression.There were 26847 patients with foodborne diseases during the period from 2014 to 2018. The top 2 primary source locations of the foodborne diseases were schools and restaurants. The top 2 primary food media classifications of the foodborne diseases were boxed meals and compounded foods. The top 2 primary incident bacterial classifications of the observed foodborne diseases were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The top 2 primary natural toxin classifications of the foodborne diseases were plants and histamines. The incidence of foodborne disease in military facilities, fruits and vegetables, and Staphylococcus aureus was increased in our study.Our study confirmed the high risk and increased incidence of foodborne diseases, food media classifications, bacterial classifications, and natural toxins in Taiwan. It is worthy of attention for the government health department-designed policy to promote disease prevention.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Bacillus cereus , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/etiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Staphylococcus aureus , Taiwán/epidemiología
10.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467103

RESUMEN

Trichothecene mycotoxins are sesquiterpenoid compounds primarily produced by fungi in taxonomical genera such as Fusarium, Myrothecium, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, and others, under specific climatic conditions on a worldwide basis. Fusarium mold is a major plant pathogen and produces a number of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (or vomitoxin), nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, and T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin. Monogastrics are sensitive to vomitoxin, while poultry and ruminants appear to be less sensitive to some trichothecenes through microbial metabolism of trichothecenes in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichothecene mycotoxins occur worldwide however both total concentrations and the particular mix of toxins present vary with environmental conditions. Proper agricultural practices such as avoiding late harvests, removing overwintered stubble from fields, and avoiding a corn/wheat rotation that favors Fusarium growth in residue can reduce trichothecene contamination of grains. Due to the vague nature of toxic effects attributed to low concentrations of trichothecenes, a solid link between low level exposure and a specific trichothecene is difficult to establish. Multiple factors, such as nutrition, management, and environmental conditions impact animal health and need to be evaluated with the knowledge of the mycotoxin and concentrations known to cause adverse health effects. Future research evaluating the impact of low-level exposure on livestock may clarify the potential impact on immunity. Trichothecenes are rapidly excreted from animals, and residues in edible tissues, milk, or eggs are likely negligible. In chronic exposures to trichothecenes, once the contaminated feed is removed and exposure stopped, animals generally have an excellent prognosis for recovery. This review shows the occurrence of trichothecenes in food and feed in 2011-2020 and their toxic effects and provides a summary of the discussions on the potential public health concerns specifically related to trichothecenes residues in foods associated with the exposure of farm animals to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds and impact to human health. Moreover, the article discusses the methods of their detection.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Análisis de los Alimentos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos , Hongos Mitospóricos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tricotecenos/envenenamiento , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Alimentación Animal/microbiología , Animales , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/metabolismo , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/patología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Humanos
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475480

RESUMEN

Introduction. In May-June 2018, an outbreak of campylobacteriosis involved students and school staff from kindergartens and primary schools in Pescara, southern Italy.Aim. We present details of the epidemiological and microbiological investigation, and the findings of the analytical study, as well as the implemented control measures.Methodology. To identify possible risk factors associated with the observed outbreak, a case control study was conducted using a questionnaire to collect information on the date of symptoms onset, type and duration of symptoms, type of healthcare contact, school attendance, and food items consumed at school lunches during the presumed days of exposure. Attack rates were calculated for each date and school. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios of being a case and the odds of illness by food items consumed, respectively. Moreover, we carried out a comparative genomic analysis using whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated during the outbreak investigation to identify the source of the outbreak.Results. Overall, 222 probable cases from 21 schools were identified, and C. jejuni was successfully isolated from 60 patients. The meals in the schools involved were provided by two cooking centres managed by a joint venture between two food companies. Environmental and food sampling, epidemiological and microbiological analyses, as well as a case control study with 176 cases and 62 controls from the same schools were performed to identify the source of the outbreak. The highest attack rate was recorded among those having lunch at school on 29 May (7.8 %), and the most likely exposure was 'caciotta' cheese (odds ratio 2.40, 95 % confidence interval 1.10-5.26, P=0.028). C. jejuni was isolated from the cheese, and wgMLST showed that the human and cheese isolates belonged to the same genomic cluster, confirming that the cheese was the vehicle of the infection.Conclusion. It is plausible that a failure of the pasteurization process contributed to the contamination of the cheese batches. Timely suspension of the catering service and summer closure of the schools prevented further spread.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni/aislamiento & purificación , Queso/microbiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Adulto , Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/microbiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Pasteurización , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109031, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485138

