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1.
Theriogenology ; 177: 1-10, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653791

RESUMEN

Chloroquine (CQ) could function as a lysosomotropic agent to inhibit the endolysosomal trafficking in the autophagy pathway, and is widely used on malarial, tumor and recently COVID-19. However, the effect of CQ treatment on porcine immature Sertoli cells (iSCs) remains unclear. Here we showed that CQ could reduce iSC viability in a dose-dependent manner. CQ treatment (20 µM) on iSCs for 36h could elevate oxidative stress, damage mitochondrial function and promote apoptosis, which could be partially rescued by melatonin (MT) (10 nM). Transcriptome profiling identified 1611 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (776 up- and 835 down-regulated) (20 µM CQ vs. DMSO), mainly involved in MAPK cascade, cell proliferation/apoptosis, HIF-1, PI3K-Akt and lysosome signaling pathways. In contrast, only 467 (224 up- and 243 down-regulated) DEGs (CQ + MT vs. DMSO) could be found after MT (10 nM) addition, enriched in cell cycle, regulation of apoptotic process, lysosome and reproduction pathways. Therefore, the partial rescue effects of MT on CQ treatment were confirmed by multiple assays (cell viability, ROS level, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and mRNA levels of selected genes). Collectively, CQ treatment could impair porcine iSC viability by deranging the signaling pathways related to apoptosis and autophagy, which could be partially rescued by MT supplementation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonina , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Apoptosis , Autofagia , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/veterinaria , Cloroquina/farmacología , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacología , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas , SARS-CoV-2 , Células de Sertoli , Porcinos
2.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(2-4): 223-246, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762225

RESUMEN

Acari community structure and function associated with delayed pig carrion decomposition has not been examined. In this study, 18 swine carcasses were studied in central Texas, USA, during two consecutive summers (2013 and 2014). Samples of ca. 400 g soil were collected from beneath, aside, and 5 m away from each pig carcass over 180 days. Mites from soil samples were extracted using Berlese funnels and identified to order and family levels and classified according to ecological function. In total 1565 and 1740 mites were identified from the 2013 and 2014 soil samples, respectively. Significant differences were determined for mite community structure at order and family levels temporally on carrion (e.g., day 0 × day 14) regardless of treatments and between soil regions where mites were collected (e.g., soil beneath vs. soil 5 m away from carrion). However, no significant differences were found in mite community structure at the order level between pig carrion with and without delayed Diptera colonization (i.e., treatments). Analysis at the family level determined a significant difference across treatments for both summers. Ecological function of mites did not change significantly following the delayed decomposition of pig carcasses. However, detritivores and fungivores were significant indicator groups during the pig carrion decomposition process. Furthermore, 13 phoretic mite species associated with eight forensically important beetle species were documented. Data from this study indicated that the rate of nutrient flow into the soil impacted associated arthropod communities; however, detecting such shifts depends on the taxonomic resolution being applied.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Ácaros , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Cadáver , Estaciones del Año , Suelo , Porcinos
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 542, 2021 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762182

RESUMEN

Proper implementation of biosecurity is currently the only control measure of African swine fever (ASF) in the absence of an effective vaccine or drug against the disease. Despite the efforts that Uganda's local and central governments have invested to reduce livestock diseases, ASF outbreaks still persist in the country. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of community-led initiatives in the control of ASF in Mukono District, central Uganda. In Mukono district, a community-led pilot program was initiated where stakeholders in the pig value chain organized themselves into an ASF control task force to enforce on-farm and pig value chain activities intended to limit the spread of ASF. Semi-structured interviews with pig famers (n = 211) were conducted in two areas with contrasting practices: one with active community-initiated and monitored ASF control initiatives since 2016 (Kasawo and Namuganga) and the other without such initiative as the control (Mpunge and Ntenjeru). A significant decline (Wilcoxon ranked sign test: Z = - 5.412, p = 0.000) in the annual frequency of ASF outbreaks in both Kasawo and Namuganga sub-counties was observed after the implementation of community-led initiatives. The level of practice of most ASF control measures was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in sub-counties that instituted community-led ASF control initiatives than in the control sub-counties. The results of this study demonstrate the power of community-led initiatives in reducing ASF disease outbreaks in endemic areas.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana , Fiebre Porcina Africana , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Fiebre Porcina Africana/epidemiología , Fiebre Porcina Africana/prevención & control , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Ganado , Porcinos , Uganda/epidemiología
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e008721, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787174

