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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 338: 108994, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279788

RESUMEN

The use of Whole genome sequencing (WGS) identified a multi-country outbreak of human listeriosis associated with consumption of frozen sweet corn produced in Hungary. The purpose of this report was to summarise information on the cases occurring in the UK which were part of this outbreak and outline investigations on the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the affected food chain. Prior to the international recall of this product in 2018, 12 UK cases of listeriosis were identified as infected by the outbreak strain between 2015 and 18. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations confirmed these cases as belonging to the outbreak. A further case occurred in 2019 and a contaminated frozen pack from one of the implicated batches of sweet corn was recovered from the patient's domestic freezer. The outbreak strain was also detected in products from a sandwich manufacturer in 2018 which added frozen sweet corn directly to sandwich fillings. The sandwich manufacturer's sweet corn was supplied by a distributor in England which obtained frozen products from the Hungarian manufacturer implicated in the outbreak. Within the distributor's premises, 208 food and environmental samples were taken: L. monocytogenes was detected in 44% of 70 samples of frozen sweet corn and 5% of 79 other foods. The outbreak strain was detected in the frozen sweet corn, in one other frozen food (mixed vegetables) and in the factory environment. The outbreak strain was also recovered from frozen beans on retail sale in the first four months of 2019. Five other L. monocytogenes strains together with two other Listeria species were detected in samples from the importer's premises. One of the L. monocytogenes strains in the importer's factory, which was distinct from the outbreak strain, was also recovered from sweet corn collected from the sandwich manufacturer, sweet corn tested in England in 2013 and 2016 and the blood of two cases of human listeriosis which occurred in England in 2014. This report shows how analysis by WGS provides evidence to understand complex food chains. This report also highlights risks for transmission of human listeriosis from frozen sweet corn and the potential for misuse of this food as a ready-to-eat product.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Listeriosis/microbiología , Verduras/microbiología , Inglaterra , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Congelación , Humanos , Listeria , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Reino Unido , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zea mays/microbiología
2.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(1): 116-138, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008374

RESUMEN

Foodborne enteric viruses, in particular HuNoV and HAV, are the most common cause of the berry-linked viral diseases, and outbreaks around the world, and have become an important concern for health authorities. Despite the increased importance of berry fruits as a vehicle for foodborne viruses, there is limited information concerning the fate of foodborne viruses in the berry supply chain from farm to consumer. A comprehensive understanding of berry-associated viral outbreaks - with a focus on contamination sources, persistence, survival, and the effects of current postharvest and processing interventions and practices - is essential for the development of effective preventative strategies to reduce risk of illness. The purpose of this paper is twofold; (i) to critically review the published literature on the current state of knowledge regarding berry-associated foodborne viral outbreaks and the efficiency of berry processing practices and (ii) to identify and prioritize research gaps regarding practical and effective mechanism to reduce viral contamination of berries. The review found that fecally infected food handlers were the predominant source of preharvest and postharvest pathogenic viral contamination. Current industrial practices applied to fresh and frozen berries demonstrated limited efficacy for reducing the viral load. While maintaining best practice personal and environmental hygiene is a key intervention, the optimization of processing parameters (i.e., freezing, frozen storage, and washing) and/or development of alternative processing technologies to induce sufficient viral inactivation in berries along with retaining sensory and nutritional quality, is also an important direction for further research.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos , Virus de la Hepatitis A , Norovirus , Brotes de Enfermedades , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/prevención & control , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Congelación , Frutas , Humanos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241145, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141859

