Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.562
Filtrar
1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 131-135, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006122

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Locally administered corticosteroids are commonly used to treat joint diseases in sport and racehorses. As they are also the most potent drugs for the treatment of equine asthma, we hypothesised that the intra-articular corticosteroids used to treat joint diseases also improve the lung function in horses with severe asthma, thus potentially delaying the diagnosis of this common lung condition. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of intra-articular (IA) and intramuscular (IM) triamcinolone acetonide (TA) on lung function in horses with severe asthma. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised and controlled experiment on asthma-prone research animals. METHODS: Horses with severe asthma in clinical exacerbation were given either 20 mg of TA in both tarsocrural joints (n = 5; 40 mg/horse) or 40 mg of TA intramuscularly (n = 5). Lung function and TA serum concentrations were measured weekly for 35 days. TA serum concentrations were also evaluated on day 3. RESULTS: The pulmonary resistance (RL ) and elastance (EL ) values decreased by day 7 in the IA group (P<0.0001 and P = 0.003, respectively) and by day 14 in the IM group (P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively). Lung function was improved up to days 21 and 28 in the IA and IM groups, respectively, when compared with baseline. TA serum levels were below the quantification limit (100 pg/ml) for 4 and 3 of the 5 horses in the IA and IM groups, respectively, on day 7. The area under the curve for RL , EL and the serum concentrations of TA were similar in both groups. MAIN LIMITATIONS: The response of horses with severe asthma might differ from that of high-performance horses with mild/moderate asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-articular administration of TA improves lung function in horses with severe asthma, an effect that persists when TA serum concentration is below the quantification level that is employed as a threshold by the International Association of Racing Commissioners.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Asma/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Triamcinolona Acetonida/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Caballos , Inyecciones Intraarticulares , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Masculino , Triamcinolona Acetonida/administración & dosificación
2.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 13-27, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657050

RESUMEN

Primary care guidelines provide a reference point to guide clinicians based on a systematic review of the literature, contextualised by expert clinical opinion. These guidelines develop a modification of the GRADE framework for assessment of research evidence (vetGRADE) and applied this to a range of clinical scenarios regarding use of analgesic agents. Key guidelines produced by the panel included recommendations that horses undergoing routine castration should receive intratesticular local anaesthesia irrespective of methods adopted and that horses should receive NSAIDs prior to surgery (overall certainty levels high). Butorphanol and buprenorphine should not be considered appropriate as sole analgesic for such procedures (high certainty). The panel recommend the continuation of analgesia for 3 days following castration (moderate certainty) and conclude that phenylbutazone provided superior analgesia to meloxicam and firocoxib for hoof pain/laminitis (moderate certainty), but that enhanced efficacy has not been demonstrated for joint pain. In horses with colic, flunixin and firocoxib are considered to provide more effective analgesia than meloxicam or phenylbutazone (moderate certainty). Given the risk of adverse events of all classes of analgesic, these agents should be used only under the control of a veterinary surgeon who has fully evaluated a horse and developed a therapeutic, analgesic plan that includes ongoing monitoring for such adverse events such as the development of right dorsal colitis with all classes of NSAID and spontaneous locomotor activity and potentially ileus with opiates. Finally, the panel call for the development of a single properly validated composite pain score for horses to allow accurate comparisons between medications in a robust manner.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor/veterinaria , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Sociedades Científicas/normas , Medicina Veterinaria/normas , Animales , Caballos , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Reino Unido
3.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 589-606, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587974

RESUMEN

Donkeys and mules show several pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic idiosyncrasies that have to be fully considered by any clinician dealing with these species. Because they possess an increased metabolic rate and cellular water content compared with horses, higher doses (or shorter dosing intervals) are usually recommended for those drugs where pharmacologic studies have been performed. Nonetheless, owing to the lack of species-specific information, this assumption cannot be arbitrarily applied. Thus, when a drug protocol published for horses is extrapolated to a donkey or a mule, a close monitoring is required to detect any secondary effect or subdosing.