RESUMEN

A serological, molecular and histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate occurrences of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs slaughtered with and without inspection service. Serum samples were collected from 60 pigs to detect anti-T. gondii antibody by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFAT). Tongue, masseter and diaphragm fragments were also collected for parasite DNA detection by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathological analysis. The serological results showed that 77% (44/60) of the pigs were positive. Regarding PCR, 66.67% (40/60) were positive for T. gondii. Among the tissues evaluated, the diaphragm was the one with the highest frequency of positivity (40%; 24/60), followed by the masseter (38.33%; 23/60) and tongue (33.3%; 20/60). Histopathological changes were only observed in the diaphragm, which presented inflammatory infiltrates of lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic types. These results not only show the potential threat of T. gondii to human health, but also demonstrate the dynamic epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in pigs in the city of São Luís, providing support for food security regarding pigs and for T. gondii control programs in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis Animal , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios , Brasil/epidemiología , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente Indirecta/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Toxoplasmosis Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología
5.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 651-659, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758957

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: African Swine Fever (ASF) is a severe viral disease infecting all suid species. Since the first outbreak in Georgia in 2007, it has slowly spread towards Western Europe and reached the European Union when first cases were detected in Poland and the Baltic States in 2014. ASF was first reported in China in 2018 and since then, it has spread to 14 countries within two years. This study aimed to estimate the introduction probability of ASF from Eastern Asia in a qualitative risk assessment, and to compare it to the probability from Eastern Europe, which was assessed in an earlier risk assessment. A high probability of introduction was estimated for the import of meat and meat products, which was found to be the most likely route of introduction. Less important routes were introduction by human contamination (low probability) or import of feed or blood products (very low probability). Import of domestic pigs or free-ranging wild boar, contaminated means of transport, or infected semen, embryo or ticks were all estimated to be negligible. For Eastern Europe, import of meat and meat products was also estimated to pose a high risk and was therefore the most likely route of introduction. Higher probabilities were estimated for import of live pigs, contaminated feed or means of transport and human contamination. Overall, the probability of introduction from Eastern Asia is only slightly lower than from Eastern Europe. As it is important to detect the first case as quickly as possible, it is important not to fall victim to habituation effects, but to remain vigilant.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana , Fiebre Porcina Africana , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Fiebre Porcina Africana/epidemiología , Animales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Lejano Oriente , Polonia , Probabilidad , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología
6.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3221-3230, 2021 Sep 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622630

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to develop a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) based on a biotinylated nanobody target the S1 protein of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) for detecting the anti-PEDV antibodies and evaluating the immune effect of the vaccine. The gene encoding the single-domain antibody sdAb3 target the PEDV S1 protein was amplified and the Avitag sequence was fused at its 3'-end. The PCR product was cloned into the expression vector pET-21b for expression and purification of the sdAb3-Avitag protein. The purified sdAb3-Avitag fusion protein was biotinylated and its activity was determined. Using the recombinant S1 protein as a coating antigen, a bELISA was established and optimized. Serum samples were tested in parallel by the bELISA and a commercial kit. The recombinant vector pET21b-sdAb3-Avitag was constructed to express the tagged sdAb3. After induction for expression, the biotin-labeled sdAb3 (sdAb3-Biotin) with high purity and good activity was obtained. For the optimized bELISA, the coating concentration of the S1 protein was 200 ng/well, the serum dilution was 1:2 and incubated for 2 h, the dilution ratio of the biotinylated sdAb3 was 1:8 000 and incubated for 30 min, the dilution of the enzyme-labeled antibody was 1:5 000 and incubated for 30 min. The bELISA had no cross reaction with the sera of major porcine viruses including transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and showed good specificity and reproducibility. For a total of 54 porcine serum samples tested, the overall compliance rate of the bELISA with a commercial kit was 92.56%. This study developed a rapid and reliable bELISA method, which can be used for serosurveillance and vaccine evaluation for PEDV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Anticuerpos de Dominio Único , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Porcinos
7.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 88(1): e1-e10, 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636620