RESUMEN

Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. It has been reported as the fourth leading cause of hospitalization and second leading cause of death among 31 major foodborne pathogens in the United States. Humans are infected through consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing T. gondii tissue cysts or ingestion of food, soil, or water contaminated by T. gondii oocysts. People often lack knowledge about how to prevent T. gondii infection, especially the risks associated with eating or handling raw or undercooked meat. Current available data on cooking or low temperature storage for whole cuts of meat are not sufficient to validate inactivation of T. gondii. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the relationship of time and temperature with the survival rate of T. gondii during cooking and low temperature storage of fresh cut meats. We used different statistical sampling techniques such as bootstrap resampling and Gibbs sampling to establish those relationships. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the safe temperature for cooking and storing meats. The results showed no detection of T. gondii in fresh meats when the internal temperature reached above 64 °C (147.2 °F) and below -18 °C (0 °F). The tissue cysts can remain viable at least up to 30 days at 4 °C (39 °F) and about 3.3% cysts survived at 62.8 °C (145 °F). This study can provide helpful information in improving the risk models to further mitigate the public health burden of toxoplasmosis.


Asunto(s)
Frío , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Calor , Carne/parasitología , Toxoplasma/crecimiento & desarrollo , Toxoplasmosis/prevención & control , Culinaria , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Humanos , Alimentos Crudos/parasitología , Tasa de Supervivencia , Toxoplasmosis/parasitología
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109068, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498009

RESUMEN

Raw vegetables are a key food for a healthy diet, but their increased consumption brings a higher risk for foodborne disease. Contamination of salad greens with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 has caused severe disease and important economic losses almost yearly in the United States over the last 10 years. To curb the risk of infections from contaminated produce, approaches based on bacterial virus - commonly known as bacteriophage or phage - have recently started to draw interest among other antimicrobial strategies. Phages enter bacterial cells to reproduce and cause cellular lysis to release their phage progeny at the end of their infection cycle. This lytic effect is caused by lysins, phage-encoded enzymes that have evolved to degrade the bacterial cell wall resulting in hypotonic lysis. When applied externally in their purified form, such enzymes are able to kill sensitive bacteria on contact in a similar way. Their unique bactericidal properties have made lysins effective antimicrobial agents in a variety of applications, from treating multidrug-resistant infections in humans to controlling bacterial contamination in several areas, including microbiological food safety. Here we describe a novel lysin, namely PlyEc2, with potent bactericidal activity against key gram-negative pathogens including E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas. PlyEc2 displayed high bactericidal activity against STEC to a concentration of 12.5 µg/ml under different pH conditions. This lysin was also able to reduce the bacterial titer of several pathogenic strains in vitro by more than 5 logarithmic units, resulting in complete sterilization. Importantly, PlyEc2 proved to be a powerful produce decontamination agent in its ability to clear 99.7% of contaminating STEC O157:H7 in our Romaine lettuce leaf model. PlyEc2 was also able to eradicate 99.8% of the bacteria contaminating the washing solution, drastically reducing the risk of cross-contamination during the washing process. A sensory evaluation panel found that treatment with PlyEc2 did not alter the visual and tactile quality of lettuce leaves compared to the untreated leaves. Our study is the first to describe a highly effective lysin treatment to control gram-negative pathogenic contamination on fresh lettuce without the addition of membrane destabilizing agents.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacteriófagos/enzimología , Escherichia coli O157/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Lechuga/microbiología , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Descontaminación/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidad de los Alimentos/métodos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Humanos , Alimentos Crudos/microbiología
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109069, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508582

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes has caused outbreaks of foodborne illness from apples in the USA, and is also a major issue for regulatory compliance worldwide. Due to apple's significance as an important export product from New Zealand, we aimed to determine the effect of long-term, low-temperature sea-freight from New Zealand to the USA (July) and Europe (March-April), two key New Zealand markets, on the survival and/or growth of L. monocytogenes on fresh apples. Temperature and humidity values were recorded during a shipment to each market (USA and Europe), then the observed variations around the 0.5 °C target temperature were simulated in laboratory trials using open ('Scired') and closed ('Royal Gala' for the USA and 'Cripps Pink' for Europe) calyx cultivars of apples inoculated with a cocktail of 107-108 cells of seven strains of L. monocytogenes. Samples were analysed for L. monocytogenes quantification at various intervals during the simulation and on each occasion, an extra set was analysed after a subsequent 8 days at 20 °C. When both the sea-freight simulations concluded, L. monocytogenes showed 5 log reductions on the equatorial surface of skin of apples, but only about 2.5 log reduction for USA and about 3.3 log reduction for Europe in the calyx. Cultivar type had no significant effect on the survival of L. monocytogenes for both sea-freight simulations, either in the calyx or on the skin (P > 0.05). Most of the reduction in the culturable cells on the skin occurred during the initial 2 weeks of the long-term storage simulations. There was also no significant difference in the reduction of L. monocytogenes at 0.5 or 20 °C. No correlation was observed between firmness or total soluble solids and survival of L. monocytogenes. Because the inoculated bacterial log reduction was lower in the calyx than on the skin, it is speculated that the risk of causing illness is higher if contaminated apple cores are eaten. The result suggested that the international sea-freight transportation does not result in the growth of L. monocytogenes irrespective of time and temperature. The results of this study provide useful insights into the survival of L. monocytogenes on different apple cultivars that can be used to develop effective risk mitigation strategies for fresh apples during long-term, low-temperature international sea-freight transportation.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Malus/microbiología , Refrigeración/métodos , Carga Bacteriana , Frío , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Europa (Continente) , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Nueva Zelanda
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109074, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508583