Asunto(s)
Equidae/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Caballos , Farmacología Clínica
4.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2877-2883, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422463

RESUMEN

Anthelmintic resistance in equine cyathostomin parasites is widespread. A surveillance-based parasite control program using fecal egg counts (FECs) and fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) to decrease anthelmintic use and monitor treatment efficacy is recommended. The purpose of this study was to examine shifts in equine parasite control program management practices via a short course presented by the Penn State Extension, and to highlight how data collected from these programs is useful for monitoring anthelmintic efficacy on a large scale. Horse owners were enrolled after participating in a short course and filled out questionnaire surveys about their parasite management programs pre and post study, horse information, and farm information. FECs were performed at three time points, and horses above a 300 strongyle eggs per gram cut-off were treated with pyrantel pamoate, fenbendazole, or ivermectin. Two weeks post-treatment, FECRTs were performed to determine treatment efficacy, which included 29 farms with 513 individual treatments. Prior to the study, only 30.6% of farms used FECs, but after the study, 97.3% of farms said they would use FECs in the future. Horses were given an average of 4.1 anthelmintic treatments per year before the study, and post study 89.2% of farms were able to reduce the number of anthelmintic treatments used. Fenbendazole was effective on zero farms, pyrantel pamoate on 7.4% of farms, and ivermectin on 92.9% of farms. This outreach project helped generate information about anthelmintic efficacy levels, causing a shift in practices on participating farms, and collected useful anthelmintic resistance data.


Asunto(s)
Antinematodos/uso terapéutico , Fenbendazol/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/veterinaria , Pamoato de Pirantel/uso terapéutico , Animales , Resistencia a Medicamentos/efectos de los fármacos , Granjas , Heces/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/parasitología , Caballos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 52-59, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442894

RESUMEN

Gastrointestinal parasites, Parascaris sp. and strongyles, are common in young horses worldwide and control of these parasites is challenged by increasing anthelmintic resistance. Our aim was to identify risk factors for these infections as well as to assess the efficacy of fenbendazole (dose 7.5 mg/kg) and pyrantel embonate (dose 19 mg/kg) against Parascaris sp. We also evaluated association between owner observed symptoms and patent infections with these parasites. Fecal samples were collected from 367 young horses in Finland and a questionnaire study was conducted. Fecal egg counts were performed by Mini-FLOTAC® method. Univariable logistic regression models using patent infection status (Yes/No), separately for Parascaris sp. and strongyle infections as an outcome were run initially to screen potential risk factors collected by the questionnaire. After the initial screening, multiple logistic regression models were constructed and run to account for correlated data structure, risk factors and potential confounders simultaneously. Two significant risk factors for a patent Parascaris sp. infection were found: breeding farm size (p = 0.028) and frequency of horse movements (p = 0.010). Horses originating from large breeding farms were more likely (OR = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-5.51) to shed Parascaris sp. eggs upon relocation to training stables compared to horses originating from small breeding farms. Horses living in farms with frequent horse movements to other premises had higher odds (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.35-9.39) of a patent Parascaris sp. infection compared to farms with less frequent horse movements. Risk factors for patent strongyle infection included age (p < 0.001) and season (p = 0.017). Horses were less likely (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.66) to shed strongylid eggs during the spring compared to the winter. Horses excreting over 200 ascarid eggs per gram were included in the anthelmintic efficacy trial. A mean FECR less than 90% was interpreted as presence of anthelmintic resistance. The mean FECR was 98.5% (95% CI: 95.8-100) and 68.0% (95% CI: 52.7-83.3) in the fenbendazole (n = 31) and pyrantel (n = 26) treatment groups, respectively. In conclusion, we identified two new risk factors for patent Parascaris sp. infection; breeding farm size and frequency of horse movements. Reduced efficacy of pyrantel against Parascaris sp. was observed for the second time in Europe. A relatively high Parascaris sp. prevalence in yearlings (34%) and two-year-olds (20%) was observed, which has not been reported earlier. An association between symptoms and a patent Parascaris sp. infection was observed in foals.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Ascaridida/veterinaria , Ascaridoidea/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Pamoato de Pirantel/farmacología , Pamoato de Pirantel/uso terapéutico , Animales , Infecciones por Ascaridida/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Ascaridida/epidemiología , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Fenbendazol/farmacología , Fenbendazol/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Caballos , Factores de Riesgo
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 298-304, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351199

