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1.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103280, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500706

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe diseases in humans, including febrile gastroenteritis and systemic infections that has a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. This pathogen may cause massive outbreaks associated to the consumption of contaminated food products, which highlight its importance in public health. In the last decade, L. monocytogenes has emerged as a foodborne pathogen of major importance in Chile. A previous work showed that in Chile during 2008 and 2009, L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified in food and clinical strains. Here we report the molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 2008 to 2017 in the country. Our results indicate that serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b continue to be the most commonly found in food products. In addition, we identify persistent and widespread PFGE subtypes. This study reports ten years of epidemiological surveillance ofL. monocytogenes in Chile.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Variación Genética , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidad , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Epidemiología Molecular , Salud Pública , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Factores de Virulencia/genética
2.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105210, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600520

RESUMEN

Foodborne intestinal flukes are highly diverse consisting of at least 74 species with a diverse global distribution. Taxonomically they include 28 species of heterophyids, 23 species of echinostomes, and 23 species of miscellaneous groups (amphistomes, brachylaimids, cyathocotylids, diplostomes, fasciolids, gymnophallids, isoparorchiids, lecithodendriid-like group, microphallids, nanophyetids, plagiorchiids, and strigeids). The important heterophyid species (15 species) include Metagonimus yokogawai, M. takahashii, M. miyatai, Heterophyes heterophyes, H. nocens, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Heterophyopsis continua, Centrocestus formosanus, Pygidiopsis genata, P. summa, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, and S. lari. The echinostome species of public health significance (15 species) include Echinostoma revolutum, E. cinetorchis, E. lindoense, E. ilocanum, Isthmiophora hortensis, Echinochasmus japonicus, E. perfoliatus, E. liliputanus, E. fujianensis, E. caninus, Acanthoparyphium tyosenense, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, A. sufrartyfex, A. oraoni, and Hypoderaeum conoideum. Among the other zoonotic intestinal flukes, Gastrodiscoides hominis, Brachylaima cribbi, Neodiplostomum seoulense, Fasciolopsis buski, Gymnophalloides seoi, Caprimolgorchis molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, Microphallus brevicaeca, Nanophyetus salmincola, and N. schikhobalowi (10 species) have drawn considerable medical attention causing quite a fair number of human infection cases. The principal mode of human infections include ingestion of raw or improperly cooked fish (heterophyids and echinostomes), snails including oysters (echinostomes and G. seoi), amphibians and reptiles (N. seoulense), aquatic vegetables (amphistomes and F. buski), and insect larvae or adults (C. molenkampi and P. bonnei). Epidemiological characteristics such as the prevalence, geographical distribution, and clinical and public health significance are poorly known in many of these species. Praziquantel has been proved to be highly effective against most species of intestinal fluke infections. Surveys and detection of human infection cases are urgently required for better understanding of the global status and public health significance of each species.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Infecciones por Trematodos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología , Animales , Geografía , Humanos , Prevalencia
3.
N Engl J Med ; 381(26): 2569-2580, 2019 12 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881145

RESUMEN

Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology ("next-generation sequencing") have inspired optimism about the potential of human genomics for "precision medicine." Meanwhile, pathogen genomics is already delivering "precision public health" through more effective investigations of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses, better-targeted tuberculosis control, and more timely and granular influenza surveillance to inform the selection of vaccine strains. In this article, we describe how public health agencies have been adopting pathogen genomics to improve their effectiveness in almost all domains of infectious disease. This momentum is likely to continue, given the ongoing development in sequencing and sequencing-related technologies.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Genómica , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Humanos , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/microbiología , Metagenómica , Parásitos/genética , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Virus/genética
4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 589-593, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601340