RESUMEN

Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common foodborne pathogens that cause human sickness mostly through the poultry food chain. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has excellent antibacterial ability against C. jejuni growth. This study investigated the antibacterial mechanism of CEO against C. jejuni primarily through metabolism, energy metabolism of essential enzymes (AKPase, ß-galactosidase, and ATPase), and respiration metabolism. Results showed that the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP) was inhibited, and that the enzyme activity of G6DPH substantially decreased upon treatment with CEO. Analysis of the effect of CEO on the expression of toxic genes was performed by the real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The expression levels of the toxic genes cadF, ciaB, fliA, and racR under CEO treatment were determined. Casein/CEO nanospheres were further prepared for the effective inhibition of C. jejuni and characterized by particle-size distribution, zeta-potential distribution, fluorescence, TEM, and GC-MS methods. Finally, the efficiency of CEO and casein/CEO nanospheres in terms of antibacterial activity against C. jejuni was verified. The casein/CEO nanospheres displayed high antibacterial activity on duck samples. The population of the test group decreased from 4.30 logCFU/g to 0.86 logCFU/g and 4.30 logCFU/g to 2.46 logCFU/g at 4 °C and at 25 °C for C. jejuni, respectively. Sensory evaluation and texture analysis were also conducted on various duck samples.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/veterinaria , Campylobacter jejuni/efectos de los fármacos , Caseínas/farmacología , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Animales , Infecciones por Campylobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Pollos/microbiología , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada/farmacología , Patos/microbiología , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Glucosafosfato Deshidrogenasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Humanos , Nanosferas , Vía de Pentosa Fosfato/efectos de los fármacos , Aves de Corral/microbiología
16.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418922

RESUMEN

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading causes of foodborne illnesses globally. The viral genome is the most essential information for viral source tracing and viral transmission pattern monitoring. However, whole genome sequencing of HuNoVs is still challenging due to the sequence heterogeneity among different genotypes and low titer in samples. To address this need, in this study, the Transposase assisted RNA/DNA hybrid Co-tagmentation (TRACE-seq) method was established for next generation sequencing library preparation of HuNoVs. Our data demonstrated that almost the whole HuNoVs genome (>7 kb) could be obtained from all of the 11 clinical samples tested. Twelve genotypes including GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GI.8, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.12, GII.13, GII.14, and GII.21 were involved. Compared with the traditional method for viral metagenomics library preparation, optimized TRACE-seq greatly reduced the interference from the host's and bacterial RNAs. In addition, viral genome sequences can be assembled by using less raw data with sufficient depth along the whole genome. Therefore, for the high versatility and reliability, this method is promising for whole viral genome attainment. It is particularly applicable for the viruses with a low titer that are mixed with a complicated host background and are unable to be cultured in vitro, like the HuNoVs utilized in this study.


Asunto(s)
Biblioteca de Genes , Genoma Viral , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Transposasas/genética , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/virología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/virología , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Metagenómica , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos
17.
J Food Prot ; 84(1): 73-79, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393619

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The lack of hygiene and sanitation practices and insufficient infrastructure in Cambodian informal markets may increase the risk of food contamination, specifically raw vegetables, which in turn may increase the chances of contracting a foodborne disease. The aims of this study in informal markets in Cambodia were (i) to quantify the prevalence of Salmonella enterica based upon differences in season of the year (rainy versus dry), surface types (food contact surfaces versus nonfood contact surfaces), and location of vendors within the market (inside versus outside) and (ii) to characterize S. enterica serotype prevalence. A total of 310 samples were screened for S. enterica prevalence following the U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines, and results were confirmed by PCR assay. Whole genome sequencing was used to determine the serotype for each isolate in silico using SeqSero 1.0 on draft genomes. A total of 78 samples were confirmed positive for S. enterica. During the dry season, S. enterica was more prevalent on food contact surfaces than on nonfood contact surfaces (estimated probability of detection [confidence interval]: 0.41 [0.25, 0.59] and 0.17 [0.08, 0.32], respectively; P = 0.002), but no differences were apparent in the rainy season. No differences in S. enterica prevalence were found based on location within the market (P = 0.61). Sixteen S. enterica serotypes were detected across multiple surfaces. The most common S. enterica serotypes were Rissen (18 isolates), Hvittingfoss (11), Corvallis (10), Krefeld (8), Weltevreden (6), and Altona (6). Accurate data on the prevalence of S. enterica in informal markets are crucial for the development of effective surveillance and implementation of suitable intervention strategies at the domestic level, thus preventing foodborne illness.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos , Salmonella enterica , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Cambodia , Humanos , Prevalencia
18.
Food Microbiol ; 95: 103709, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397626