RESUMEN

The article reviews the outbreaks and distribution of African swine fever (ASF) in South Africa since the first probable outbreak that occurred in the Koedoesrand Ward in 1926. Retrospective data on the ASF outbreaks in South Africa were obtained from the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) disease database and the South African veterinary services annual reports in addition to published articles and online sources. South Africa has experienced many outbreaks that can be divided into 2 time periods: the period before the development of the OIE diseases database (1993) and the period after. More than 141 outbreaks of ASF were reported during the first period. Since the development of OIE disease database, 72 outbreaks directly involving 2968 cases, 2187 dead and 2358 killed pigs mainly in smallholder pig farms were reported. The median number of cases for a given ASF outbreak is 17, but in 50% of outbreaks no pigs were killed for prevention. The most important ASF outbreak was reported in April 2014 in the Greater Zeerust district (North West province) involving 326 cases and 1462 killed pigs. However, the outbreak with highest mortality involving 250 pigs was reported in 2016 (Free State province). According to phylogenetic analysis, nine p72 genotypes (I, III, IV, VII, VIII, XIX, XX, XXI and XXII) have been identified in South Africa. Season-wise, more outbreaks were recorded during summer. It was also observed that the OIE disease database could contain errors that would have been introduced through compiled forms at country level. Spatiotemporal studies on ASF outbreaks in South Africa are therefore required in order to assess statistically and quantitatively the clustering of outbreaks over space and time.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana , Fiebre Porcina Africana , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Fiebre Porcina Africana/epidemiología , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Filogenia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Sus scrofa , Porcinos
8.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 135, 2021 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674760

RESUMEN

Glaesserella parasuis (G. parasuis) is a commensal bacterium in the upper respiratory tract of pigs that can also cause the swine Glässer disease, which induces an intensive inflammatory response and results in significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. G. parasuis can cause disease through infection of the respiratory tract, resulting in systemic infection, but the mechanism is largely unknown. Recently we showed that Glaesserella parasuis serotype 4 (GPS4) increased swine tracheal epithelial barrier permeability, resulting in easier bacterial translocation. Tight junction proteins (TJ) play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and impermeability of the epithelial barrier. GPS4 decreased the expression of the TJ ZO-1 and occludin in swine tracheal epithelial cells (STEC). Furthermore, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly upregulated in GPS4-infected STEC, and both the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were activated and contributed to the expression of TNF-α. We demonstrate that the production of proinflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-α, during GPS4 infection was involved in barrier dysfunction. Additionally, animal challenge experiments confirmed that GPS4 infection downregulated TJ in the lungs of piglets and induced a severe inflammatory response. In general, G. parasuis infection downregulated the expression of TJ and induced massive secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in epithelial barrier disruption and favoring bacterial infection. This study allowed us to better understand the mechanism by which G. parasuis crosses the respiratory tract of pigs.


Asunto(s)
Traslocación Bacteriana , Haemophilus parasuis/fisiología , Infecciones por Pasteurellaceae/veterinaria , Transducción de Señal , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Animales , Células Epiteliales , Infecciones por Haemophilus/microbiología , Infecciones por Haemophilus/fisiopatología , Infecciones por Haemophilus/veterinaria , Haemophilus parasuis/genética , Infecciones por Pasteurellaceae/microbiología , Infecciones por Pasteurellaceae/fisiopatología , Serogrupo , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/fisiopatología
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258318, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714840

RESUMEN

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) is a highly contagious enteric viral disease of pigs with a high morbidity and mortality rate, which ultimately results in huge economic losses in the pig production sector. The etiological agent of this disease is the porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) which is an enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA virus. The aim of this study was to perform molecular characterization of PEDV to identify the strains circulating in Poland. In this study, 662 faecal samples from 2015 to 2021 were tested with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and the results showed that 3.8% of the tested samples revealed a positive result for PEDV. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome and complete S gene sequences showed that Polish PEDV strains belonged to the G1b (S-INDEL) subgroup and were closely related to the European PEDV strains isolated from 2014 to 2019. Furthermore, RDP4 analysis revealed that the Polish PEDV strains harboured a recombinant fragment of ~400 nt in the 5' end of S gene with PEDV and swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV) being the major and minor parents, respectively. Antigenic analysis showed that the aa sequences of neutralizing epitopes were conserved among the Polish PEDV strains. Only one strain, #0100/5P, had a unique substitution in the COE epitope. However, Polish PEDV strains showed several substitutions, especially in the COE antigen, as compared to the classical strain CV777. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the molecular characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus strains, as well as the first phylogenetic analysis for PEDV in Poland.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Genes Virales , Polonia , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/metabolismo , Porcinos
10.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 138, 2021 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717778