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Unsafe food becomes a global public health and economic threat to humans. The health status, personal hygiene, knowledge, and practice of food handlers have crucial impact on food contamination. Hence, this study is aimed at assessing the knowledge, practice, and prevalence of Salmonella, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers in Eastern Tigrai prison centers, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was carried out from April to September 2019 among food handlers in Eastern Tigrai prison centers, Northern Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the demographic characteristics, the knowledge, and the practice of the study participants. Direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques were applied to identify intestinal parasites. Culture and biochemical tests were used to isolate the Salmonella and the Shigella species. Additionally, antimicrobial susceptibility tests to selected antibiotics were performed using Kirby-Baur disk diffusion method. We used SPSS version 23 software for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-seven (62.7%, 37/59) of the participants had harbored one or more intestinal parasites. The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was detected among 23.7% (14/59) of the study participants who provided stool specimen. Besides, 6.8% (4/59) of the samples were positive for either Salmonella or Shigella species. The Salmonella isolates (n = 2) were sensitive to Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, and Clarithromycin but resistant to Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Similarly, the two Shigella isolates were susceptible to Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ceftriaxone but showed resistance to Amoxicillin, Tetracycline, and Chloramphenicol. Further, 60.6% (40/66) of the participants had good level of knowledge, and 51.5% (34/66) had good level of practice on foodborne diseases and on food safety. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that foodborne pathogens are significant health problems in the study areas. Regular health education and training programs among the food handlers are demanded to tackle foodborne diseases at the prison centers.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parásitos/patogenicidad , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Salmonella/patogenicidad , Shigella/patogenicidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces , Femenino , Servicios de Alimentación , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/prevención & control , Conocimiento , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242156, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186379

RESUMEN

Information on the burden of disease due to foodborne pathogens in China is quite limited. To understand the incidence of foodborne gastroenteritis due to non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, population survey and sentinel hospital surveillance were conducted during July 2010 to June 2011 in Shanghai, east China, and a model for calculating disease burden was established. The multiplier for gastroenteritis caused by these pathogens was estimated at 59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 30-102]. Annual incidence per 100,000 population in Shanghai was estimated as 48 (95% CI 24-83) and 183 (95% CI 93-317) cases for foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis and V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis, respectively, illustrating that bacterial gastroenteritis due to these two pathogens poses a substantial health burden. There is a significant difference between our simulated incidence and the data actually reported for foodborne diseases, indicating significant underreporting and underdiagnosis of non-typhoidal S. enterica and V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in the surveillance area. The present research demonstrates basic situation of the health burden caused by major foodborne pathogens in the surveillance area. Enhanced laboratory-based sentinel hospital surveillance is one of the effective ways to monitor food safety in east China.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Vibriosis/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Microbiología de Alimentos , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Seguridad del Paciente , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella enterica , Vigilancia de Guardia , Vibriosis/microbiología , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Adulto Joven
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206864

RESUMEN

Campylobacter is not routinely tested in foodborne disease investigations in Brazil. Here, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter among other food-related bacteria commonly found in foodborne disease outbreaks reported in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Seventy-two food samples were analyzed by using culture-based detection methods during the 18-month investigation of 36 foodborne disease outbreaks. The sampled foods from the foodborne disease outbreaks were all negative for Campylobacter . However, at least one of other routinely investigated foodborne-related bacteria was detected in 29.17% (21/72) of the samples. Taken together, these results suggest the need to monitor Campylobacter in foodborne diseases to detect sporadic cases caused by Campylobacter that might go unnoticed in Rio Grande do Sul.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Campylobacter , Campylobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171702

RESUMEN

Foodborne diseases (FBDs) have a large disease burden among children. The major type of FBD in children is diarrhea, caused mainly by contaminated food. One of the diarrhea pathogens is Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). The aim of this study was to establish a model of microbial prediction (DEC) in stool, caused by the transmission of FBDs in elementary schoolchildren. An observational analytic study was conducted, with a nested case-control study design. In Stage I, the study population was children in a selected elementary school at Surabaya. The sample size for Stage I was 218 children. In Stage II, the case sample was all children with a positive test for DEC (15 children), and the control sample was all children who had tested negative for DEC (60 children). The result of the laboratory tests showed that the proportion of DEC in children was 6.88% (15 of 218 children) and the proportion of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in children was only 0.46%. The most significant mode of transmission included in the model was the snacking frequency at school and the risk classification of food that was often purchased at school. The formulation of the predicting model of DEC in stool can be used as an early warning against the incidence of FBDs in elementary schoolchildren.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/transmisión , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Diarrea/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 9715-9729, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076183

