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1.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 553-561, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415397

RESUMEN

Associated with the spreading in (north)western direction of Fascioloides magna from its historic endemic area in Bohemia with its cervid hosts, unusual noticeable hepatic lesions (black-colored tissue, hemorrhage) were observed in deer harvested in hunting grounds and one deer farm located in the Upper Palatinate Forest close to the border to the Czech Republic, initially in the years of 2007 and 2009, respectively. Confirmation of the suspected diagnosis of F. magna infection in October 2011 prompted investigations on the occurrence of "fascioloidosis" among wild ungulates in that locality. From October 2011 to January 2014, livers from 89 cervids and two wild boars were examined for flukes. Thirty-seven livers (40.6%) harbored F. magna: 17 of 21 red deer, nine of 24 sika deer, six of eight fallow deer, four of 36 roe deer, one of two wild boars. Fluke burdens ranged from 2 up to 151 in red deer, from 2 up to 37 in fallow deer, and from 1 up to 7 in sika deer and in roe deer; one fluke was recovered from the liver of one wild boar. No other parasites were recovered from the livers. The rate of recovery of F. magna differed significantly (p < 0.001) among the species of deer (red deer, 81.0%; sika deer, 37.5%; fallow deer, 75.0%; roe deer, 11.1%) and between the age groups (< 1 year: 22.2%, 1 to 2 years: 26.0%, and > 2 years: 70.0%, respectively). There was no association (p > 0.1) between the rate of recovery of F. magna and the sex of the combined 80 deer of ≥ 1 year of age (male: 41.8% and female: 31.4%). The occurrence of F. magna in the wild ungulates in the Upper Palatinate Forest area in northeastern Bavaria is of epidemiological importance for the further spreading of the parasite into Germany with migrating deer.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos/parasitología , Fasciolidae/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Trematodos/veterinaria , Animales , Femenino , Bosques , Alemania/epidemiología , Hígado/parasitología , Masculino , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Infecciones por Trematodos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 919-927, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506331

RESUMEN

Prevalence and temporal evolution of the infection by the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus is studied in the Valencian Community (Eastern Spain), a region only recently fully colonized by the expanding native Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). For 8 years, a total of 1486 wild boars were sampled in order to look for the parasite. The mean prevalence was 20.7% (95% CI, 18.6-22.8; 307/1486). We observed an increasing trend through time, both in the number of wild boars and affected districts. The prevalence of M. hirudinaceus rose in parallel to the annual capture of wild boars, and its presence has been expanding towards the East. A hotspot of M. hirudinaceus is located to the west of the study area, in Muela de Cortes Game Reserve, where 89.6% of the wild boars were positive for the infection, constituting one of the world's highest known prevalence areas.


Asunto(s)
Acantocéfalos/aislamiento & purificación , Helmintiasis Animal/epidemiología , Sus scrofa/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Helmintiasis Animal/parasitología , Prevalencia , España/epidemiología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología
3.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 103-109, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455082

RESUMEN

Trichinella spp. infection occurs when a host ingests muscle tissue containing infective larvae (L1 stage). Wild boar meat and its products represent the second largest source of human trichinellosis worldwide. For this reason, and since that in Portugal wild boar is the most hunted large game specie, the laboratory of Technology, Quality and Food Safety (TQFS) from the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro created a free service to test wild boar meat for Trichinella spp. From December 2015 to February 2020, and 857 samples were analysed. From those, the majority (719/857, 83.9%) were tested after October 2018 when a specific national legislation came into force, demanding that meat from wild boar hunted in a defined risk area should be tested for Trichinella spp. Under TQFS laboratory activity, in January 2020, a positive case was identified, being the first molecular confirmation of Trichinella britovi infection in wild boar in Portugal. Additionally to this activity, in 2019, a questionnaire was submitted to 100 hunters to acquire information about wild boar meat usage and consumption behaviours. From the total respondents, 86% declared they intended to use meat for private consumption. Of those, 93% also stated that have sold part of the meat and/or homemade sausages, the majority (80%) without prior testing for Trichinella spp., as required by EU Regulation. These results alert the hunters to a risk for human infection, which could be extended to outside the hunter's household. Given the actual epidemiological situation, it should be emphasized that testing for Trichinella spp. in wild boar meat should be maintained and reinforced, particularly in the risk area. The results presented in this report strongly support the importance of specific national legislation to mitigate the risk of trichinellosis due to consumption of non-tested wild boar meat.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Trichinella/aislamiento & purificación , Triquinelosis/veterinaria , Animales , Humanos , Carne/normas , Portugal/epidemiología , Sus scrofa/parasitología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Triquinelosis/epidemiología , Triquinelosis/parasitología
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 69-77, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321377