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of foodborne acute gastrointestinal illness(AGI) in community residents, and to provide the basis for prevention and control of foodborne diseases. METHODS: Muli-stage stratified random cluster sampling was used to select samples in community population. A retrospective cross-sectional face-to-face household interviews were conducted over a 12-month period. Respondents were asked questions about vomiting and diarrhea within the 28 days prior to the interviews, healthcare seeking behavior and the related cost due to AGI. RESULTS: There were 0. 15(95%CI 0. 13-0. 16)AGI episodes per person-year, foodboren infection resulted in 911975 AGI cases. About 290 190 cases sought healthcare, resulting in 9120 hospitallizations. The overall economic burden of foodborne AGI was 147 million Yuan per year, accounting for 0. 07᾿of the GDP. The direct cost of medical care was 107 million Yuan(medical costs and non-medical cost were 9. 4 million and 1. 2 million), and the direct cost was 4 million Yuan. CONCLUSION: The burden of foodborne AGI in Beijing should not be ignored. It is necessary to improve the foodborne disease surveillance system to more accurately assess the impact of foodborne disease on society and health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Beijing/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Estudios Transversales , Diarrea , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519792

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2017, we conducted a multistate investigation to determine the source of an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 infections, which occurred primarily in children. METHODS: We defined a case as infection with an outbreak strain of STEC O157:H7 with illness onset between January 1, 2017, and April 30, 2017. Case patients were interviewed to identify common exposures. Traceback and facility investigations were conducted; food samples were tested for STEC. RESULTS: We identified 32 cases from 12 states. Twenty-six (81%) cases occurred in children <18 years old; 8 children developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. Twenty-five (78%) case patients ate the same brand of soy nut butter or attended facilities that served it. We identified 3 illness subclusters, including a child care center where person-to-person transmission may have occurred. Testing isolated an outbreak strain from 11 soy nut butter samples. Investigations identified violations of good manufacturing practices at the soy nut butter manufacturing facility with opportunities for product contamination, although the specific route of contamination was undetermined. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation identified soy nut butter as the source of a multistate outbreak of STEC infections affecting mainly children. The ensuing recall of all soy nut butter products the facility manufactured, totaling >1.2 million lb, likely prevented additional illnesses. Prompt diagnosis of STEC infections and appropriate specimen collection aids in outbreak detection. Child care providers should follow appropriate hygiene practices to prevent secondary spread of enteric illness in child care settings. Firms should manufacture ready-to-eat foods in a manner that minimizes the risk of contamination.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Escherichia coli O157 , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica , Alimentos de Soja/microbiología , Adolescente , Anciano , Niño , Jardines Infantiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Comida Rápida/efectos adversos , Comida Rápida/microbiología , Femenino , Manipulación de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/epidemiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/microbiología , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Recall y Retirada del Producto , Alimentos de Soja/efectos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522662

RESUMEN

A cluster of gastrointestinal illness was detected following receipt of a complaint of becoming ill after a multi-course dinner at a restaurant in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia. The complaint led to an investigation by ACT Health. Food samples retained by the restaurant for microbiological analysis returned an unsatisfactory level of Bacillus cereus in beef (19,000 colony forming units/gram [cfu/g]) and a satisfactory level in arancini (50 cfu/g). These positive samples underwent whole genome sequencing and genes encoding diarrhoeal toxins were detected with no laboratory evidence of the emetic toxin. No stool specimens were collected. A cohort study was undertaken and 80% (33/41) of patrons took part in a structured interview. There was no significant difference in age or sex between those ill and not ill. Due to universal exposure most foods were unable to be statistically analysed and no significant results were found from the food history. The ill cohort diverged into two distinct groups based on incubation period and symptoms suggesting this outbreak involved B. cereus intoxication with both diarrhoeal and potentially emetic toxins. Some hygiene practices during food preparation were noted to be inadequate and heating and cooling procedures were unverified when questioned. A combination of the incubation periods and symptom profile, food laboratory evidence, and genomic sequencing of the B. cereus diarrhoeal gene suggest a probable aetiology of B. cereus intoxication. Public health action included the restaurant rectifying hygiene practices and documenting heating/cooling procedures.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus cereus/aislamiento & purificación , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidad , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Carne Roja/microbiología , Animales , Territorio de la Capital Australiana/epidemiología , Bacillus cereus/genética , Bovinos , Estudios de Cohortes , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/microbiología , Diarrea/mortalidad , Eméticos , Femenino , Contaminación de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/mortalidad , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/mortalidad , Humanos , Masculino , Restaurantes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 309: 108327, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493567