RESUMEN

Navicular syndrome, a common cause of equine forelimb lameness, is associated with pathological changes in the navicular bone. Consequently, administration of bisphosphonates (BPs) has been advocated in order to modify the rate of bone turnover. The present study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy of intramuscularly administered clodronic acid for the treatment of 11 horses with clinical and radiographic findings compatible with navicular syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 5 of the 11 horses. The animals were treated with an intramuscular dose of clodronic acid of 765 mg/horse, administered over three separate injection sites. Before and at 7, 30 and 90 days after treatment, horses were subjected to lameness and accelerometric evaluations. A clinical improvement was observed in 6 of the 11 horses. These 6 horses showed a mean reduction of two degrees in lameness score. Accelerometry in these horses revealed increased velocity, stride length, stride regularity and dorsoventral displacement of the gravity of centre together with a reduction in stride frequency, suggesting a gait improvement. This study demonstrates that intramuscular clodronic acid can be useful for lameness reduction in some horses with navicular syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Clodrónico/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Cojera Animal/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Miembro Anterior/patología , Marcha , Enfermedades de los Caballos/patología , Caballos , Cojera Animal/patología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/veterinaria , Huesos Tarsianos/patología
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 270: 7-12, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213242

RESUMEN

This study investigated the impact of variability in Parascaris spp. and strongyle faecal egg counts (FEC) from foals on treatment decision-making and detection of a patent infection. A single faecal sample was collected once daily for three days from 53 foals and a FEC was performed on three separate portions of each sample (total of nine egg counts per foal). Differences in the decision to administer an anthelmintic using the results of a single count (C1), the mean of three (X¯1-3) or nine counts (X¯1-9) and the upper 5% confidence limit of the gamma confidence interval (CI) of the estimate of the distribution mean (µ) from three (UCL1-3) and nine counts (UCL1-9) were determined for a range of egg count thresholds. The UCL1-9 was used as the best estimate of µ, hypothesis testing for treatment and the comparison of treatment decision-making using C1, X¯1-3, X¯1-9 and UCL1-3. The results of this study demonstrated that a point estimate (C1 or X¯1-3) was of limited value for estimating the distribution mean of egg counts in faeces and there was overall poor agreement in treatment decision-making for individual foals using C1 compared with UCL1-9. Of the foals with C1 of zero eggs per gram, 54% and 47% had Parascaris and strongyle eggs in subsequent counts, respectively. The egg density in faeces is inhomogeneous, resulting in considerable variability in egg count results for an individual foal: between faecal piles, different portions of a faecal pile and days. The use of the negative binomial distribution CI for µ takes this variability into account and is recommended for use when interpreting FEC data from horses.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Ascaridida/veterinaria , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/métodos , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/veterinaria , Animales , Infecciones por Ascaridida/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascaridoidea , Caballos
8.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e9, 2019 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170778