RESUMEN

In this study, we investigated the role of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) replication. We found that PEDV infection induced strong HSP70 overexpression in the very early stage of infection. We also confirmed that HSP70 overexpression increased the speed of PEDV replication, resulting in the generation of more virions. In contrast, knockout of HSP70 in cells significantly downregulated PEDV protein expression, resulting in a significant reduction in PEDV replication. Most importantly, we confirmed that among the structural proteins of PEDV, membrane (M) proteins have this important role. We found that membrane proteins control cellular HSP70 expression in PEDV-infected cells. We confirmed HSP70/M complex formation by both immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays. Additionally, PEDV M overexpression induced strong HSP70 expression. All our results clearly confirmed that in PEDV-infected cells, the M protein plays a very important role in PEDV replication in collaboration with HSP70.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Proteínas M de Coronavirus/metabolismo , Proteínas HSP70 de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Replicación Viral , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Biosíntesis de Proteínas , Sus scrofa , Porcinos
11.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696421

RESUMEN

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes diarrhoea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission. No effective PDCoV vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available. Here, we successfully generated an infectious clone of PDCoV strain CHN-HN-2014 using a combination of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based reverse genetics system with a one-step homologous recombination. The recued virus (rCHN-HN-2014) possesses similar growth characteristics to the parental virus in vitro. Based on the established infectious clone and CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a PDCoV reporter virus expressing nanoluciferase (Nluc) was constructed by replacing the NS6 gene. Using two drugs, lycorine and resveratrol, we found that the Nluc reporter virus exhibited high sensibility and easy quantification to rapid antiviral screening. We further used the Nluc reporter virus to test the susceptibility of different cell lines to PDCoV and found that cell lines derived from various host species, including human, swine, cattle and monkey enables PDCoV replication, broadening our understanding of the PDCoV cell tropism range. Taken together, our reporter viruses are available to high throughput screening for antiviral drugs and uncover the infectivity of PDCoV in various cells, which will accelerate our understanding of PDCoV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Deltacoronavirus/metabolismo , Genes Reporteros/genética , Luciferasas/genética , Células A549 , Animales , Línea Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cromosomas Artificiales Bacterianos/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Deltacoronavirus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Perros , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Luciferasas/biosíntesis , Células de Riñón Canino Madin Darby , Nanoestructuras , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Células Vero , Replicación Viral/genética
12.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 133, 2021 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666827

RESUMEN

Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen responsible for economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. There is no effective commercial vaccine against S. suis. The use of autogenous ("bacterin") vaccines to control S. suis outbreaks is a frequent preventive measure in the field, although scientific data on immunogenicity and reduction in mortality and morbidity are scarce. The goal of our study is to experimentally evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy against homologous challenge in weaned piglets of a S. suis serotype 2 bacterin-based vaccine formulated with six different commercial adjuvants (Alhydrogel®, Emulsigen®-D, Quil-A®, Montanide™ ISA 206 VG, Montanide™ ISA 61 VG, and Montanide™ ISA 201 VG). The vaccine formulated with Montanide™ ISA 61 VG induced a significant increase in anti-S. suis antibodies, including both IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses, protected against mortality and significantly reduced morbidity and severity of clinical signs. Vaccines formulated with Montanide ISA 206 VG or Montanide ISA 201 VG also induced a significant increase in anti-S. suis antibodies and showed partial protection and reduction of clinical signs severity. Vaccines formulated with Alhydrogel®, Emulsigen®-D, or Quil-A® induced a low and IgG1-shifted antibody response and failed to protect vaccinated piglets against a homologous challenge. In conclusion, the type of adjuvant used in the vaccine formulation significantly influenced the immune response and efficacy of the vaccine against a homologous challenge.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Vacunas Bacterianas/administración & dosificación , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/veterinaria , Streptococcus suis/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/inmunología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Destete
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 483, 2021 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570280