RESUMEN

The apparent international rise in foodborne virus outbreaks attributed to fresh produce and the increasing importance of fresh produce in the Australian diet has led to the requirement to gather information to inform the development of risk management strategies. A prevalence survey for norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in fresh Australian produce (leafy greens, strawberries and blueberries) at retail was undertaken during 2013-2014 and data used to develop a risk profile. The prevalence of HAV in berries and leafy greens was estimated to be <2%, with no virus detected in produce during the yearlong survey. The prevalence of NoV in fresh strawberries and blueberries was also estimated to be <2% with no virus detected in berries, whilst for leafy greens the NoV prevalence was 2.2%. Prevalence of a bacterial hygiene indicator, Escherichia coli, was also investigated and found to range from <1% in berries to 10.7% in leafy greens. None of the NoV positive leafy green samples tested positive for E. coli, indicating it is a poor indicator for viral risk. The risk was evaluated using standard codex procedures and the Risk Ranger tool. Taking all data into account, including the hazard dose and severity, probability of exposure, probability of infective dose and available epidemiological data, the risk of HAV and NoV foodborne illness associated with fresh Australian berries (strawberries and blueberries) sold as packaged product was deemed to be low. The risk of foodborne illness from HAV associated with leafy greens was also deemed to be low, but higher than that for fresh berries, due mainly to the potential for recontamination post-processing if sold loose. The risk of foodborne illness from NoV associated with leafy greens was deemed to be low/moderate. Despite the prevalence of NoV in leafy greens being low and the inability to discriminate between infective and non-infective virus using PCR based methodologies, the fact that NoV was detected resulted in a higher risk associated with this pathogen-product pairing; compounded by the higher prevalence of NoV within the community compared to HAV, and the potential for leafy greens to become contaminated following processing if sold loose.


Asunto(s)
Arándanos Azules (Planta)/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Fragaria/microbiología , Frutas/virología , Virus de la Hepatitis A/aislamiento & purificación , Norovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Australia/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Humanos , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Probabilidad
8.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 73(2): 239-248, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385681

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus remains one of the main etiological agents of central nervous system infections in Europe. The disease occurs endemically in Central and Eastern Europe, Southern part of Russia and Scandinavia. Between 2000 and 2015 there were 3 662 registered TBE cases in Poland and approximately 45% of them were reported in Podlaskie voivodeship. TBE typically develops as a result of being bitten by infected tick, however, it can also be a consequence of ingestion of unpasteurized milk from viremic animal. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the article was to underline to the importance of TBE virus transmission via alimentary route and clinical description of four patients who developed TBE as a result of raw goat milk consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of documentation of four patients hospitalized in Observational-Infectious Department of Independent Public Healthcare Centre in Hajnówka and Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections at the Medical University of Bialystok from June 10th 2017 to July 11th 2017 due to alimentary TBE. RESULTS: Patients were between 24 and 36 years of age. They have consumed goat milk from the same source. None of the patients have been vaccinated against TBE virus. In all patients typical biphasic disease course with the presence of prodromal and neurological phase was observed. TBE was confirmed by demonstration of anti-TBE antibodies in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of TBE should be considered in every case of encephalitis in endemic areas. Due to the risk of TBE infection after consumption of unpasteurized milk from livestock, it is crucial to raise awareness of general population and farm owners about the possibility of TBE infection via alimentary route.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Encefalitis Transmitida por Garrapatas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Adulto , Animales , Encefalitis Transmitida por Garrapatas/sangre , Encefalitis Transmitida por Garrapatas/diagnóstico , Encefalitis Transmitida por Garrapatas/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/sangre , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/diagnóstico , Cabras , Humanos , Masculino , Leche , Polonia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 705, 2019 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399064