RESUMEN

Zoonotic taeniasis caused by the adult stage of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata or Taenia asiatica are considered neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization. The life cycle of these 3 metazoan species is very similar and includes an intermediate host: pigs in the case of T. solium and T. asiatica, and cattle in the case of T. saginata. By eating meat (pork/T. solium, T. asiatica; beef/T. saginata) containing live cysticerci, humans develop taeniasis, which is practically asymptomatic but is the main risk factor for intermediate hosts to become infected. T. saginata causes bovine cysticercosis, while T. solium and T. asiatica cause swine cysticercosis, of veterinary and economic importance. T. solium cysticerci cause neurological disease in humans: neurocysticercosis. Cysticerci develop after ingesting microscopic eggs released from a human tapeworm carrier. Here we describe the life stages of the parasites, diagnosis, pathogenesis, symptomatology of neurocysticercosis, and prevention and control measures. Highlighting the need to validate diagnostic tools, treatments and vaccination in endemic areas, with the challenge of addressing the most vulnerable populations that lack resources. If people understand the transmission route, avoid eating uncooked or insufficiently cooked meat and have adequate hygienic habits, the life cycle of the 3 zoonotic Taenia species may be interrupted. In addition, we describe the growing field of immune response and immunomodulation elicited by the parasites, which may provide essential tools for diagnosis, treatment, control of taeniasis/cysticercosis, as well as for identification of parasite-derived immunomodulators that could aid in the treatment of emerging inflammatory diseases worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Neurocisticercosis , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia , Zoonosis/parasitología , Animales , Humanos , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Neurocisticercosis/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia saginata , Taenia solium , Zoonosis/diagnóstico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244055, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338060

RESUMEN

Porcine cysticercosis and associated human infections are endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Poor agricultural practices, sanitary practices, and lack of knowledge increase the burden of the diseases in susceptible populations. This study investigates the seroprevalence of Taenia spp. in township pigs in Gauteng, South Africa and describes knowledge and farming practices of pig farmers regarding T. solium infections. Blood samples were collected from 126 pigs in three Gauteng township areas, and analyzed for active Taenia spp. infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Farmer questionnaire surveys were conducted in four township areas to investigate the level of knowledge and practices associated with porcine cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between predictor variables and the outcome variable, knowledge of porcine cysticercosis or knowledge of neurocysticercosis. Overall, 7% of the pigs were seropositive for active Taenia spp. infection. 46% of farmers practiced a free-ranging system, while 25% practiced a semi-intensive system. Latrines were absent on all farms; however, 95% of farmers indicated that they have access to latrines at home. Most farmers had no knowledge of porcine cysticercosis (55%) or neurocysticercosis (79%), and this was not associated with any of the factors investigated. The prevalence of active Taenia spp. infection was reasonably low in this study, yet the knowledge level was also low, thus calling for further educational and training programmes to prevent Taenia spp. transmission in these communities.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Agricultores/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/normas , Animales , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/psicología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Prevalencia , Pruebas Serológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudáfrica , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia solium/clasificación , Taenia solium/patogenicidad , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3559-3570, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951145