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to monitor the evolution of welfare indicators of pigs throughout growing and finishing phases housed in a deep bedding system by principles of good health and housing. In all, 16,500 animals, distributed in 15 facilities, were evaluated over a 4-month period. Three assessments were carried out in each facility by a single evaluator, according to the following time distribution: phase one (75 to 85 days old), phase two (86 to 161 days old), and phase three (162 to 180 days old). Only the parameters related to good health and good housing were considered. Data were analyzed by logistic regression for longitudinal data. Poisson distribution was used on the coughing and sneezing data, with subsequent chi-square analysis. There were no cases of poor body condition, shivering, panting, huddling, tail biting, pumping, twisted snout, rectal prolapse, lameness, and skin conditions. The final evaluations were associated with greater chances of hernia and bursitis, with greater prevalence in males than in females. The prevalence of wound and manure on the body parameters was influenced by the interaction of the evaluation and animal category. The incidence of coughing and the number of animals presenting this symptom gradually increased, becoming considerably higher in the final stage of evaluation. Health-related problems change throughout the production cycle. The evaluation of a broad and reliable view on animal welfare allows for the most appropriate management of production systems using deep bedding.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda para Animales , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Ropa de Cama y Ropa Blanca , Femenino , Masculino , Prevalencia , Porcinos
14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(11): 1653-1660, 2021 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526423

RESUMEN

Investigation of the role of animals that have recovered and survived from African swine fever (ASF) in carrying the ASF virus is currently intense and ongoing. However, no clear definition of the carrier stage has been established. The aim of the present study was to establish criteria to elucidate a clear status of survival in naturally ASF-infected domestic pigs in Vietnam. Seroconversion from previous infection was confirmed by serological assay, and the absence of the viral genome in various organs was also assured by molecular analysis of a partial p72 gene. We recognized that histopathological evidence could benefit from further insights into the status and role of the surviving animals; therefore, we performed a histopathological study on four pigs from farms with a history of ASF outbreak. We found fibrotic changes in the reparative process as the main finding in all four pigs. Immunohistochemical detection of viral protein revealed an interesting result. Despite the negative result from viral genome detection, the p30 protein gave a positive signal in the tonsils, lung, and stomach. This raises the possibility of stress-induced viral reactivation in long-term survivors and the risk of further outbreaks from human handling of contaminated carcasses.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Porcina Africana , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Fiebre Porcina Africana/epidemiología , Animales , Antígenos Virales , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Granjas , Genotipo , Filogenia , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Vietnam/epidemiología
15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(11): 1702-1707, 2021 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544936

RESUMEN

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic inflammatory and zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) members, affecting several domestic animals, wildlife species and humans. The preliminary investigation was aimed to detect antibody against MTBC among indigenous wildlife which are free-ranged wild boar, free-ranged wild macaques and captive Asian elephants in selected areas of Selangor and elephant conservation centre in Pahang, respectively. The results indicate that MTBC serodetection rate in wild boar was 16.7% (7.3-33.5 at 95% confidence interval (CI)) using an in-house ELISA bPPD IgG and 10% (3.5-25.6 at 95% CI) by DPP®VetTB assay, while the wild macaques and Asian elephant were seronegative. The univariate analysis indicates no statistically significant difference in risk factors for sex and age of wild boar but there was a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between bovine TB in dairy cattle and wild boar seropositivity in the Sepang district.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Elefantes , Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Tuberculosis , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos , Bovinos , Macaca , Malasia/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/veterinaria
16.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570877