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In recent times, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are posing a public health threat in developing countries, and vigilant surveillance is necessary to prepare against these threats. Analyses of multi-year comprehensive infectious disease syndrome data are required in Mongolia, but have not been conducted till date. This study aimed to describe the trends in the incidence of infectious disease syndromes in Mongolia during 2009-2017 using a nationwide syndrome surveillance system for infectious diseases established in 2009. METHODS: We analyzed time trends using monthly data on the incidence of infectious disease syndromes such as acute fever with rash (AFR), acute fever with vesicular rash (AFVR), acute jaundice (AJ), acute watery diarrhea (AWD), acute bloody diarrhea (ABD), foodborne disease (FD) and nosocomial infection (NI) reported from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2017. Time series forecasting models based on the data up to 2017 estimated the future trends in the incidence of syndromes up to December 2020. RESULTS: During the study, the overall prevalence of infectious disease syndromes was 71.8/10,000 population nationwide. The average number of reported infectious disease syndromes was 14,519 (5229-55,132) per year. The major types were AFR (38.7%), AFVR (31.7%), AJ (13.9%), ABD (10.2%), and AWD (1.8%), accounting for 96.4% of all reported syndromes. The most prevalent syndromes were AJ between 2009 and 2012 (59.5-48.7%), AFVR between 2013 and 2014 (54.5-59%), AFR between 2015 and 2016 (67.6-65.9%), and AFVR in 2017 (62.2%). There were increases in the prevalence of AFR, with the monthly number of cases being 37.7 ± 6.1 during 2015-2016; this could be related to the measles outbreak in Mongolia during that period. The AFVR incidence rate showed winter's multiplicative seasonal fluctuations with a peak of 10.6 ± 2 cases per 10,000 population in 2017. AJ outbreaks were identified in 2010, 2011, and 2012, and these could be associated with hepatitis A outbreaks. Prospective time series forecasting showed increasing trends in the rates of AFVR and ABD. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based method for infectious disease syndromes was useful in gaining an understanding of the current situation, and predicting the future trends of various infectious diseases in Mongolia.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Sarampión/epidemiología , Mongolia/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Síndrome
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 308: 108306, 2019 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442713

RESUMEN

Despite increases in the annual consumption of seafood in Australia, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of zoonotic parasites in fish and the risk they may pose to human health are limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence of zoonotic nematodes in commonly consumed fish in New South Wales, Australia's most populous state. Three species of fish, including the Australian pilchard, Australian anchovy, and eastern school whiting, were purchased from a fish market and examined for the presence of nematode parasites. All Australian pilchards examined in this study were infected (100%; n = 19), followed by the eastern school whiting (70%; n = 20) and Australian anchovy (56%; n = 70). Nematodes were in the larval stage and, therefore, classified by morphotype, followed by specific identification through sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Seven different larval types with zoonotic potential, belonging to the families Anisakidae (Contracaecum type II and Terranova type II) and Raphidascarididae (Hysterothylacium types IV [genotypes A and B], VIII, XIV and a novel Hysterothylacium larval type, herein assigned as type XVIII), were found. The new larval type was identified as Hysterothylacium thalassini, based on ITS sequence data. The presence of the infective stage of a range of zoonotic parasites in fish commonly consumed in New South Wales is important, particularly as, in some dishes, these fish are used whole, raw or undercooked. This study provides the basis for future research on other aspects of these parasites, in regards to public health.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Ascaridida/epidemiología , Ascaridoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Alimentos Marinos/parasitología , Animales , Infecciones por Ascaridida/parasitología , Ascaridoidea/genética , Australia/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Peces/parasitología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Humanos , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología
11.
Public Health Rep ; 134(5): 552-558, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386820