RESUMEN

Osteoarthritis is a common cause of lameness in horses, resulting in poor performance. Intra-articular platelet-rich plasma can deliver a collection of bioactive molecules, such as autologous growth factors and proteins involved in the quality of tissue repair. Horses (n=5) with osteoarthritis affecting antebrachiocarpal, middle carpal or metacarpophalangeal joints, and horses (n=5) without osteoarthritis of the corresponding joints (radiographically free of osteoarthritis), were used for the production of platelet-rich plasma which was subsequently injected into selected joints. Clinical and synovial fluid changes after intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma as well as synovial platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-beta 1 concentration changes were evaluated in these joints and compared between normal joints and joints with osteoarthritis. A gravity filtration system produced a moderately concentrated platelet-rich plasma, representing a 4.7-fold increase in baseline platelet concentration. The synovial effusion score was significantly different between the control joints and joints with osteoarthritis on Day 0 with a higher score in the group with osteoarthritis. Within the control group, the synovial effusion score was significantly higher on Days 1 and 2 compared to Day 0. For both groups, the synovial fluid nucleated cell count, predominantly intact neutrophils, was significantly increased on Days 1 and 2, with no significant difference between groups. The mean synovial platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-beta 1 concentrations were increased for both groups but significantly lowered in the group with osteoarthritis on Day 1 compared to normal joints. Concentrations for platelet-derived growth factor-BB remained unchanged on Day 5, compared to Day 1, with no significant difference between groups. In conclusion, intra-articular treatment with platelet-rich plasma resulted in increased synovial growth factor concentrations in joints but with lower concentrations in joints with osteoarthritis. A transient inflammatory reaction was seen both clinically as an increase in synovial effusion and cytologically in both normal joints and joints with osteoarthritis.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intercelular/análisis , Osteoartritis/veterinaria , Plasma Rico en Plaquetas , Líquido Sinovial/citología , Animales , Femenino , Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico por imagen , Caballos , Inyecciones Intraarticulares/veterinaria , Cojera Animal/complicaciones , Cojera Animal/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Osteoartritis/complicaciones , Osteoartritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Aust Vet J ; 97(7): 238-242, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236925

RESUMEN

Antimicrobial stewardship involves the judicious use of antimicrobials balanced against the requirement to treat the presenting clinical condition. The same mandate and principles as discussed in human medicine and other veterinary disciplines are relevant to equine practice. This brief review will focus on available resources for equine practitioners, emerging perspectives on antimicrobial use and stewardship, and opportunities for more effective antimicrobial use in equine practice. There is a need for improved client education, availability of faster and more accurate techniques for identification and sensitivity testing of bacterial pathogens, and the development of novel agents.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos/métodos , Caballos , Medicina Veterinaria/métodos , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/prevención & control
10.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 25, 2019 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although artificial insemination (AI) was developed as a means of controlling disease transmission, pathogens can still be transmitted to females in semen used for AI. In addition, bacteria can cause deterioration in sperm quality during storage. Semen becomes contaminated by the male's normal bacterial flora as it passes out of the reproductive tract but potential pathogens may also contaminate the semen. Therefore, semen samples from stallions to be used for AI are tested before the breeding season to minimize transmission of pathogens to inseminated mares. In Sweden, semen samples are tested at the National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala (SVA). For the present study, a retrospective analysis was made of potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from samples submitted to the SVA from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: In our study, Taylorella equigenitalis was found infrequently (53 out of 25,512 samples), representing 11 out of 2308 stallions. If T. equigenitalis was detected, the stallions were treated with antibiotics and re-tested later in the same year. Klebsiella pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most commonly found potential pathogens, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated occasionally. There were considerable differences in the number of species isolated each year. CONCLUSIONS: Potential pathogens were identified in relatively few of the samples submitted to SVA during this period, with T. equigenitalis not being identified since 2015. Of the other potential pathogens, K. pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most common. The information is relevant for determining guidelines on the testing and treatment of stallions before breeding.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Líquidos Corporales/microbiología , Genitales Masculinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/veterinaria , Semen/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Caballos , Inseminación Artificial , Masculino , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/microbiología , Suecia
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 211, 2019 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234844