RESUMEN

Blastocystis is the most frequently observed eukaryotic gastrointestinal symbiont in humans and animals. Its low host specificity and zoonotic potential suggest that animals might serve as possible reservoirs for transmission. The prevalence and subtype distributions of Blastocystis sp. in animal populations in Southeast Asia, a hotspot for zoonotic diseases, are reviewed. Recommendations for future research aimed at understanding the zoonotic role of Blastocystis are also included. Seven countries have, so far, reported Blastocystis infection in various animals, such as livestock, poultry, companion animals, and non-human primates. Pigs were the most studied animals, and there were records of 100% prevalence in pigs, cattle, and ostriches. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches, twelve Blastocystis sp. subtypes (STs), namely ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5, ST6, ST7, ST8, ST9, ST10, ST12, and ST14 have been recognised infecting animals of Southeast Asia. ST1 and ST5 were the most frequently identified, and Malaysia observed the most diverse distribution of subtypes. Further investigations on Blastocystis sp. in various animal hosts, using adequate sample sizes and uniform detection methods, are essential for a better understanding of the distribution of this organism. Detailed genome studies, especially on STs shared by humans and animals, are also recommended.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Blastocystis/veterinaria , Blastocystis/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Asia Sudoriental/epidemiología , Blastocystis/genética , Infecciones por Blastocystis/epidemiología , Bovinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Humanos , Aves de Corral , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/parasitología , Prevalencia , Primates/parasitología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Zoonosis/parasitología
7.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 361-367, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955215

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasitic nematodes with almost worldwide distribution. The infection can be transmitted through the foodborne route and can cause serious health problems in infected human patients. It is also an economically important issue due to the high financial cost connected with prevention of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to discover trends in the epidemiological situation in people and animals in Slovakia in 2009-2018. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on human trichinellosis originated from the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic, and data on Trichinella infection in animals from the State Veterinary and Food Administration of the Slovak Republic. A seroepidemiological study on 655 voluntary respondents was performed. RESULTS: Altogether, 29 human cases were reported between 2009-2018, with a maximum of 13 cases in 2011. Males were affected more often (19 cases) than females (10 cases); the average age of patients was 45.1 years. Antibodies to Trichinellawere detected in two sera (0.3%): in a serum from one hunter and one veterinarian. In the monitored period, the average prevalence of Trichinella infection was 9.6% in 2,295 red foxes, and 0.04% in 165,643 wild boars. Three (1.7%) of 178 surveyed brown bears were positive. Within the compulsory monitoring of trichinellosis in domestic pigs, none from a total of 1,632,688 pigs were positive. The presence of three species, Trichinellabritovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, was documented, with T. britovi representing 93.9% of identified isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that the prevalence of Trichinella infection has not changed considerably with time in Slovakia, and the risk of human infection outbreaks is connected mainly with the consumption of wild boar meat.


Asunto(s)
Zorros , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Trichinella/aislamiento & purificación , Triquinelosis/epidemiología , Triquinelosis/veterinaria , Ursidae , Adulto , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Eslovaquia/epidemiología , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Triquinelosis/parasitología
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008601, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886659