RESUMEN

The ongoing pandemic involving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised the question whether this virus, which is known to be spread primarily though respiratory droplets, could be spread through the fecal-oral route or via contaminated food. In this article, we present a critical review of the literature exploring the potential foodborne transmission of several respiratory viruses including human coronaviruses, avian influenza virus (AVI), parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and Nipah virus. Multiple lines of evidence, including documented expression of receptor proteins on gastrointestinal epithelial cells, in vivo viral replication in gastrointestinal epithelial cell lines, extended fecal shedding of respiratory viruses, and the ability to remain infectious in food environments for extended periods of time raises the theoretical ability of some human respiratory viruses, particularly human coronaviruses and AVI, to spread via food. However, to date, neither epidemiological data nor case reports of clear foodborne transmission of either viruses exist. Thus, foodborne transmission of human respiratory viruses remains only a theoretical possibility.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/transmisión , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Animales , Aves , /virología , Heces/virología , Humanos , /aislamiento & purificación
19.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 949-962, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426572

RESUMEN

Foodborne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections are common neglected tropical diseases in Southeast Asia. Their complicated life cycles involve freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yen Bai and Thanh Hoa provinces in North and Central Vietnam, to investigate the diversity of cercariae of potential FZT and to construct the phylogenetic relationship of trematode cercariae based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) region. Among 17 snail species collected from various habitats, 13 were infected by 10 cercarial groups among which parapleurolophocercous, pleurolophocercous, and echinostome cercariae were of zoonotic importance. The monophyletic tree separated cercarial sequences into different groups following the description of the cercariae families in which Haplorchidae, Opisthorchiidae, Echinochasmidae, and Echinostomatidae are important families of FZT. The overall prevalence was different among snail species and habitats and showed a seasonal trend. Parapleurolophocercous and echinostome cercariae emerged as the most common cercariae in snails in Yen Bai, while monostome, echinostome, and megalura cercariae were most common in Thanh Hoa. Using a molecular approach, we identified Parafossarulus striatulus as the first intermediate snail host of Clonorchis sinensis in Thac Ba Lake. Melanoides tuberculata and Bithynia fuchsiana were we identified preferred intermediate snail hosts of a diverse range of trematode species including intestinal flukes (i.e., Haplorchis pumilio and Echinochasmus japonicus) in Yen Bai and Thanh Hoa, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Caracoles/parasitología , Trematodos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología , Zoonosis/parasitología , Animales , Cercarias/clasificación , Cercarias/genética , Cercarias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cercarias/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Transversales , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Agua Dulce/parasitología , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Caracoles/clasificación , Trematodos/clasificación , Trematodos/genética , Trematodos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infecciones por Trematodos/epidemiología , Vietnam/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(1): 160-168, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422858

RESUMEN

Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium related to food poisoning in humans. Vomit and diarrhea are the symptoms of foodborne B. cereus infection caused by emetic toxins and three enterotoxins, respectively. This bacterium is broadly present in soil and foods such as vegetables, spices, milk, and meat. The antibiotics impenem, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin are used for all susceptible strains of B. cereus. But these antibiotics cause side effects in the host due to the drug-host interaction; because the targeted proteins by the drugs are not pathogen specific proteins, they are similar to human proteins also. To overcome this problem, this study focused on identifying putative drug targets in the pathogen B. cereus and finding new drugs to inhibit the function of the pathogen. The identification of drug targets is a pipeline process, starting with the identification of targets non-homologous to human and gutmicrobiota proteins, finding essential proteins, finding other proteins that highly interact with these essential proteins that are also highly important for protein network stability, finding cytoplasmic proteins with a clear pathway and known molecular function, and finding non-druggable proteins. Through this process, two novel drug targets were identified in B. cereus. Among the various antibiotics, Gentamicin had showed good binding affinity with the identified novel targets through molecular modeling and docking studies using Prime and GLIDE module of Schrödinger. Hence, this study suggest that the identified novel drug targets may very useful in drug therapeutic field for finding inhibitors which are similar to Gentamicin and designing new formulation of drug molecules to control the function of the foodborne illness causing pathogen B. cereus.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Animales , Bacillus cereus , Microbiología de Alimentos , Humanos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Proteoma
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...