RESUMEN

Pigs with complete resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) have been produced by genetically knocking out the CD163 gene that encodes a receptor of the PRRSV for entry into macrophages. The objectives of this study were to evaluate associations of naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD163 gene and in three other candidate genes (CD169, RGS16, and TRAF1) with host response to PRRSV-only infection and to PRRS vaccination and PRRSV/porcine circovirus 2b (PCV2b) coinfection. SNPs in the CD163 gene were not included on SNP genotyping panels that were used for previous genome-wide association analyses of these data. An additional objective was to identify the potential genetic interaction of variants at these four candidate genes with a mutation in the GBP5 gene that was previously identified to be associated with host response to PRRSV infection. Finally, the association of SNPs with expression level of the nearby gene was tested. Several SNPs in the CD163, CD169, and RGS16 genes were significantly associated with host response under PRRSV-only and/or PRRSV/PCV2b coinfection. The effects of all SNPs that were significant in the PRRSV-only infection trials depend on genetic background. The effects of some SNPs in the CD163, CD169, and RGS16 genes depend on genotype at the putative causative mutation in the GBP5 gene, which indicates a potential biological interaction of these genes with GBP5. In addition, genome-wide association results for the PRRSV-only infection trials revealed that SNPs located in the CDK5RAP2 or MEGF9 genes, near the TRAF1 gene, had suggestive effects on PRRS viral load, which indicates that these SNPs might contribute to PRRSV neuropathogenesis. In conclusion, natural genetic variants in the CD163, CD169, and RGS16 genes are associated with resistance to PRRSV and/or PCV2b infection and appear to interact with the resistance quantitative trait locus in the GBP5 gene. The identified SNPs can be used to select for increased natural resistance to PRRSV and/or PRRSV-PCV2b coinfection.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Antígenos CD , Antígenos de Diferenciación Mielomonocítica/genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo/veterinaria , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/genética , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo , Receptores de Superficie Celular , Porcinos/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/genética
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 299: 109566, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509125

RESUMEN

Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasite, can infect all warm-blooded animals. Infected swine are considered one of the most important sources of T. gondii infection in humans. Rapidly and effectively diagnosing T. gondii infection in swine is essential. PCR-based diagnostic tests have been fully developed, and very sensitive and specific PCR is crucial for the diagnosis of swine toxoplasmosis. In this study, we used the T. gondii dense granule protein 14 (GRA14) gene as a target to design specific primers and established a high-specificity and high-sensitivity PCR detection method for swine toxoplasmosis. Notably, this PCR method could detect T. gondii tachyzoite DNA in the acute infection phase. The GRA14 gene PCR assay detected a minimum of 2.35 tachyzoites of T. gondii and can be used for T. gondii detection in blood, tissue, semen, urine and waste feed specimens. A total of 5462 blood specimens collected from pigs in 5 provinces and autonomous regions in southern China during 2016-2017 were assessed by the newly established GRA14 gene PCR method. The overall T. gondii infection rate was 18.9 % (1033/5462). According to the statistical analysis of different regions in China, the positive rates of swine toxoplasmosis from 2016 to 2017 were highest in the Shaanxi, Fujian and Guangdong areas, at 31.7 % (44/139), 21.9 % (86/391) and 18.8 % (874/4645), respectively. Specimens collected in 2017 had a higher positive rate (19.1 %) than those collected in 2016 (16.1 %). In addition, specimens collected in autumn (39.4 %), spring (22.8 %) and winter (18.2 %) had higher positive rates than those collected in summer (3.8 %). These results indicate that the new PCR method based on the T. gondii GRA14 gene has utility for the diagnosis of swine toxoplasmosis and can facilitate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in clinical laboratories.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis Animal , Toxoplasmosis , Animales , Animales Domésticos , ADN Protozoario/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmosis Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología
18.
Vaccine ; 39(42): 6322-6332, 2021 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535320