RESUMEN

Scabies is a neglected tropical disease of global significance. Our understanding of host-parasite interactions has been limited, particularly in crusted scabies (CS), a severe clinical manifestation involving hyper-infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Susceptibility to CS may be associated with immunosuppressive conditions but CS has also been seen in cases with no identifiable risk factor or immune deficit. Due to ethical and logistical difficulties with undertaking research on clinical patients with CS, we adopted a porcine model which parallels human clinical manifestations. Transcriptomic analysis using microarrays was used to explore scabies pathogenesis, and to identify early events differentiating pigs with ordinary (OS) and crusted scabies. Pigs with OS (n = 4), CS (n = 4) and non-infested controls (n = 4) were compared at pre-infestation, weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8 post-infestation. In CS relative to OS, there were numerous differentially expressed genes including pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL17A, IL8, IL19, IL20 and OSM) and chemokines involved in immune cell activation and recruitment (CCL20, CCL27 and CXCL6). The influence of genes associated with immune regulation (CD274/PD-L1 and IL27), immune signalling (TLR2, TLR8) and antigen presentation (RFX5, HLA-5 and HLA-DOB) were highlighted in the early host response to CS. We observed similarities with gene expression profiles associated with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis and confirmed previous observations of Th2/17 pronounced responses in CS. This is the first comprehensive study describing transcriptional changes associated with the development of CS and significantly, the distinction between OS and CS. This provides a basis for clinical follow-up studies, potentially identifying new control strategies for this severely debilitating disease.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos/inmunología , Sarcoptes scabiei/inmunología , Escabiosis/veterinaria , Sus scrofa/inmunología , Sus scrofa/parasitología , Animales , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/inmunología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/genética , Inmunomodulación/inmunología , Escabiosis/inmunología , Escabiosis/patología , Piel/inmunología , Piel/parasitología , Piel/patología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Células Th17/inmunología , Células Th2/inmunología , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107997, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946882

RESUMEN

Toxocara cati is one of the causative agents of human toxocariasis. Serological methods are used for diagnosis in paratenic hosts like humans but the humoral immune response triggered by this parasite is unknown. We characterized the humoral immune response to T. cati excretory-secretory antigens (TES) in pigs as animal model during the acute and chronic stages of infection. ELISA and Western Blot techniques were used to determine antibody response. Pigs were experimentally inoculated with 100,000 infective Toxocara cati eggs. Blood was collected at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-inoculation (d.p.i.) to assess the acute stage of infection and 90, 120 and 180 d. p.i. for chronic stage analysis. ELISA showed values higher than the cut-off of specific IgM and IgG at 7 d. p.i. with significant differences at 0 and 7 d. p.i. for IgM and at 14, 21 and 28 d. p.i. for IgG in the acute stage. Higher and stable levels were detected in the chronic stage. Western Blot showed bands from 102 to 38 kDa detected by specific IgM and IgG. More immunogenic bands were identified by specific IgG. In the chronic stage of infection a band near 31 kDa was the only band detected by IgM until 150 d. p.i. Specific IgG recognized bands between 102 and 31 kDa. This study demonstrates how the humoral immune response evolves in the acute and chronic stages of infection and provides evidence on the role of the pig as a paratenic host of T. cati.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/biosíntesis , Inmunidad Humoral , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Toxocara/inmunología , Toxocariasis/inmunología , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Área Bajo la Curva , Western Blotting , Gatos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces/parasitología , Inmunoglobulina G/biosíntesis , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/biosíntesis , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Masculino , Curva ROC , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Toxocariasis/parasitología
10.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 41, 2020 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746868

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Similar to the situation in other European countries, Danish wild boars may harbour a wide range of pathogens infectious to humans and domestic pigs. Although wild boars must be kept behind fences in Denmark, hunting and consumption of the meat may cause zoonotic transmission. Moreover, most infections of wild boars are transmissible to domestic pigs, which may have important economic consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Danish wild boars were infected with bacteria and parasites transmissible to humans or domestic pigs: Brucella suis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., lungworms and gastrointestinal parasites, especially Ascaris suum. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these important pathogens in Danish wild boars. RESULTS: Wild boars from eight enclosures were analysed over a 5-year period. All tested wild boars were negative for B. suis (n = 240), MRSA (n = 244), Salmonella spp. (n = 115) and Trichinella spp. (n = 232), while eight parasite genera were identified in the faeces (n = 254): Ascaris suum, Capillaria sp., Cystoisospora suis, Eimeria spp., Metastrongylus sp. (lungworm), Strongyloides ransomi, Trichuris suis and strongylid eggs, i.e. strongyles not identified to the genera. Eimeria spp. and Metastrongylus sp. had the highest prevalence (92.3 and 79.5%, respectively) and were identified in wild boars from all eight enclosures, while the remaining parasite genera were present more sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: Wild boars from Denmark constitute a low risk of transmitting B. suis, MRSA, Salmonella spp. and Trichinella spp. to humans or domestic pigs, while economically important parasites transmissible to domestic pigs are highly prevalent in the wild boar population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Monitoreo Epidemiológico/veterinaria , Helmintiasis Animal/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Coccidiosis/epidemiología , Coccidiosis/parasitología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Femenino , Helmintiasis Animal/parasitología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3347-3357, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833051