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Foodborne disease is a pervasive problem caused by consuming food or drink contaminated by infectious or noninfectious agents. The 55 US poison centers receive telephone calls for advice on foodborne disease cases that may be related to a foodborne disease outbreak (FBDO). Our objective was to assess whether poison center call records uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) can be used for surveillance of noninfectious FBDOs in the United States. METHODS: We matched NPDS records on noninfectious FBDO agents in the United States with records in the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) for 2000-2010. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis comparing NPDS matched and unmatched records to assess features of NPDS records that may indicate a confirmed noninfectious FBDO. RESULTS: During 2000-2010, FDOSS recorded 491 noninfectious FBDOs of known etiology and NPDS recorded 8773 calls for noninfectious foodborne disease exposures. Of 8773 NPDS calls, 469 (5.3%) were matched to a noninfectious FBDO reported to FDOSS. Multivariable logistic regression indicated severity of medical outcome, whether the call was made by a health care professional, and etiology as significant predictors of NPDS records matching an FDOSS noninfectious FBDO. CONCLUSIONS: NPDS may complement existing surveillance systems and response activities by providing timely information about single cases of foodborne diseases or about a known or emerging FBDO. Prioritizing NPDS records by certain call features could help guide public health departments in the types of noninfectious foodborne records that most warrant public health follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Notificación Obligatoria , Vigilancia de la Población , Adolescente , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Centros de Control de Intoxicaciones , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295907

RESUMEN

Prompt investigation of food poisoning outbreak are essential, as it usually involves a short incubation period. Utilizing the advancement in mobile technology, a mobile application named MyMAFI (My Mobile Apps for Field Investigation) was developed with the aim to be an alternative and better tool for current practices of field investigation of food poisoning outbreak. A randomized cross-over trial with two arms and two treatment periods was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the newly developed mobile application as compared to the standard paper-based format approach. Thirty-six public health inspectors from all districts in Kelantan participated in this study and they were randomized into two equal sized groups. Group A started the trial as control group using the paper-format investigation form via simulated outbreaks and group B used the mobile application. After a one-month 'washout period', the group was crossed over. The primary outcome measured was the time taken to complete the outbreak investigation. The treatment effects, the period effects and the period-by-treatment interaction were analyzed using Pkcross command in Stata software. There was a significant treatment effect with mean square 21840.5 and its corresponding F statistic 4.47 (p-value = 0.038), which indicated that the mobile application had significantly improve the reporting timeliness. The results also showed that there was a significant period effect (p-value = 0.025); however, the treatment by period interaction was not significant (p-value = 0.830). The newly developed mobile application-MyMAFI-can improve the timeliness in reporting for investigation of food poisoning outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Aplicaciones Móviles , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/etiología , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 399, 2019 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300042

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Food borne diseases are predominant in all parts of the world especially in urban areas and are the main source for food borne illness. The aim of this study is to assess sanitation status and its determinants among food establishments in Adwa town, North Ethiopia from March to June 2017. RESULTS: A total of 391 (95.4%) subjects were included in this study. Around 53.3% of food establishments in the study area were in a poor sanitary status. Presence of trained managers on hygiene and sanitation (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.7-4.1); inspection by regulatory personnel (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.36-22.4) and being licensed (AOR = 1.2 95% CI 1.11-2.51) were associated factors which affect sanitary status sanitary of the establishments. The overall sanitary status of the establishments in the study area was found unhygienic. Managers should gain trainings on food hygiene and sanitation to follow and improve the sanitary status of the establishments.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos/normas , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/diagnóstico , Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Saneamiento/normas , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Alimentos/normas , Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulación de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Alimentación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Servicios de Alimentación/normas , Servicios de Alimentación/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(8): 1461-1468, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310227