RESUMEN

We assessed whether vaccines administered to the uterus at breeding can lead to sufficient colostral antibodies to protect suckling piglets against Porcine Endemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV). An antigen from Lawsonia intracellularis, a disease that impacts weanling intestinal health, was also included because we have extensive knowledge on the pig immune response to this antigen. Gilts were mock-bred at 2nd estrus with killed sperm including an intrauterine (i.u.) vaccine comprised of recombinant (r) PEDV Spike protein (rPEDVS1) and L. intracellularis flagellin (rFliC) formulated with poly I:C, host defense peptide, and polyphosphazene (TriAdj). Gilts returned to estrus within 3 weeks and they were inseminated with killed sperm (3rd estrus) or live sperm (4th estrus) with rPEDVS1-TriAdj vaccine. They also received an i.m. injection of rFliC-TriAdj at 3rd and 4th estrus to establish whether i.u. vaccination primes systemic immunity without inducing mucosal tolerance. Control gilts were administered semen alone at 2nd estrus which allowed us to compare litter weights and sizes to industry standards. Colostrum from gilts challenged with low dose PEDV plus alum was used as positive reference samples for neutralizing antibodies and passive protection. Thirteen weeks later, the i.u.-vaccinated gilts showed significant PEDVS1-specific serum, colostral, and uterine antibody titers and colostral PEDVS1-neutralizing antibodies but poor cell-mediated immunity. Piglets born to i.u. vaccinated gilts received partial passive protection from PEDV infection 3 days after birth but eventually succumbed to the disease. Immunization by the i.u./i.m. route triggered significant anti-FliC cell-mediated immunity and colostral FliC antibodies that remained high in weaned piglet serum. This trial and a repeat trial wherein gilts were immunized at 1st estrus without semen and at 2nd estrus with live semen showed that intrauterine immunization did not impact fertility, number of live births or piglet growth kinetics. Further optimization is needed to promote robust passive protection in suckling offspring.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Lawsonia (Bacteria) , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Femenino , Inmunización , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control
19.
Animal ; 15(10): 100355, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537443

RESUMEN

Farrowing duration is a crucial factor affecting survival of piglets and health of sows, and is highly correlated with the incidence of stillbirth. The present study assessed the metabolic characteristics of sows with short farrowing duration (SFD) or long farrowing duration (LFD). A total of 20 Yorkshire sows were screened from 60 sows and were retrospectively allocated into SFD (211 min on average, n = 10) or LFD (388 min on average, n = 10) group. Parameters associated with energy metabolism and redox status were characterised. Results showed that sows at farrowing had decreased plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids (P < 0.05), but increased concentrations of lactic acid and propionate (P < 0.05), when compared with sows on day 107 of gestation. The SFD sows had shorter time from last meal until the onset of farrowing (P < 0.05) and tended to have less stillbirths (P = 0.08) and lower stillbirth rate (P = 0.07). For the blood metabolites, SFD sows at farrowing had higher concentration of plasma glucose (P < 0.05), but lower concentration of lactic acid (P < 0.05) than LFD sows. Besides, SFD sows tended to have higher plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.06) than LFD sows. Correlation analysis showed that farrowing duration was negatively correlated with plasma glucose concentration at onset of farrowing. In conclusion, our study strongly suggests that glucose is a key metabolite for energy metabolism of the uterus during farrowing. The farrowing process could be closely related to uterine energy expenditure, and sows with shorter farrowing duration could be resulting from the shorter time from last meal until the onset of farrowing, associated with a greater proportion of energy from glucose.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Femenino , Oxidación-Reducción , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Mortinato/veterinaria , Porcinos , Factores de Tiempo
20.
J Helminthol ; 95: e52, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482857

RESUMEN

Lungworms of the genus Metastrongylus are parasitic nematodes in the respiratory tract of swine. Although they infect both wild boars and domestic pigs, studies on Metastrongylus infections in wild boars in Europe, the Americas and Africa are numerous, while those in domestic pigs are few. There are several studies analysing the molecular phylogenetic relationships of few individual Metastrongylus species with other nematode taxa, but there are no studies on the phylogenetic relationships of species within the genus Metastrongylus. In Southeast Asia, reports on swine lungworms are extremely scarce and do not include any nucleotide sequence data. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to survey Metastrongylus infection in domestic pigs raised in Dien Bien Province, Northern Vietnam, and to analyse the molecular phylogenetic relationships of Metastrongylus species. Based on morphological and molecular data, we identified two species: Metastrongylus apri and Metastrongylus pudendotectus. The prevalence of the former species was found to be significantly higher than the latter one (24.1% vs. 2.3%). We observed pigs exhibiting a coinfection with the two lungworm species or a single infection with only M. apri. However, we did not observe any pigs being infected with just M. pudendotectus. Vietnamese Metastrongylus specimens showed slight morphological and molecular differences compared to those from other countries. The molecular analyses revealed a close genetic relationship between M. apri and Metastrongylus salmi, while both these species were far distant from M. pudendotectus. The present study highlights the needs for further studies to clarify the morphological features and ecological and phylogenetic relationships of Metastrongylus species at the global scale.


Asunto(s)
Metastrongyloidea , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Metastrongyloidea/genética , Filogenia , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Vietnam/epidemiología
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