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a family of molecules characterized by two key properties: their ability to bind strongly to bone mineral and their inhibitory effects on mature osteoclasts and thus bone resorption. Chemically two groups of BPs are recognized, non-nitrogen-containing and nitrogen-containing BPs. Non-nitrogen-containing BPs incorporate into the energy pathways of the osteoclast, resulting in disrupted cellular energy metabolism leading to cytotoxic effects and osteoclast apoptosis. Nitrogen-containing BPs primarily inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis resulting in the disruption of intracellular signaling, and other cellular processes in the osteoclast. BODY: BPs also exert a wide range of physiologic activities beyond merely the inhibition of bone resorption. Indeed, the breadth of reported activities include inhibition of cancer cell metastases, proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. In addition, the inhibition of angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteinase activity, altered cytokine and growth factor expression, and reductions in pain have been reported. In humans, clinical BP use has transformed the treatment of both post-menopausal osteoporosis and metastatic breast and prostate cancer. However, BP use has also resulted in significant adverse events including acute-phase reactions, esophagitis, gastritis, and an association with very infrequent atypical femoral fractures (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). CONCLUSION: Despite the well-characterized health benefits of BP use in humans, little is known regarding the effects of BPs in the horse. In the equine setting, only non-nitrogen-containing BPs are FDA-approved primarily for the treatment of navicular syndrome. The focus here is to discuss the current understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of BPs in equine veterinary medicine and highlight the future utility of these potentially highly beneficial drugs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Óseas/veterinaria , Difosfonatos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Enfermedades Óseas/tratamiento farmacológico , Huesos/efectos de los fármacos , Predicción , Caballos , Humanos , Cojera Animal/tratamiento farmacológico , Osteocondrosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Osteocondrosis/veterinaria , Osteoclastos/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 28, 2019 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221173

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone is used for the intra-articular route of administration in management of aseptic arthritis in horses. Despite its widespread use there is very little quantitative data of the disposition and response to dexamethasone. The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the synovial fluid and plasma dexamethasone concentration over time and to explore the relation between synovial fluid concentration and response using clinical endpoints as response biomarkers after IA injection of dexamethasone disodium salt solution in an equine model of synovitis. RESULTS: Inflammation was induced in the radiocarpal joint of six horses by injection of 2 ng lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Two hours later either saline or dexamethasone was injected in the same joint in a two treatment cross over design. Each horse was treated once with one of the six doses dexamethasone used (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 or 3 mg) and once with saline. Dexamethasone was quantified by means of UHPLC-MS/MS. Dexamethasone disposition was characterised by means of a non-linear mixed effects model. Lameness was evaluated both objectively with an inertial sensor based system and subjectively scored using a numerical scale (0-5). Joint circumference, skin temperature over the joint and rectal temperature were also recorded. The LPS-challenge induced lameness in all horses with high inter-individual variability. Dexamethasone significantly decreased lameness compared with saline. Other variables were not statistically significant different between treatments. Objective lameness scoring was the most sensitive method used in this study to evaluate the lameness response. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was successfully fitted to experimental dexamethasone and lameness data. The model allowed characterization of the dexamethasone synovial fluid concentration-time course, the systemic exposure to dexamethasone after intra-articular administration and the concentration-response relation in an experimental model of synovitis. CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative data improve the understanding of the pharmacology of dexamethasone and might serve as input for future experiments and possibly contribute to maintain integrity of equine sports.


Asunto(s)
Dexametasona/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades de los Caballos/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Lipopolisacáridos , Sinovitis/veterinaria , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios/farmacocinética , Dexametasona/farmacocinética , Caballos , Inyecciones Intraarticulares/veterinaria , Sinovitis/inducido químicamente , Sinovitis/tratamiento farmacológico
13.
Vet Dermatol ; 30(5): 430-e132, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218772

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Otitis externa is rare in horses and the condition is poorly described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical signs, treatment regimens and prognosis of otitis externa in horses. ANIMALS: Eight horses diagnosed with otitis externa during 2011-2018. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records and follow-up contact with owners. RESULTS: Common clinical signs seen in affected horses were pruritus, ear discharge and ear droop of affected ears. The most common cytological findings were neutrophils, bacteria and yeast. All horses responded well to treatment; two horses were reported to have recurrent problems. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Otitis externa in horses is a rare and treatable condition. The condition may be present for prolonged periods before owners become aware, compromising the welfare of affected horses. Untreated otitis externa is a suggested cause of otitis media and temporohyoid osteoarthropathy, emphasizing the importance of identifying and treating this condition at an early stage. For this reason, clinicians should include a brief inspection of the pinnae and external ear canal in the clinical examination of horses.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/patología , Caballos , Masculino
14.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 68: 135-141, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082785