RESUMEN

We investigated an outbreak of listeriosis detected by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and associated with packaged leafy green salads. Nineteen cases were identified in the United States during July 5, 2015-January 31, 2016; isolates from case-patients were closely related (median difference 3 alleles, range 0-16 alleles). Of 16 case-patients interviewed, all reported salad consumption. Of 9 case-patients who recalled brand information, all reported brands processed at a common US facility. The Public Health Agency of Canada simultaneously investigated 14 cases of listeriosis associated with this outbreak. Isolates from the processing facility, packaged leafy green salads, and 9 case-patients from Canada were closely related to US clinical isolates (median difference 3 alleles, range 0-16 alleles). This investigation led to a recall of packaged leafy green salads made at the processing facility. Additional research is needed to identify best practices and effective policies to reduce the likelihood of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of fresh produce.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Listeria , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Listeriosis/microbiología , /microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Notificación de Enfermedades , Femenino , Genoma Bacteriano , Geografía Médica , Humanos , Listeria/clasificación , Listeria/genética , Listeria/aislamiento & purificación , Listeriosis/transmisión , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Embarazo , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Estaciones del Año , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 377, 2019 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266539

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To verify occurrence of outbreak, describe cases in person, time and place, and identify factors associated with the outbreak. Unmatched case control study was conducted with sample size 175 in Dewachefa woreda from April 24 to May 02/2018. Data were collected with structure questionnaire. Collected data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and exported to statistical package for social science version 23 for analysis. Analyzed data were presented by texts, table and graphs. RESULT: A total of 35 food poisoning cases with no death were reported. The overall attack rate was 25.58/10,000. Eating raw meat [adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 11.04; 95% CI 3.03-40.17], drinking raw milk AOR = 4.81; 95% CI 1.42-16.23), sex (AOR = 3.57; 95% CI 1.37-9.32), hand washing before eating (AOR = 13.42; 95% CI 3.63-49.72) and Sources of drinking water (AOR = 11.50; 95 CI 1.96-67.49) were significantly associated with food poisoning. Food poisoning outbreak were occurred in Dewachfa woreda. Sex of study participants, eating raw meat, drinking raw milk, hand washing before eating, materials use to clean food utensils and source of drinking waters were factors of food poisoning. Proper food handling should be recommended.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Adulto , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Factores de Tiempo
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 75-81, 2019 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284020

RESUMEN

Aflatoxin is a fungal secondary metabolite with high toxicity that is capable of contaminating various types of food crops. It has been identified as a Group 1 human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chronic aflatoxin exposure has caused worldwide concern as a matter of public food safety. Peanuts and peanut products are the major sources of aflatoxin exposure. Therefore, some reduction interventions have been developed to minimize contamination throughout the peanut production chain. The purpose of this study is to estimate the efficacy of interventions in reducing the health impact of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. The estimated total Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated using FDA-iRISK software. Six aflatoxin reduction strategies were evaluated, including good agricultural practice (GAP), biocontrol, Purdue Improved Crop Storage packaging, basic processing, ozonolysis, and ultraviolet irradiation. The results indicated that basic processing could prevent huge public health loss of 4,079.7-21,833 total DALYs per year. In addition, GAP and biocontrol were both found to be effective strategies in the farm field. Meanwhile, the other three interventions had limited effectiveness in reducing total DALYs. In conclusion, this study could help farmers, processing plants, and government policy makers to alleviate aflatoxin contamination issues in the peanut production chain.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxinas/efectos adversos , Arachis/microbiología , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevención & control , Productos Agrícolas/microbiología , Exposición Dietética/efectos adversos , Exposición Dietética/prevención & control , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevención & control , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Agentes de Control Biológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Ozono/química , Factores Protectores , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Rayos Ultravioleta
18.
Environ Int ; 129: 507-516, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170666