RESUMEN

Dairy production is rapidly increasing in developing countries and making significant contributions to health, nutrition, environments, and livelihoods, with the potential for still greater contributions. However, dairy products can also contribute to human disease in many ways, with dairyborne disease likely being the most important. Health risks may be from biological, chemical, physical, or allergenic hazards present in milk and other dairy products. Lacking rigorous evidence on the full burden of foodborne and dairyborne disease in developing countries, we compiled information from different sources to improve our estimates. The most credible evidence on dairyborne disease comes from the World Health Organization initiative on the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease. This suggests that dairy products may has been responsible for 20 disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 people in 2010. This corresponds to around 4% of the global foodborne disease burden and 12% of the animal source food disease burden. Most of this burden falls on low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, the estimate is conservative. Weaker evidence from historical burden in high-income countries, outbreak reports from LMIC and high-income countries, and quantitative microbial risk assessment suggest that the real burden may be higher. The economic burden in terms of lost human capital is at least US$4 billion/yr in LMIC. Among the most important hazards are Mycobacterium bovis, Campylobacter spp., and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica. The known burden of chemical hazards is lower but also more uncertain. Important chemical hazards are mycotoxins, dioxins, and heavy metals. Some interventions have been shown to have unintended and unwanted consequences, so formative research and rigorous evaluation should accompany interventions. For example, there are many documented cases in which women's control over livestock is diminished with increasing commercialization. Dairy co-operatives have had mixed success, often incurring governance and institutional challenges. More recently, there has been interest in working with the informal sector. New technologies offer new opportunities for sustainable dairy development.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/veterinaria , Leche/microbiología , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos
8.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 321, 2020 10 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009407

RESUMEN

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major foodborne pathogen worldwide. The increasing number of cases of V. parahaemolyticus infections in China indicates an urgent need to evaluate the prevalence and genetic diversity of this pathogenic bacterium. In this paper, we introduce the Foodborne Vibrio parahaemolyticus genome database (FVPGD), the first scientific database of foodborne V. parahaemolyticus distribution and genomic data in China, based on our previous investigations of V. parahaemolyticus contamination in different kinds of food samples across China from 2011 to 2016. The dataset includes records of 2,499 food samples and 643 V. parahaemolyticus strains from supermarkets and marketplaces distributed over 39 cities in China; 268 whole-genome sequences have been deposited in this database. A spatial view on the risk situations of V. parahaemolyticus contamination in different food types is provided. Additionally, the database provides a functional interface of sequence BLAST, core genome multilocus sequence typing, and phylogenetic analysis. The database will become a powerful tool for risk assessment and outbreak investigations of foodborne pathogens in China.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Medición de Riesgo , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/clasificación , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , China , Hibridación Genómica Comparativa , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Filogenia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética
9.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 346, 2020 10 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051470

RESUMEN

Disease surveillance systems worldwide face increasing pressure to maintain and distribute data in usable formats supplemented with effective visualizations to enable actionable policy and programming responses. Annual reports and interactive portals provide access to surveillance data and visualizations depicting temporal trends and seasonal patterns of diseases. Analyses and visuals are typically limited to reporting the annual time series and the month with the highest number of cases per year. Yet, detecting potential disease outbreaks and supporting public health interventions requires detailed spatiotemporal comparisons to characterize spatiotemporal patterns of illness across diseases and locations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) FoodNet Fast provides population-based foodborne-disease surveillance records and visualizations for select counties across the US. We offer suggestions on how current FoodNet Fast data organization and visual analytics can be improved to facilitate data interpretation, decision-making, and communication of features related to trend and seasonality. The resulting compilation, or analecta, of 436 visualizations of records and codes are openly available online.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Humanos , Vigilancia de la Población , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(11): 1303-1307, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048044