RESUMEN

Published information on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pergolide is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral pergolide in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). The study design was a nonrandomized clinical trial. Six horses with PPID diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation tests received pergolide at 4 µg/kg for 18 d. Plasma samples for determination of pergolide and ACTH concentration were collected 0.5 h before and 2 and 12 h after each administration of pergolide. Maximum plasma concentrations after the first oral dose of pergolide (0.104-0.684 ng/mL; median 0.261 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR] 0.184-0.416 ng/mL) were not significantly different to the maximum steady-state concentration at day 18 (0.197-0.628 ng/mL; median 0.274; IQR 0.232-0.458 ng/mL). Chronic administration was not associated with drug accumulation (R = 1.09) and pergolide concentration reached steady state within 3 d. Throughout, concentrations of pergolide fluctuated considerably, with median plasma peak concentrations more than four times higher than median trough concentrations. Plasma ACTH concentration reduced significantly within 12 h of administration with further reductions occurring up to 10 d after the initiation of treatment. Although there were parallel fluctuations in the concentrations of pergolide and ACTH, timing of ACTH measurement in relation to the administration of pergolide did not have a significant effect. Alterations in the response to TRH were identified at 8 d with no further change being identified at 18 d. A small number of horses were studied. Oral pergolide results in significant suppression of pars intermedia activity within hours. Pergolide and ACTH concentrations fluctuated in tandem although correlation was poor. Fluctuations in pergolide concentration were consistent with a terminal elimination half-life of less than 12 h. To reduce the level of fluctuation of ACTH, twice-daily dosing of pergolide may be more appropriate.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Pergolida/farmacocinética , Enfermedades de la Hipófisis/veterinaria , Adenohipófisis Porción Intermedia/efectos de los fármacos , Administración Oral , Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/sangre , Animales , Área Bajo la Curva , Caballos , Pergolida/administración & dosificación , Pergolida/sangre , Pergolida/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de la Hipófisis/tratamiento farmacológico , Hormona Liberadora de Tirotropina/administración & dosificación , Hormona Liberadora de Tirotropina/farmacología
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 269: 28-33, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079825

RESUMEN

Previously described models for the free-living and parasitic phases of the cyathostomin life-cycle were combined into a single model for the complete life-cycle. The model simulates a single free-living population on pasture utilising parasite egg output from the horses and localised temperature and rainfall data to estimate infective larval density on herbage. Multiple horses of different ages are possible, each with an individualised anthelmintic treatment programme. Genotypes for anthelmintic resistance are included allowing for up to three resistance genes with 2 alleles each. Because little is known of the genetics of resistance to anthelmintics in cyathostomins, the first use of this model was to compare the effect of different assumptions regarding the inheritance of resistance on model outputs. Comparisons were made between single and two-gene inheritance, where the heterozygote survival was dominant, intermediate or recessive under treatment, and with or without a fitness disadvantage associated with the resistance mechanism. Resistance developed fastest when the heterozygotes survived anthelmintic treatment (i.e., were dominant) and slowest when they did not (i.e., were recessive). Resistance was slower to develop when inheritance was poly-genic compared to a single gene, and when there was a fitness cost associated with the resistance mechanism, although the latter variable was the least influential. Importantly, while these genetic factors sometimes had a large influence on the rate at which resistant genotypes built up in the model populations, their order of ranking was always the same, when different anthelmintic use strategies were compared. Therefore, the described model is a useful tool for evaluating different treatment and management strategies on their potential to select for resistance.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Simulación por Computador , Resistencia a Medicamentos/genética , Enfermedades de los Caballos/parasitología , Infecciones Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitología , Strongyloidea/genética , Animales , Femenino , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Caballos , Larva , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/veterinaria , Infecciones Equinas por Strongyloidea/tratamiento farmacológico , Strongyloidea/efectos de los fármacos , Strongyloidea/fisiología
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 269: 7-12, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079830