RESUMEN

Foodborne pathogens and occupational hazards are two primary safety concerns for U.S. beef slaughterhouses. The anthropogenic environmental impacts due to intensive resource use and pollution also exert threats to human health. Quantifying human health impacts from various sources remain a grand sustainability challenge for U.S. beef industry. We develop a framework to systematically estimate and compare human health impacts associated with U.S. beef foodborne illnesses from major pathogens and environmental impacts and occupational hazards from U.S. beef slaughtering on a common metric, disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Foodborne illnesses and occupational hazards are estimated by synthesizing published data and methodologies while environmental impacts are quantified using life cycle assessment. In spite of inherent uncertainties in estimation, results show that the environmental impacts and occupational hazards from beef slaughtering are of same magnitude with foodborne illnesses from beef consumption on human health. Salmonella and Clostridium perfringens contribute 51% and 28%, respectively, to the beef foodborne DALY; Global warming and fine particulate matter formation, due to electricity and natural gas use, are primary drivers for environmental DALY, accounting 62% and 28%, respectively. Occupational DALY is on average lower than environmental DALY from beef slaughtering and foodborne DALY. The impact of new food safety interventions that use additional resources to improve food safety should be considered jointly with environmental impacts and occupational hazards to avoid unintended shifts and net increase of human health impacts. The methodology and results from this study provide a new perspective on reforms of the U.S. food safety regulations building toward sustainability in the food processing industry.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación Ambiental , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Salud Laboral , Carne Roja/microbiología , Mataderos , Animales , Bovinos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Calentamiento Global , Humanos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 68(1): 33-38, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181950

RESUMEN

Botulism caused by toxins of Clostridium botulinum and other neurotoxic clostridia is a rare but life-threatening disease with neurological symptoms. Food-borne botulism (food poisoning) is the most common type worldwide; rarely, wound botulism, infant botulism, or botulism of unknown etiology may also occur. Botulism is a very rare disease in the Czech Republic as well, with only nine cases reported since 2008 (EPIDAT). These were mostly sporadic cases of food-borne botulism except a small family outbreak with three cases due to the consumption of homemade pork pate (2013). This outbreak prompted the creation of a national standby supply of life-saving anti-infective drugs in Prague. This article reviews the etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and therapy of botulism.


Asunto(s)
Botulismo , Clostridium botulinum , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Botulismo/tratamiento farmacológico , Botulismo/epidemiología , República Checa/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 304: 97-105, 2019 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176965

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe consequences especially for persons belonging to risk groups. Finland is among the countries with highest number of listeriosis cases in the European Union. Although most reported cases appear to be sporadic and the maximum bacterial concentration of 100 cfu/g is not usually exceeded at retail, cold smoked and salt-cured fish products have been noted as those products with great risk especially for the elderly. In order to investigate the listeriosis risk more carefully, an exposure assessment was developed, and laboratory results for cold smoked and salt-cured salmon products were exploited. L. monocytogenes exposure was modeled for consumers in two age groups, the elderly population as a risk group and the working-age population as a reference. Incidence was assessed by estimating bacterial growth in the food products at three temperatures. Bayesian estimation of the risk was based on bacterial occurrence and product consumption data and epidemiological population data. The model builds on a two-state Markov chain describing repeated consumption on consecutive days. The cumulative exposure is probabilistically governed by the daily decreasing likelihood of continued consumption and the increasing bacterial concentrations due to growth. The population risk was then predicted with a Poisson distribution accounting for the daily probabilities of purchasing a contaminated product and the cumulative total probability of infection from its use. According to the model presented in this article, elderly Finns are at a greater risk of acquiring listeriosis than healthy adults. The risk for the elderly does not fully diminish even if the products have been stored at the recommended temperature (between 0 and 3 °C). It can be concluded that the stage after retail, i.e. food handling and storage by consumer or professional kitchens, is essential to protection against listeriosis. The estimation model provides means for assessing the joint impacts of these effects.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Listeria monocytogenes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Salmón/microbiología , Alimentos Marinos/microbiología , Anciano , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Seguridad de Productos para el Consumidor , Finlandia/epidemiología , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Humo , Cloruro de Sodio , Temperatura Ambiental
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