RESUMEN

Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is a major cause of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide. In 2018, two concurrent outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis gastroenteritis in one district of South Africa were investigated. We describe the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of bacterial isolates to assist with the investigation of these outbreaks. Outbreak A affected children (n=27) attending a day-care centre, while outbreak B affected adults (n=16) who ate breakfast at the same restaurant. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from stool samples in both outbreaks (four children in outbreak A; 12 restaurant customers and three restaurant food-handlers in outbreak B). In outbreak B, Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from three food retention samples (raw chicken egg, hollandaise sauce and rocket-herb). Available isolates from both outbreaks (n=13) were investigated using WGS analysis. Sequencing data for isolates were analysed at the EnteroBase web-based platform and included core-genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST). Isolates with epidemiological links to the restaurant (n=10) and day-care centre (n=3), were shown by cgMLST to be highly genetically related, with no more than five allele differences when comparing one isolate against another. On food history, eggs and hollandaise sauce were the common food items consumed by ill restaurant customers. Unfortunately, Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from the egg and hollandaise sauce were not available for WGS analysis. Our investigation concluded that the two concurrent outbreaks were caused by a highly related strain of Salmonella Enteritidis, suggesting the possibility of a common contaminated food source, of which contaminated eggs are strongly implicated.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Genoma Bacteriano , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Adulto , Jardines Infantiles , Preescolar , Heces/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alimentos Crudos/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
11.
Euro Surveill ; 25(37)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945256

RESUMEN

Following outbreaks linked to frozen strawberries in Sweden and Austria in 2018, 65 cases linked to the same hepatitis A virus strain were detected in Germany between October 2018 and January 2020, presenting in two waves. Two case-control studies and a comparison of cases' consumption frequencies with purchase data from a large consumer panel provided strong evidence for frozen strawberry cake as the main vehicle of transmission. Of 46 cases interviewed, 27 reported consuming frozen strawberry cake and 25 of these identified cake(s) from brand A spontaneously or in product picture-assisted recall. Trace back investigations revealed that the Polish producer involved in the previous outbreaks in Sweden and Austria had received frozen strawberries from Egypt via a wholesaler that also delivered frozen strawberries to manufacturer of brand A. Phylogenetic analyses linked the outbreak strain to similar strains formerly isolated from sewage, stool and strawberries in Egypt. Complete trace back and timely recall of products with strong evidence of contamination is important to control an outbreak and prevent later resurgence, particularly for food items with a long shelf life. Continued molecular surveillance of hepatitis A is needed to identify outbreaks and monitor the success of food safety interventions.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Contaminación de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/virología , Fragaria/virología , Virus de la Hepatitis A/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis A/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Egipto , Heces , Femenino , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Frutas/virología , Genotipo , Alemania/epidemiología , Hepatitis A/diagnóstico , Hepatitis A/virología , Virus de la Hepatitis A/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239599, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986741

RESUMEN

The harvest of bushmeat is widespread in the tropics and sub-tropics. Often in these communities, there is a dependence on bushmeat for both food security and basic income. Despite the importance of bushmeat for households worldwide, the practice raises concern for transmission of zoonotic pathogens through hunting, food preparation, and consumption. In Uganda, harvest of wildlife is illegal, but bushmeat hunting, is commonplace. We interviewed 292 women who cook for their households and 180 self-identified hunters from 21 villages bordering Murchison Falls National Park in Uganda to gain insights into bushmeat preferences, opportunity for zoonotic pathogen transmission, and awareness of common wildlife-associated zoonoses. Both hunters and women who cook considered primates to be the most likely wildlife species to carry diseases humans can catch. Among common zoonotic pathogens, the greatest proportions of women who cook and hunters believed that pathogens causing stomach ache or diarrhea and monkeypox can be transmitted by wildlife. Neither women who cook nor hunters report being frequently injury during cooking, butchering, or hunting, and few report taking precautions while handling bushmeat. The majority of women who cook believe that hunters and dealers never or rarely disguise primate meat as another kind of meat in market, while the majority of hunters report that they usually disguise primate meat as another kind of meat. These data play a crucial role in our understanding of potential for exposure to and infection with zoonotic pathogens in the bushmeat trade. Expanding our knowledge of awareness, perceptions and risks enables us to identify opportunities to mitigate infections and injury risk and promote safe handling practices.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Concienciación , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Carne/microbiología , Zoonosis/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Culinaria , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Parques Recreativos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/microbiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e206, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867880