RESUMEN

Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in equine cyathostomin populations across the world, and with no new anthelmintic drug classes in the pharmaceutical pipeline, the equine industry is forced to abandon traditional parasite control regimens. Current recommendations aim at reducing treatment intensity and identifying high strongylid egg shedders in a targeted treatment approach. But, virtually nothing is known about the effectiveness of these recommendations, nor their applicability to different climatic regions, making it challenging to tailor sustainable recommendations for equine parasite control. This study made use of a computer model of the entire cyathostomin life-cycle to evaluate the influence of climate and seasonality on the development of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomin parasites. Furthermore, the study evaluated the impact of recommended programs involving selective anthelmintic therapy on delaying anthelmintic resistance development. All simulations evaluated the use of a single anthelmintic (i.e., ivermectin) over the course of 40 model years. The study made use of weather station data representing four different climatic zones: a cold humid continental climate, a temperate oceanic climate, a cold semi-arid climate, and a humid subtropical climate. Initially, the impact of time of the year was evaluated when a single anthelmintic treatment was administered once a year in any of the twelve months. The next simulations evaluated the impact of treatment intensities varying between 2 and 6 treatments per year. And finally, we evaluated treatment schedules consisting of a combination of strategic treatments administered to all horses and additional treatments administered to horses exceeding a predetermined fecal egg count threshold. Month of treatment had a large effect on resistance development in colder climates, but little or no impact in subtropical and tropical climates. Resistance development was affected by treatment intensity, but was also strongly affected by climate. Selective therapy delayed resistance development in all modelled scenarios, but, again, this effect was climate dependent with the largest delays observed in the colder climates. This study is the first to demonstrate the value of cyathostomin parasite refugia in managing anthelmintic resistance, and also that climate and seasonality are important. This modelling exercise has allowed an illustration of concepts believed to play important roles in anthelmintic resistance in equine cyathostomins, but has also identified knowledge gaps and new questions to address in future studies.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Simulación por Computador , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Enfermedades de los Caballos/parasitología , Infecciones Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitología , Strongyloidea/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Clima , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Caballos , Ivermectina/farmacología , Refugio , Estaciones del Año , Infecciones Equinas por Strongyloidea/tratamiento farmacológico , Tiempo (Meteorología)
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(4): 1766-1774, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111575

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulates the response to sepsis-associated stress. Relative adrenal insufficiency or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH):cortisol imbalance, defined as a poor cortisol response to administration of ACTH, is common and associated with death in hospitalized foals. However, information on other adrenal steroid response to ACTH stimulation in sick foals is minimal. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the response of multiple adrenocortical steroids to administration of ACTH in foals. ANIMALS: Hospitalized (n = 34) and healthy (n = 13) foals. METHODS: In this prospective study, hospitalized foals were categorized into 2 groups using cluster analysis based on adrenal steroids response to ACTH stimulation: Cluster 1 (n = 11) and Cluster 2 (n = 23). After baseline blood sample collection, foals received 10 µg of ACTH with additional samples collected at 30 and 90 minutes after ACTH. Steroid and ACTH concentrations were determined by immunoassays. The area under the curve (AUC) and Delta0-30 were calculated for each hormone. RESULTS: The AUC for cortisol, aldosterone, androstenedione, pregnenolone, 17α-OH-progesterone, and progesterone were higher in critically ill (Cluster 1) compared to healthy foals (P < .01). Delta0-30 for cortisol and 17α-OH-progesterone was lower in Cluster 1 (24%, 26.7%) and Cluster 2 (16%, 11.2%) compared to healthy foals (125%, 71%), respectively (P < .05). Foals that died had increased AUC for endogenous ACTH (269 versus 76.4 pg/mL/h, P < .05) accompanied by a low AUC for cortisol (5.5 versus 15.5 µg/dL/h, P < .05), suggesting adrenocortical dysfunction. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The 17α-OH-progesterone response to administration of ACTH was a good predictor of disease severity and death in hospitalized foals.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/sangre , Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/farmacología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/sangre , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/sangre , Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/administración & dosificación , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Área Bajo la Curva , Análisis por Conglomerados , Enfermedad Crítica , Femenino , Enfermedades de los Caballos/mortalidad , Caballos , Masculino , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sepsis/veterinaria
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100920