RESUMEN

A total of 57 tissue samples of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) were collected from the meat outlets of five north Indian states and examined for sarcocystosis by histological and molecular methods. The genomic DNA extracted from five representative positive isolates was subjected to PCR amplification of the partial 18S rRNA gene followed by cloning and sequencing. Sequence analysis of the newly generated Indian isolates recorded 96.9-100.0% identity with published sequences of Sarcocystis suihominis. Two new haplotypes that have not been previously described manifested 99.5-100.0% nucleotide homology within themselves. In the phylogenetic analysis, Indian isolates of S. suihominis grouped together with S. suihominis originating from Italy, and they collectively formed a sister clade with Sarcocystis miescheriana within a clade containing various Sarcocystis spp. of ruminants having felids as final hosts. At the same time, this clade separated from a sister clade containing Sarcocystis spp. of bovid or cervid ruminants using canids as known or surmised definitive host. The current study established the phylogenetic relationship of Indian isolates of S. suihominis with various Sarcocystis spp. as well as with other taxa of Sarcocystidae family based on 18S rRNA gene for the first time.


Asunto(s)
Sarcocystis/clasificación , Sarcocystis/genética , Sarcocistosis/veterinaria , Sus scrofa/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Animales , Haplotipos , India/epidemiología , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Sarcocystis/aislamiento & purificación , Sarcocistosis/epidemiología , Sarcocistosis/parasitología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología
12.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 40, 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that cause enteric disease in vertebrates. In pigs, infections are most often asymptomatic, but may result in diarrhoea and poor growth. The most common species detected in pigs are C. suis and C. scrofarum with low zoonotic potential. C. parvum, with higher zoonotic potential, may also be found. As previous knowledge on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Swedish pigs is scarce, this was investigated in our study. Faecal samples from 13 pig herds were collected and a total of 222 pooled pen samples, from suckling piglets (n = 48), growers, aged 6-12 weeks (n = 57), fatteners, aged 13-24 weeks (n = 67) and adult animals (n = 50) were included. Samples were analysed using microscopy and positive samples were further analysed using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and the 28S rRNA gene to determine species. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in all sampled herds and in 25% (56/222) of the individual pen samples. Infections were most common in growers and fatteners with 51% (29/57) and 35% (20/67) positive samples in each group, respectively. The piglets had 8% (4/48) positive samples and adults had 6% (3/50). Species determination showed C. suis and C. scrofarum in piglets and growers, C. scrofarum in the fatteners, and C. suis and C. parvum in the adults. Although no mixed infections could be confirmed we saw signs of double peaks in the 28S rRNA gene chromatograms, possibly indicating more than one species present per sample. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium spp. were detected on every sampled farm and in 25% of the individual pen samples in our study. We therefore conclude that Cryptosporidium spp. are present and likely common in Swedish pig herds, where pigs are loose and reared on solid floors. However, none of the farms reported any problems with poor weight gain, diarrhoea, or reduced appetite in their pig herds. The pig adapted C. suis and C. scrofarum were the predominant species identified. Two samples were positive for the more zoonotic C. parvum, and pigs should hence not be disregarded as a possible source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Cryptosporidium/genética , Heces/parasitología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Prevalencia , ARN Bacteriano/análisis , ARN Ribosómico 18S/análisis , ARN Ribosómico 28S/análisis , Sus scrofa , Suecia/epidemiología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3075-3081, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656656

RESUMEN

Balantioides coli (syn. Balantidium coli) is an important zoonotic but usually neglected protozoa infecting human and a great number of animals, and the pig was considered to be the most important natural host and reservoir. However, no information about the infection of B. coli in pigs in northwestern China was available. In the present study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of B. coli in pigs in Shaanxi province were investigated. A total of 560 fecal samples were collected from pigs of four age groups in five different geographical regions and analyzed by using PCR targeting the ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 gene fragment. The infection of B. coli was detected in all age groups and regions, with the total prevalence of 16.8% (94/560). Significant differences (P < 0.01) in prevalence were found among four investigated age groups, with the highest in fatteners (38.8%) and the lowest in adults (5.7%). The prevalence was also significantly (P < 0.01) different among pigs from five sampling regions. Sequence analysis revealed two genetic variants, namely, A and B, in these investigated pigs, and both of them were detected in all age groups and regions, with the latter as the predominant one. Further, sixty-eight different haplotypes were found, with 19 and 49 belonged to genetic variants A and B, respectively. The findings in the present study indicated wide distribution and high diversity of B. coli in pigs in Shaanxi province and provided fundamental data for implementing control strategies on B. coli infection in pigs as well as other hosts in this province.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Cilióforos/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Trichostomatida/genética , Animales , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Cilióforos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Cilióforos/parasitología , Heces/parasitología , Prevalencia , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Trichostomatida/clasificación , Trichostomatida/aislamiento & purificación
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 401-405, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taeniasis, caused by two major Taenia species, T. solium and T. saginata, is a worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. T. solium is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked pork, while T. saginata is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked beef. Cattle rearing and beef consumption is an important socio-cultural feature in the Kashmir valley, India. This study's objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of foodborne taeniasis in Kashmir and explore the various risk factors for its transmission. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A detailed survey of the population in selected rural and semi-urban sites of Kashmir valley was carried out based on previous information. A total of 12,404 subjects (males=6364; females=6040) ranging from one to 85 years of age (mean age: 28.96±17.68) were included in this study. The parasite diagnosis was made through stool analysis (egg morphology) and anatomical characteristics of gravid proglottids obtained from infected cases. The data obtained were compiled for the parameters studied and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The observations as estimated coprologically and based on gravid proglottids' anatomy revealed the presence of T. saginata infection. The prevalence was 2.74% with males significantly (p<0.01) more infected (3.40%) than females (2.05%). Similarly, the age group of >60 years showed greater prevalence (7.21% among males and 2.68% among females) at a significance value of p<0.05. Rural populatios were slightly more infected (2.84%) than semi-urban populations (2.36%) with a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Kashmiri population who consume raw or undercooked beef, harbor T. saginata infection; its prevalence was influenced by food eating habits, age, sex, and living conditions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia saginata/fisiología , Teniasis/transmisión , Teniasis/veterinaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Bovinos , Niño , Preescolar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/parasitología , Adulto Joven
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2983-2990, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705376

RESUMEN

Entamoeba suis and E. polecki subtype (ST) 1 and ST3 recently have been inferred to be virulent in pigs. However, because relevant molecular epidemiological surveys have been limited, the prevalences of these species remain unknown and their pathogenicities are still controversial. We surveyed 196 fecal samples of pigs (118 of adults, 78 of piglets) at Tangerang in West Java, Indonesia, in 2017, employing PCR using porcine Entamoeba-specific primers. E. suis was the more frequently detected species, observed in 81.1% of samples, while E. polecki ST1 and ST3 were detected in 18.4% and 17.3% of samples, respectively; mixed infections (harboring 2-3 species or subtypes of Entamoeba) were confirmed in 29.3% of positive samples. Statistically significant differences in the positive rates were not seen between adult pigs and piglets, except for those of E. polecki ST3. The prevalences of Eimeria spp. and/or Cystoisospora suis (79.1%), strongyles (55.6%), and Strongyloides spp. (6.1%) were also observed morphologically in the samples. Further chronological or seasonal investigations of pigs and humans in these high-prevalence areas are needed to assess the virulence of the Entamoeba parasites, including the effects on pig productivity, and to evaluate the zoonotic impacts of these organisms.


Asunto(s)
Entamoeba/genética , Entamoeba/aislamiento & purificación , Entamebiasis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Animales , Entamoeba/clasificación , Entamoeba/patogenicidad , Entamebiasis/epidemiología , Entamebiasis/parasitología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Epidemiología Molecular , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Virulencia
16.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(7): 575-578, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376114

RESUMEN

Changes in the incidence of porcine cysticercosis is used commonly in the assessment of efforts to control the transmission of Taenia solium, the cause of human neurocysticercosis. Although cysticerci may occasionally occur in tissues other than the striated muscles, particularly the brain, infection in pigs can be diagnosed reliably by assessment of muscle tissue alone.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Músculo Esquelético/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Taenia solium , Animales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Neurocisticercosis/prevención & control , Neurocisticercosis/transmisión , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 273-275, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431279

RESUMEN

Human exposure to Toxocara spp. is very frequent, and its larvae can cross the blood-brain barrier and invade the central nervous system (CNS), causing neurotoxocariasis. We aimed to establish a neurotoxocariasis animal model in pigs confirmed by necropsy. Also, the presence of larvae in the CNS was assessed using magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs), to establish brain lesions caused by the larvae migration. Ten pigs were infected intraperitoneally with 3,000 Toxocara larvae. Cerebral toxocariasis was evaluated using MRIs at days 7, 14, 21, and 49, and pigs were euthanized after the examination. Brain tissues were examined by microscopy, and five pigs presented Toxocara, most frequently at day 21 after infection. None of the 10 pigs showed alterations on MRIs. Our study confirms that intraperitoneal Toxocara infection produces neurotoxocariasis in pigs. Toxocara larvae passage through the brain does not seem to produce lesions detectable at MRIs.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/parasitología , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Toxocara , Toxocariasis/diagnóstico por imagen , Animales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/patología , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/parasitología , Femenino , Larva , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagen , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico por imagen , Toxocariasis/diagnóstico
18.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458816

RESUMEN

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the tapeworms of the Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato complex, which have worldwide distribution. No data on the circulation of genotypes of the E. granulosus complex in intermediate hosts in endemic areas in Calabria are available. The aims of our study were to evaluate the dispersal of genotypes of the E. granulosus complex in Calabria and to characterise parasite isolates by Sanger sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. We collected 71 animal samples from pigs, wild boars, sheep, cattle and goats. The first PCR screening analysis targeted three partial genomic regions: the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), calreticulin protein (cal) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1); this identified 28 parasitic cysts. Bidirectional sequencing of cox1 amplicons and phylogenetic analysis allowed us to characterise all isolates. Molecular analyses of 28 newly generated cox1 sequences revealed that most wild boars (n = 16) and three pigs were parasitised by the larval stage of Taenia hydatidena Pallas, 1766, called cysticercus tenuicollis. Two isolates from wild boars were identified as Echinococcus canadensis Webster and Cameron, 1961 (G7), while five sheep and two goats were infected with E. granulosus G1 (sheep strain) and G1 microvariant (previously reported as G2 genotype or Tasmanian sheep strain), respectively. These molecular findings should prompt further and more extensive studies, to elucidate regional transmission patterns and to guide control programs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Equinococosis/veterinaria , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Enfermedades de las Cabras/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Distribución Animal , Animales , Calreticulina/análisis , Bovinos , Equinococosis/parasitología , Echinococcus granulosus/clasificación , Echinococcus granulosus/aislamiento & purificación , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/análisis , Genotipo , Cabras , Proteínas del Helminto/análisis , Italia , NADH Deshidrogenasa/análisis , Filogenia , Ovinos , Porcinos
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 106, 2020 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252773

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Serological screening of pig herds at the abattoir is considered a potential tool to improve meat inspection procedures and herd health management. Therefore, we previously reported the feasibility of a miniaturised protein microarray as a new serological IgG screening test for zoonotic agents and production diseases in pigs. The present study investigates whether the protein microarray-based assay is applicable for high sample throughput using either blood serum or meat juice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microarrays with 12 different antigens were produced by Abbott (formerly Alere Technologies GmbH) Jena, Germany in a previously offered 'ArrayTube' platform and in an 'ArrayStrip' platform for large-scale use. A test protocol for the use of meat juice on both microarray platforms was developed. Agreement between serum and meat juice was analysed with 88 paired samples from three German abattoirs. Serum was diluted 1:50 and meat juice 1:2. ELISA results for all tested antigens from a preceding study were used as reference test to perform Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis for both test specimens on both microarray platforms. RESULTS: High area under curve values (AUC > 0.7) were calculated for the analysis of T. gondii (0.87), Y. enterocolitica (0.97), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (0.84) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (0.71) with serum as the test specimen and for T. gondii (0.99), Y. enterocolitica (0.94), PRRSV (0.88), A. pleuropneumoniae (0.78) and Salmonella spp. (0.72) with meat juice as the test specimen on the ArrayStrip platform. Cohens kappa values of 0.92 for T. gondii and 0.82 for Y. enterocolitica were obtained for the comparison between serum and meat juice. When applying the new method in two further laboratories, kappa values between 0.63 and 0.94 were achieved between the laboratories for these two pathogens. CONCLUSION: Further development of a miniaturised pig-specific IgG protein microarray assay showed that meat juice can be used on microarray platforms. Two out of twelve tested antigens (T. gondii, Y. enterocolitica) showed high test accuracy on the ArrayTube and the ArrayStrip platform with both sample materials.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Análisis por Matrices de Proteínas/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Zoonosis/diagnóstico , Mataderos , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Alemania , Carne de Cerdo/microbiología , Carne de Cerdo/parasitología , Análisis por Matrices de Proteínas/métodos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Zoonosis/inmunología , Zoonosis/microbiología , Zoonosis/parasitología
20.
Parasite ; 27: 12, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129760

RESUMEN

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a zoonotic fungal pathogen with a high degree of host diversity that can parasitize many animals, including humans. Pigs may play an important role in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi as reservoir hosts. Nevertheless, the genotypes of E. bieneusi in pigs in China remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection amongst pigs raised on farms from four cities of Hainan Province, using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the partial small subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene, and to identify genotypes of E. bieneusi isolates based on sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Among 188 stool samples, E. bieneusi was detected in 46.8% (88/188). Eight genotypes including four known (EbpA, CS-4, MJ14, and CHG19) and four novel (HNP-I - HNP-IV) genotypes were identified. Using phylogenetic analysis, genotypes EbpA, CS4, CHG19, HNP-III, and HNP-IV were clustered into zoonotic Group 1, while the remaining three genotypes (MJ14, HNP-I, and HNP-II) clustered into Group 10. The high prevalence of zoonotic genotypes of E. bieneusi among pigs suggests that pig farming is a potential source of human infection. Additionally, this is the first identification of genotypes in Group 10 in pigs indicating unique epidemic features of E. bieneusi in pigs in Hainan Province, the southernmost part of China.


Asunto(s)
Enterocytozoon/aislamiento & purificación , Granjas , Microsporidiosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Animales , China/epidemiología , ADN de Hongos/genética , ADN Espaciador Ribosómico/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Microsporidiosis/epidemiología , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/parasitología
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