RESUMEN

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a well-established cause of traveller's diarrhoea and occasional domestic foodborne illness outbreaks in the USA. Although ETEC are not detected by conventional stool culture methods used in clinical laboratories, syndromic culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) capable of detecting ETEC have become increasingly prevalent in the last decade. This study describes the epidemiology of ETEC infections reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) during 2016-2017. ETEC-positive stool specimens were submitted to MDH to confirm the presence of ETEC DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cases were interviewed to ascertain illness and exposures. Contemporaneous Salmonella cases were used as a comparison group in a case-case comparison analysis of risk factors. Of 222 ETEC-positive specimens received by MDH, 108 (49%) were concordant by PCR. ETEC was the sixth most frequently reported bacterial enteric pathogen among a subset of CIDT-positive specimens. Sixty-nine (64%) laboratory-confirmed cases had an additional pathogen codetected with ETEC, including enteroaggregative E. coli (n = 40) and enteropathogenic E. coli (n = 39). Although travel is a risk factor for ETEC infection, only 43% of cases travelled internationally, providing evidence for ETEC as an underestimated source of domestically acquired enteric illness in the USA.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigénica , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Femenino , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237320, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780775

RESUMEN

Ghana Health Service (GHS) has strengthened community-based surveillance (CBS) to facilitate early detection and rapid reporting of health events of all origins. Since June 2017, GHS has employed an event-based surveillance approach at the community level in a phased manner. CBS coverage has broadened from 2 to 30 districts across Ghana. Through this effort, capacity was built across all administrative levels in these districts to detect, report, triage, and verify signals, and to perform risk assessment and investigate events. Data were collected and analyzed during an evaluation of initial 2-district implementation in March 2018 and during expanded 30-district implementation in March 2019. Between September 2018 and March 2019, 317 health events were detected through CBS. These events included vaccine-preventable disease cases, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks, clusters of unexpected animal deaths, and foodborne illness clusters. Eighty-nine percent of the 317 events were reported to district-level public health staff within 24 hours of detection at the community level, and 87% of all detected events were responded to within 48 hours of detection. CBS detected 26% of all suspected vaccine-preventable disease cases that were reported from implementing districts through routine disease surveillance. GHS strengthened CBS in Ghana to function as an early warning system for health events of all origins, advancing the Global Health Security Agenda.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Participación de la Comunidad , Salud Global , Implementación de Plan de Salud/organización & administración , Programas Nacionales de Salud/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Conjuntivitis Hemorrágica Aguda/epidemiología , Conjuntivitis Hemorrágica Aguda/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Ghana , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Medición de Riesgo/métodos
15.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 05 20.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Scombroid food poisoning is caused by eating fish with a high concentration of histamine. Histamine is converted from histidine in fish of the Scombroidea family if it is not stored at a sufficiently low temperature. The clinical picture resembles an allergic reaction. CASE DESCRIPTION: Twenty-one of our hospital personnel went to the ER, mostly reporting flushing, headache, palpitations and gastro-intestinal symptoms. They had all eaten tuna salad in the staff canteen. The symptoms appeared to be caused by scombroid food poisoning. CONCLUSION: As a result of early recognition of the clinical picture and prompt crisis management we were able to prevent the outbreak spreading further.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Conservación de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales , Histamina/envenenamiento , Toxinas Marinas/envenenamiento , Atún , Animales , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Rubor/diagnóstico , Rubor/etiología , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Conservación de Alimentos/normas , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/etiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/etiología , Cefalea/diagnóstico , Cefalea/etiología , Humanos , Personal de Hospital
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 401-405, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taeniasis, caused by two major Taenia species, T. solium and T. saginata, is a worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. T. solium is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked pork, while T. saginata is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked beef. Cattle rearing and beef consumption is an important socio-cultural feature in the Kashmir valley, India. This study's objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of foodborne taeniasis in Kashmir and explore the various risk factors for its transmission. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A detailed survey of the population in selected rural and semi-urban sites of Kashmir valley was carried out based on previous information. A total of 12,404 subjects (males=6364; females=6040) ranging from one to 85 years of age (mean age: 28.96±17.68) were included in this study. The parasite diagnosis was made through stool analysis (egg morphology) and anatomical characteristics of gravid proglottids obtained from infected cases. The data obtained were compiled for the parameters studied and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The observations as estimated coprologically and based on gravid proglottids' anatomy revealed the presence of T. saginata infection. The prevalence was 2.74% with males significantly (p<0.01) more infected (3.40%) than females (2.05%). Similarly, the age group of >60 years showed greater prevalence (7.21% among males and 2.68% among females) at a significance value of p<0.05. Rural populatios were slightly more infected (2.84%) than semi-urban populations (2.36%) with a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Kashmiri population who consume raw or undercooked beef, harbor T. saginata infection; its prevalence was influenced by food eating habits, age, sex, and living conditions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia saginata/fisiología , Teniasis/transmisión , Teniasis/veterinaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Bovinos , Niño , Preescolar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/parasitología , Adulto Joven
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e215, 2020 07 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669142

RESUMEN

In November 2017, Public Health England identified an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in England where whole genome sequencing results indicated cases were likely to be linked to a common source, and began investigations. Hypothesis generation included a review of enhanced surveillance data, a case-case study and trawling interviews. The hypothesis of interest was tested through the administration of focussed questionnaires and review of shopping history using loyalty card data. Twelve outbreak cases were detected, eight were hospitalised and four developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Frozen beef burgers supplied by a national retailer were identified as the vehicle of the outbreak. Testing of two left-over burger samples obtained from the freezers of two separate (unlinked) cases and a retained sample from the production premises were tested and found to be positive for the outbreak strain. A voluntary recall of the burgers was implemented by the retailer. Investigations at the production premises identified no contraventions of food safety legislation. Cooking guidance on the product packaging was deemed to be adequate and interviews with the cases/carers who prepared the burgers revealed no deficiencies in cooking practices at home. Given the long-shelf life of frozen burgers, the product recall likely prevented more cases.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Escherichia coli O157/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Carne Roja/microbiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235440, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614915

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a significant public health problem in more than one-third of the countries of the world. Cholera outbreak has become more common in Addis Ababa particularly in the rainy seasons; however, there is a paucity of data on risk factors associated with cholera outbreaks rendering interventions difficult. We investigated the outbreak to identify its etiology, source, risk factors and in order to control the outbreak. METHODS: We compared cases with health center-based unmatched controls (1:2). Cases were patients aged ≥5 years with acute watery diarrhea, with or without vomiting while controls were persons aged ≥5 years without history of acute watery diarrhea. We interviewed our study participants using structured questionnaire to collect demographic and cholera risk factors data. We described the outbreak over time, and then tested our hypotheses using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The outbreak began on 7 September, 2017 reaching its peak on 23 September, 2017 and ended on 01 October, 2017. We identified a total of 25 cases (Median age: 38 years; IQR: 20 years) and recruited 50 controls (Median age: 35 years; IQR: 29 years). All case-patients had acute watery diarrhea and dehydration requiring intravenous fluids. All cases were admitted to cholera treatment center but there were no deaths. Stool and water samples yielded isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 of serological subtype Ogawa. Consumption of contaminated holy water (AOR: 20.5, 95%CI: 3.50, 119.61) and raw vegetables (AOR: 15.3, 95%CI: 3, 81.51) were independent risk factors whereas washing hands with soap after visiting latrine (AOR: 0.04, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.25) was independent protective factor. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated cholera foodborne transmission via consumption of raw vegetables, and its waterborne transmission via consumption of contaminated holy water. Washing hands with soap after visiting latrine was protective. We recommended cooking of vegetables and promoting hand washing.


Asunto(s)
Cólera/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Vibrio cholerae O1/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/microbiología , Agua Potable/microbiología , Etiopía , Heces/microbiología , Microbiología de Alimentos , Desinfección de las Manos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cuartos de Baño , Verduras/microbiología , Verduras/envenenamiento , Vómitos/epidemiología , Microbiología del Agua
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140795, 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731065

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-cholera Vibrio bacteria are a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Raw oysters are commonly implicated in gastroenteritis caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In response to outbreaks in 1997-1998, the US Food and Drug Administration developed a nation-wide quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in 2005. The QMRA identified information gaps that new research may address. Incidence of sporadic V. parahaemolyticus illness has recently increased and, as oyster consumption increases and sea temperatures rise, V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks may become more frequent, posing health concerns. Updated and region-specific QMRAs will improve the accuracy and precision of risk of infection estimates. OBJECTIVES: We identify research to support an updated QMRA of V. parahaemolyticus from oysters harvested in Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound, focusing on observational and experimental research on post-harvest practices (PHPs) published from 2004 to 2019. METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied to PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science.gov, NAL Agricola, and Google Scholar. Study eligibility criteria were defined using a population, intervention, comparator, and outcome statement. Reviewers independently coded abstracts for inclusion/exclusion using predefined criteria. Data were extracted and study quality and relevance evaluated based on published guidance for food safety risk assessments. Findings were synthesized using a weight of evidence approach. RESULTS: Of 12,174 articles retrieved, 93 were included for full-text review. Twenty-seven studies were found to be high quality and high relevance, including studies on cold storage, high hydrostatic pressure, depuration, and disinfectant, and other PHPs. High hydrostatic pressure consistently emerged as the most effective PHP in reducing abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. DISCUSSION: Limitations of the knowledge base and review approach involve the type and quantity of data reported. Future research should focus on PHPs for which few or no high quality and high relevance studies exist, such as irradiation and relaying.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Ostreidae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animales , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Alimentos Marinos/análisis
20.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 154(11): 453-458, jun. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195539

RESUMEN

La importancia de la listeriosis no está suficientemente reconocida. Su incidencia general se muestra estable en los últimos años, pero con una tendencia al alza en mayores de 65 años, también en mortalidad. La listeriosis es una enfermedad transmitida por alimentos que ocurre generalmente en forma de casos esporádicos; sin embargo, las nuevas técnicas de tipificación molecular han puesto de manifiesto la existencia de brotes epidémicos no sospechados con anterioridad. La enfermedad presenta un periodo de incubación variable y relacionado con la presentación clínica. La bacteriemia y la neurolisteriosis son las formas clínicas predominantes, aunque en la actualidad el principal interés se focaliza en el manejo de las infecciones focales y las asociadas a dispositivos protésicos. La listeriosis es un problema significativo para la industria alimentaria, y muchos países han introducido legislación para controlar la incidencia de la enfermedad


The importance of listeriosis is not sufficiently recognised. The general incidence of infection has been stable in recent years, but with an upward trend in people over 65, also in mortality. Listeriosis is a foodborne disease that generally occurs in the form of sporadic cases; however, new molecular typing techniques have revealed the existence of epidemic outbreaks not previously suspected. The disease has a variable incubation period, which is related to the clinical presentation. Bacteraemia and neurolisteriosis are the predominant clinical forms, although at present, the main interest is focused on the management of focal infections and those associated with prosthetic devices. Listeriosis is a significant problem for the food industry, and many countries have introduced legislation to control the incidence of the disease


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Listeriosis/mortalidad , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/fisiopatología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control
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