RESUMEN

Equine Piroplasmosis (EP) is a tick-borne disease caused by apicomplexan protozoan parasites, Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. The disease is responsible for serious economic losses to the equine industry. It principally affects donkeys, horses, mules, and zebra but DNA of the parasites has also been detected in dogs and camels raising doubt about their host specificity. The disease is endemic in tropical and temperate regions of the world where the competent tick vectors are prevalent. Infected equids remain carrier for life with T. equi infection, whilst, infection with B. caballi is cleared within a few years. This review focuses on all aspects of the disease from the historical overview, biology of the parasite, epidemiology of the disease (specifically highlighting other non-equine hosts, such as dogs and camels), vector, clinical manifestations, risk factors, immunology, genetic diversity, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.


Asunto(s)
Babesiosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Theileriosis/epidemiología , Animales , Babesia/fisiología , Babesiosis/diagnóstico , Babesiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Babesiosis/inmunología , Vectores de Enfermedades , Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/inmunología , Caballos , Factores de Riesgo , Theileria/fisiología , Theileriosis/diagnóstico , Theileriosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Theileriosis/inmunología , Garrapatas
19.
Vet J ; 248: 42-47, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113561

RESUMEN

Enterococci have been increasing in prevalence in foal sepsis over the past three decades. There are no published studies in the peer-reviewed literature documenting common sites of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility, or outcome specifically associated with enterococcal infections in foals. Our objectives were to evaluate the sites of origin, antimicrobial susceptibility, and survival outcome to discharge in foals with enterococcal infections compared with foals with sepsis of another bacterial etiology. Seventy-five foals 0-30 days of age with cultures positive for Enterococcus and 170 control foals 0-30 days of age with cultures positive for other bacteria were included. Enterococcus was 2.67 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-4.80; P = 0.0012) more likely to be isolated from the lower urogenital tract of foals than were other bacteria. Enterococci were less likely to be isolated from blood cultures than other bacteria, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.35; P < 0.0001). For Enterococcus isolates, 48% (n = 29/61) had a multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index of ≥30% and 46% (n = 28/61) had a multiple drug resistance (MDR) index of ≥30%. Foals with enterococcal infections were less likely to survive to discharge (49.9% vs. 63.5%; P = 0.03). Enterococcus is commonly isolated from the lower urogenital tract of foals, is often multidrug resistant, and foals with enterococcal infections were less likely to survive. Multidrug resistance is common among enterococcal isolates, and therefore antimicrobial susceptibility testing of cultured isolates is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Enterococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Enterococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/microbiología , Caballos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/veterinaria , Estudios Retrospectivos
20.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(2): 275-288, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076222

RESUMEN

Intravenous lidocaine is widely used to prevent or treat postoperative ileus in horses. Clinical studies that support this approach are flawed and contradicted by others. Also, physical obstruction could be more important in causing postoperative reflux than postoperative ileus in the horse. The antiinflammatory properties of lidocaine and the role of inflammation from intestinal handling in the genesis of postoperative reflux are questionable. Because of cost and questionable efficacy of lidocaine, a well-designed clinical trial is required to support its continued use. However, lidocaine could be given to provide or enhance analgesia in selected cases with postoperative colic.


Asunto(s)
Cólico/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/cirugía , Ileus/veterinaria , Lidocaína/administración & dosificación , Anestésicos Locales/administración & dosificación , Animales , Cólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Cólico/cirugía , Caballos , Ileus/tratamiento farmacológico , Ileus/prevención & control , Manejo del Dolor/veterinaria , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/prevención & control , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/veterinaria
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA